Postwar	  America	  and	  the	  Cold	  War	  Art	  109A:	  	  Art	  Since	  1945	  Westchester	  Community	  College	  Fal...
Postwar	  America	     On	  May	  7,	  1945,	  Germany	     surrendered	  to	  Allied	     forces,	  bringing	  the	  war	...
Postwar	  America	  Just	  three	  months	  later	  the	  world’s	  first	  atomic	  bombs	  were	  dropped	  on	  Hiroshim...
Postwar	  America	       Americans	  took	  to	  the	       streets	  in	  spontaneous	  VJ	       Day	  celebraXons	  	  ...
Postwar	  America	                                                                    "This	  is	  the	  day	  we	  have	 ...
Postwar	  America	  Who	  do	  Americans	  regard	  as	  “evil”	  today?	      Time	  Magazine	  cover	  depicXng	  Saddam...
Postwar	  America	  There	  were	  other	  reasons	  to	  celebrate:	  • The	  economic	  hardships	  of	  the	  Depressio...
Postwar	  America	  During	  the	  1940s	  Detroit’s	  automobile	  factories	  were	  re-­‐fiRed	  to	  build	  tanks,	  b...
Postwar	  America	  “Going	  into	  the	  war,	  America	  had	  been	  one	  of	  the	  world’s	  great	  powers;	  by	  ...
Postwar	  America	  “American	  economic	  success	  hinged	  on	  mass	  consumerism	  .	  .	  .	  .	  Americans	  were	 ...
Postwar	  America	         Against	  this	  backdrop	  of	         middle-­‐class	  affluence	  and	         prosperity,	  A...
Postwar	  America	         But	  prosperity	  came	  at	  a	         cost	  “Peace	  had	  been	  won	  at	  the	  cost	  ...
Postwar	  America	  The	  end	  of	  World	  War	  II	  was	  also	  the	  beginning	  of	  the	  Cold	  War,	  as	  the	 ...
Postwar	  America	  When	  it	  was	  discovered	  that	  the	  Soviets	  also	  had	  the	  bomb,	  the	  annihilaXon	  o...
Postwar	  America	  The	  Office	  of	  Civil	  Defense	  stocked	  “fall	  out	  shelters,”	  and	  provided	  instrucXons	...
Postwar	  America	  Guidebooks	  to	  building	  your	  own	  family	  fall	  out	  shelter	  were	  published	           ...
Postwar	  America	      Children	  were	  taught	  to	      “duck	  and	  cover”	  during	      school	  bomb	  drills	  D...
Postwar	  America	       Fear	  of	  nuclear	  Armageddon	       was	  matched	  by	  widespread	       anxiety	  about	  ...
Postwar	  America	          The	  poliXcal	  acXvism	  and	  lex	          wing	  sympathies	  of	  the	  1930s	          ...
Postwar	  America	     Fear	  of	  Communist	  expansion	  led	  to	     the	  the	  hysteria	  of	  the	  McCarthy	  era	...
Postwar	  America	        The	  House	  CommiRee	  on	  Un-­‐      American	  AcXviXes	  invesXgated	        thousands	  o...
Postwar	  America	  When	  ten	  members	  of	  the	  Hollywood	  industry	  refused	  to	  tesXfy	  they	  were	  cited	 ...
Postwar	  America	  The	  film	  industry	  responded	  with	  the	  “Hollywood	  Blacklist”	  -­‐-­‐	  a	  list	  of	  ind...
Postwar	  America	  ArXsts	  came	  under	  aRack	  as	  well	  FBI	  files	  were	  kept	  on	  arXsts	  such	  as	  Pablo...
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2.1 postwar america

  1. 1. Postwar  America  and  the  Cold  War  Art  109A:    Art  Since  1945  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  Dr.  Melissa  Hall  
  2. 2. Postwar  America   On  May  7,  1945,  Germany   surrendered  to  Allied   forces,  bringing  the  war  in   Europe  to  an  end   New  York  Times,  May  8,  1945   Image  source:    hRp://wb9otx.blogspot.com/2011/05/ve-­‐day.html  Time  Magazine  cover,  May  7,  1945  Image  source:    hRp://www.Xme.com/Xme/covers/0,16641,19450507,00.html  
  3. 3. Postwar  America  Just  three  months  later  the  world’s  first  atomic  bombs  were  dropped  on  Hiroshima  and  Nagasaki    Nagasaki  bomb  strike,  August  9,  1945  Image  source:    hRp://www.presidenXalXmeline.org/html/educators/HST/atomicbomb_wq/   American  newspapers  announcing  the  dropping  of  the  Atomic  bomb,  and  the  surrender  of  Japan   Image  source:    hRp://blogs.knoxnews.com/munger/2010/08/oak-­‐ridge-­‐celebrates-­‐v-­‐j-­‐day-­‐a.html  
  4. 4. Postwar  America   Americans  took  to  the   streets  in  spontaneous  VJ   Day  celebraXons     New  Yorkers  Celebrate  VJ  Day:  Americans  celebrate  Japans  surrender.  August  17,  1945   Image  source:    hRp://www.history.com/photos/end-­‐of-­‐world-­‐war-­‐ii/photo7  Photo  by  Alfred  Eisenstaedt  in  Times  Square  on  VJ-­‐Day,  1945  Image  source:    Wikipedia  
  5. 5. Postwar  America   "This  is  the  day  we  have  been   waiXng  for  since  Pearl  Harbor.   This  is  the  day  when  Fascism   finally  dies,  as  we  always  knew  it   would.”   President  Harry  S.  Truman  President  Harry  S.  Truman  making  a  radio  broadcast  to  Armed  Forces  on  April  17,  1945  Image  source:    hRp://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1074256/%5BHARRY-­‐S.-­‐TRUMAN,-­‐HEAD-­‐AND-­‐SHOULDERS,-­‐FACING-­‐RIGHT,-­‐MAKING-­‐RADIO...   Time  Magazine  cover,  May  7,  1945   Image  source:    hRp://www.Xme.com/Xme/covers/0,16641,19450507,00.html  
  6. 6. Postwar  America  Who  do  Americans  regard  as  “evil”  today?   Time  Magazine  cover  depicXng  Saddam   Hussein  April  21,  2003   Time  magazine  cover  of  a  special  issue  on  the  death  of  Osama  bin  Laden,  May  5,  2011.  The  magazine  says   it  is  the  fourth  cover  in  Time’s  history  to  feature  the  red  “X.”  Other  covers  showed  Adolf  Hitler  on  May  7,   1945,  Saddam  Hussein  on  April  21,  2003,  and  Abu  Musab  al-­‐Zarqawi  on  June  19,  2006.  (AP  Photo/Time)   Read  more:   hRp://www.thestate.com/2011/05/04/1804626/white-­‐house-­‐bin-­‐laden-­‐was-­‐ unarmed.html#ixzz1OheUfcwg  
  7. 7. Postwar  America  There  were  other  reasons  to  celebrate:  • The  economic  hardships  of  the  Depression  were  over  • America  was  now  the  richest  naXon  in  the  world  “While  most  of  Europe  and  part  of  Asia  suffered  extensive  physical  damage  during  the  war,  the  United  States  was  untouched.    It  thus  emerged  in  1945  with  its  manufacturing  capacity  intact  and  a  strong  economy  generated  by  years  of  war  producXon.”  Lisa  Phillips,  The  American  Century,  p.  11   V-­‐J  Day,  Oak  Ridge,  August  14,  1945Photo  by  Ed  WestcoR   Image  source:    hRp://sunsite.utk.edu/westcoR/warends.htm  
  8. 8. Postwar  America  During  the  1940s  Detroit’s  automobile  factories  were  re-­‐fiRed  to  build  tanks,  bombers,  army  trucks,  and  ordnance    “We  must  have  more  ships,  more  guns,  more  planes  –  more  of  everything  .  .  .  We  must  be  the  great  arsenal  of  democracy.”  President  Franklin  Roosevelt,  December  29,  1940   The  assembly  line  at  the  Chrysler  tank  arsenal  cha   Photo:  William  Vandivert./Time  &  Life  Pictures/GeRy  ImagesJan  01,  1942   hRp://www.life.com/image/53373655  
  9. 9. Postwar  America  “Going  into  the  war,  America  had  been  one  of  the  world’s  great  powers;  by  1945,  it  was  militarily,  poliXcally,  and  economically  without  equal.    By  1947  .  .  America  was  producing  half  the  world’s  manufactured  goods:    57  percent  of  its  steel;  43  percent  of  its  electricity;  62  percent  of  its  oil;  and  80  percent  of  its  automobiles.    In  addiXon,  America  had  a  monopoly  on  the  atomic  bomb,  the  most  dangerous  weapon  in  the  world.”  Lisa  Phillips,  The  American  Century,  p.  11   USS  Steel  Ad,  Country  gentleman,  September  1947   Image  source:    hRp://www.flickr.com/photos/incidental-­‐ephemera/3301076481/  
  10. 10. Postwar  America  “American  economic  success  hinged  on  mass  consumerism  .  .  .  .  Americans  were  urged  to  go  on  a  shopping  spree:    buying  new  cars,  suburban  homes,  washing  machines,  refrigerators,  and  television  sets.”  Erika  Doss,  TwenBeth  Century  American  Art,  Oxford  History  of  Art,  Oxford  University  Press,  2002,  p.  125.  1950  refrigerator  ad;  image  source:    hRp://www.marketworks.com/StoreFrontProfiles/DeluxeSFItemDetail.aspx?sid=1&sfid=44192&c=102794&i=231907881   Image  source:     hRp://todaysinspiraXon.blogspot.com/2006/11/axer-­‐ war-­‐suburbia.html  
  11. 11. Postwar  America   Against  this  backdrop  of   middle-­‐class  affluence  and   prosperity,  American   society  was  beset  by   feelings  of  anxiety  and  peril    “Tooker’s  Ka{a-­‐esque  image  captured  middle-­‐class  men  and  women  who  formed  postwar  consensus  culture,  and  showed  them  oppressed  by  their  own  uniformity.”  Erika  Doss,  TwenBeth  Century  American  Art,  Oxford  History  of  Art,  Oxford  University  Press,  2002,  p.  125.   George  Tooker,  Subway,  1950   Whitney  Museum  
  12. 12. Postwar  America   But  prosperity  came  at  a   cost  “Peace  had  been  won  at  the  cost  of  innocence  and  security.    The  bomb’s  potenXal  for  total  world  destrucXon  brought  home  the  basic  fragility  and  conXngency  of  human  life  as  well  as  the  impotence  of  reason  to  provide  the  meaning  of  existence.”  Barbara  Haskell,  The  American  Century,  p.  353   Nagasaki  bomb  strike,  August  9,  1945   Image  source:    hRp://www.presidenXalXmeline.org/html/educators/HST/atomicbomb_wq/  
  13. 13. Postwar  America  The  end  of  World  War  II  was  also  the  beginning  of  the  Cold  War,  as  the  United  States  and  Russia  vied  for  global  dominance   Time  Magazine  cover  depicBng  Soviet  leader  Joseph  Stalin,  February  5,  1945   Image  source:    hLp://www.Bme.com/Bme/covers/0,16641,19450205,00.html  
  14. 14. Postwar  America  When  it  was  discovered  that  the  Soviets  also  had  the  bomb,  the  annihilaXon  of  the  human  race  became  an  imminent  reality     Russian  Atomic  Bomb  test,  Kazakhstan   August  29,  1949   Image  source:    hRp://www.atomicarchive.com/History/hbomb/page_09.shtml  
  15. 15. Postwar  America  The  Office  of  Civil  Defense  stocked  “fall  out  shelters,”  and  provided  instrucXons  for  what  to  do  in  case  of  nuclear  aRack   Image  source:    hRp://www.civildefensemuseum.com/shelsupp.html  
  16. 16. Postwar  America  Guidebooks  to  building  your  own  family  fall  out  shelter  were  published   "Fallout  shelter  built  by  Louis  Severance  adjacent  to  his  home  near  Akron,  Michigan   NaBonal  Archives  and  Records  AdministraBon,  Records  of  the  Defense  Civil  Preparedness  Agency   hLp://www.archives.gov/exhibits/picturing_the_century/postwar/postwar_img80.html  
  17. 17. Postwar  America   Children  were  taught  to   “duck  and  cover”  during   school  bomb  drills  Duck  and  Cover  1951  Civil  Defense  Film  with  Bert  the  Turtle  hRp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKqXu-­‐5jw60   Nuclear  air  raid  drills  were  part  of  everyday  life  for  schoolchildren  in  the  late  1940s  and  early  50s.  Children  were   taught  to  "duck  and  cover"  under  their  desks  and  were  herded  into  school  basements  for  periodic  air  raid  drills   From  The  Detroit  News:  hRp://apps.detnews.com/apps/history/index.php?id=48#ixzz1OiGw0NK3   Image  source:    hRp://www.eo}ocus.com/event/image/id/4622/headline/Duck%20and%20Cover/  
  18. 18. Postwar  America   Fear  of  nuclear  Armageddon   was  matched  by  widespread   anxiety  about  the  spread  of   communism  Mao  Tse  Tung,  Time,  Feb  7,  1949   Cover  to  the  propaganda  comic  book  "Is  This  Tomorrow"’   Image  source:    hRp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Is_this_tomorrow.jpg  
  19. 19. Postwar  America   The  poliXcal  acXvism  and  lex   wing  sympathies  of  the  1930s   became  dangerous  in  the   postwar  poliXcal  climate   Wiliam  Gropper,  John  Reed  Club,  1934   In  1929,  the  poliXcal  cartoonist  and  painter  William  Gropper  became  one  of  the  founding  members  of  the  John   Reed  Club  of  ArXsts  and  Writers.  This  Communist-­‐affiliated  group  .  .  .    believed  in  creaXng  art  with  explicit  social  Cover  to  the  propaganda  comic  book  "Is  This  Tomorrow"’   and  poliXcal  content  that  would  inform  workers  and  encourage  the  class  struggle.  Image  source:     The  Jewish  Museum  hRp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Is_this_tomorrow.jpg  
  20. 20. Postwar  America   Fear  of  Communist  expansion  led  to   the  the  hysteria  of  the  McCarthy  era  Senator  Joseph  McCarthy,  Time,  March  8,  1954   Hank  Walker,  Sen.  Joseph  McCarthy  swearing  in  author  Dashiell  HammeR  at  Senate  Permanent   InvesXgaXng  CommiRee  hearing  on  Communism,  1953.  HammeR  is  suspected  of  being  a   communist.   LIFE  
  21. 21. Postwar  America   The  House  CommiRee  on  Un-­‐ American  AcXviXes  invesXgated   thousands  of  ordinary  ciXzens   suspected  of  Communist   sympathies    Ronald  Reagan  had  been  a  long-­‐Xme  opponent  of  Communism  and  as  President  of  the  Screen  Actor’s  Guild  (SAG)  cooperated  with  the  House  Un-­‐American  AcXviXes  CommiRee’s  inquiry  into  the  potenXal  infiltraXon  of  Communism  into  the  MoXon  Picture  industry.  Read  a  transcript  of  his  tesXmony  here:    hRp://theomahaproject.org/module_display.php?mod_id=44&review=yes   Ronald  Reagan  tesXfying  at  JUAC  hearing   Image  source:    hRp://theomahaproject.org/module_display.php?mod_id=44&review=yes  
  22. 22. Postwar  America  When  ten  members  of  the  Hollywood  industry  refused  to  tesXfy  they  were  cited  for  contempt   The  Hollywood  Ten  in  November  1947  waiXng  to  be  fingerprinted   Image  source:    hRp://www.al}g.com/blog/censorship/the-­‐hollywood-­‐ten-­‐remembered/  
  23. 23. Postwar  America  The  film  industry  responded  with  the  “Hollywood  Blacklist”  -­‐-­‐  a  list  of  individuals  suspected  of  communist  affiliaXons   Dalton  Trumbo  and  his  wife  Cleo  at  the  1947  HUAC  hearings  that  resulted  in  his  imprisonment   The  Hollywood  screenwriter  Dalton  Trumbull  was  blacklisted  as  one  of   the  “Hollywood  Ten,”  and  was  imprisoned  for  his  refusal  to  divulge  his   poliXcal  beliefs  at  the  HUAC  hearings  in  1947.    During  the  1950s  he   wrote  under  a  pseudonym,  and  won  two  Academy  Awards  for  Roman   Holiday  and  The  Brave  One,  but  the  awards  were  given  to  the  people   who  “fronted”  for  him.       Christopher  Trumbo,  “War  and  Peace  (A  Sequel),”  The  Huffington  Post,  May  20,  2009   hLp://www.huffingtonpost.com/christopher-­‐trumbo/war-­‐and-­‐peace-­‐a-­‐sequel_b_205501.html  
  24. 24. Postwar  America  ArXsts  came  under  aRack  as  well  FBI  files  were  kept  on  arXsts  such  as  Pablo  Picasso,  Ben    Shahn,  and  other  suspected  communist  sympathizers   FBI  File  on  Pablo  Picasso  

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