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  • 1. 1960s Counter-CultureArt  109A:    Art  Since  1945  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  
  • 2. 1955-1965: The Consensus Years The prosperity and optimism of the 1950s continued in the early decades of the 1960s“And so, my fellow Americans: asknot what your country can do foryou — ask what you can do foryour country.My fellow citizens of the world: asknot what America will do for you,but what together we can do for thefreedom of man.”President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Speech, January20, 1961 President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Speech, January 20, 1961
  • 3. The ConsensusYears: 1955-1965Faith in government
  • 4. The ConsensusYears: 1955-1965Trust in Capitalism
  • 5. The ConsensusYears: 1955-1965Belief that America wassteadily becoming moreequal and free George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James M. Nabrit folowing Supreme Court decision ending segregation May 17, 1954. Kibrary of Congress Image source: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civilrights/cr-exhibit.html
  • 6. The Cold WarBut the Cold War led to aseries of internationalcrises Paul Vathis, 1962 Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph of President John F. Kennedy and former President Dwight D. Eisenhower walking together at Camp David following the Bay of Pigs invasion. Washington Post
  • 7. The Cold WarIn 1962 the Cuban MissileCrisis brought the UnitedStates and the USSR to thebrink of nuclear war October 1962 Executive Committee of the National Security Council meeting. The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston
  • 8. The Military-Industrial ComplexAmerican involvement inthe Cold War had otherconsequences as well F-111 Production Line, General Dynamics, Fort Worth, Texas, 1968 http://www.f-111.net/RAAF-F-111s-off-the-production-line-1.htm
  • 9. The Military-Industrial ComplexIn 1961 President DwightD. Eisenhower warnedabout an emerging“military-industrial complex”that threatened Americandemocracy President Dwight D. Eisenhower in his televised Farewell Address 1961. In this speech President Eisenhower warned against the emergence of the “military industrial complex” which became a catchphrase of the 1960s protest movement
  • 10. “The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.” President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address, 1961General Dynamics, Fort Worth Texas, 1969http://www.f-111.net/RAAF-F-111s-off-the-production-line-1.htm
  • 11. The Military-Industrial ComplexMilitary defense hadbecome one of America’sleading industries General Dynamics, Fort Worth Texas, 1969 http://www.f-111.net/RAAF-F-111s-off-the-production-line-1.htm
  • 12. The Military-Industrial ComplexAs James Rosenquistsuggested in F-111,American prosperity wasdirectly linked to the armsindustry James Rosenquist, F-111, 1964-65 “It seemed the prime force of this war machine was to economically keep people employed in Texas and Long Island. At the time, I thought people involved in its making were heading for something, but I didnt know what, like bugs going towards a blinding light. By doing this they could achieve two and a half children, three and a half cars, and a house in the suburbs.” James Rosenquist http://www.moma.org/collection/printable_view.php?object_id=79805
  • 13. The Great SocietyAfter the assassination ofJohn F. Kennedy, LyndonB. Johnson becamepresident Andy Warhol, 16 Jackies, 1964 Walker Art Center
  • 14. The Great Society He introduced sweeping social reforms designed to create the “Great Society”“The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L.88-352, 78 Stat. 241, July 2, 1964)was a landmark piece of legislationin the United States that outlawedsegregation in schools, publicplaces, and employment. Conceivedto help African Americans, the billwas amended prior to passage toprotect women, and explicitlyincluded white people for the firsttime. It also created the EqualEmployment Opportunity Cecil Stoughton, Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Civil rights Act, 1964Commission.” WikipediaWikipedia
  • 15. The Great SocietyBut his escalation of theWar in Vietnam led to hisdownfall, and he did notseek re-election at the endof his term President Lyndon B. Johnson listens to tape sent by Captain Charles Robb from Vietnam, 07/31/1968, LBJ Library photo by Jack Kightlinger http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/learning_history/vietnam/ vietnam_lessons.cfm
  • 16. 1960s CounterCultureThe social activism of the1950s gave way to thecounter culture of the1960s Fred W. McDarrah, Allen Ginsberg at Vietnam Peace Rally, 5th Ave. NYC, March 26, 1966 http://www.stevenkasher.com/html/noresults.asp
  • 17. 1960s CounterCultureThe civil rights movementreached critical mass underthe leadership of Dr. MartinLuther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. addresses a crowd from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial where he delivered his famous I Have a Dream speech during the Aug. 28, 1963, march on Washington, D.C. http://news.stanford.edu/news/2011/august/i-have-a-dream-082511.html
  • 18. 1960s CounterCultureThe drive towardsintegration sparked violentreactions from whitecommunities Anti-integration rally in Little Rock, Arkansas, on 20 August 1959 http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gfeldmeth/1045a.html
  • 19. 1960s Counter Culture“One of the drive towards The most important legal integration sparked violentdecisions in U.S. history, the 1954Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of reactions from whiteEducation . . . declared school communitiessegregation unconstitutional and pavedthe way for the civil rights achievementsof the 1960s. By overturning the "separatebut equal" doctrine . . . Brown v. Board ofEducation began the process ofunraveling more than half a century offederally sanctioned discriminationagainst African Americans. As a result, italso initiated a struggle between agovernment now obligated to integrate allpublic schools and recalcitrantcommunities determined to maintain thestatus quo.” Anti-integration rally in Little Rock, Arkansas, on 20 August 1959http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/ http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gfeldmeth/1045a.htmlfeatures/archive/0507/photo_essay.jsp?page=1
  • 20. 1960s CounterCultureThe Civil Rights Act of1964 and the VotingRights Act of 1965represented progressivelegislation Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act, 1964 Wikipedia
  • 21. 1960s CounterCultureBut violence against blackscontinued Collage depicting the bombing of The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama that killed four girls in 1963 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/african/2000/1960.htm
  • 22. 1960s Counter Culture Martin Luther King Jr. advocated non-violence as a strategy of resistance“[T]he nonviolent resister does notseek to humiliate or defeat theopponent but to win his friendshipand understanding . . . . Theaftermath of nonviolence isreconciliation and the creation of abeloved community . . . It is merelya means to awaken a sense ofshame within the oppressor but theend is reconciliation, the end isredemption.”Martin Luther King Jr., The Powerof Non-Violence, 1957http:// Civil Rights March on Washington, 1963www.teachingamericanhistory.org/ http://oralhistoryeducation.com/civil-rights-stories-2library/index.asp?document=1131
  • 23. 1960s CounterCultureBut government responsewas often violent and brutal Andy Warhol, Red Race Riot, 1963 Top: Firemen hose down protestors Bottom: Police set dogs on civil rights protestor Birmingham, 1963 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/african/2000/1960.htm
  • 24. 1960s CounterCultureOther groups advocatedmore aggressive tactics Black Panther Party national chairman Bobby Seale (left) and defense minister Huey Newton http://www.africawithin.com/studies/black_panther_party1.htm
  • 25. 1960s CounterCultureIn 1965 violence erupted inthe Watts section of LosAngeles, which lasted forfive days Race riots in the Watts section of Los Angeles, August 11-15, 1965 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/african/2000/1960.htm
  • 26. 1960s Counter CultureRace riots spread acrossthe nation • 1966: Chicago, New York, Cleveland, Baltimore • 1967: Detroit, Newark, Rochester, New York, Birmingham, New Britain Police subdue an injured rioter during race rights riots in Newark, N.J. (Three Lions/Getty Images) http://abcnews.go.com/US/popup?id=3371026
  • 27. 1960s CounterCultureViolence also erupted in awave of politicalassassinations Roy Lichtenstein, Time Magazine Cover, 1968
  • 28. 1960s CounterCultureNation of Islam leaderMalcolm X wasassassinated in 1966 Malcolm X waiting for a press conference to begin on March 26, 1964 Wikipedia
  • 29. 1960s Counter Culture And in 1968 Martin Luther King and Senator Robert F. Kennedy were both assassinated Martin Luther King and his aids moments after his assassination on a Memphis landing in 1968Busboy comforts Sen Robert F Kennedy moments http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/1,28757,1726656,00.html?after he was shot, June 5, 1968 iid=redirect-mlkL.A. Times
  • 30. 1960s CounterCultureAmerica was a nation atwar with itself Blacks are searched at bayonet point by the National Guard in Newark, N.J., July 17, 1967 (Eddie Adams/AP Photo) http://abcnews.go.com/US/popup?id=3371026
  • 31. 1960s CounterCultureThe civil rights movementstimulated othermarginalized groups toseek equality Betty Friedan, a founder of the National Organization for Women, led a march in Manhattan in 1970 for the Womens Strike for Equality J. P. Laffont/Corbis Sygma http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2006/02/05/national/ 05friedan_CA1.html
  • 32. 1960s CounterCultureThe National Organizationof Women (N.O.W.) andthe Gay Rights movementwere both launched in thelater 1960s http://www.stonewall-place.com/ Gay Liberation flyer, 1970 University of Washington Library, Vietnam Era Ephemera Collection
  • 33. 1960s Counter CultureA driving force behind the1960s counter culture wasthe growth of studentactivism“There comes a time when thesystem becomes so odious thatyou can’t take part, you can’t eventacitly take part.”Mario Savio, 1964 Mario Savio at a Free Speech rally, UC Berkeley 1964 http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/events/bancroftiana/114/times.html
  • 34. 1960s Counter CultureThe UC Berkeley FreeSpeech Movement was oneof the first student protestmovements to makenational headlines Mario Savio and students in a free speech rally at UC Berkeley Oakland Museum
  • 35. 1960s Counter CultureProtesting Cold Warrestrictions on free speech,students occupied theadministration buildingClose to 800 students werearrested Student protestor Mario Savio (C) being roughed up by two Berkeley cops as they arrest him during student riot at Free Speech Movement demonstration on campus at UC Berkeley 1964 Nat Farbman, LIFE Magazine
  • 36. 1960s Counter CultureThe Free SpeechMovement sparked a waveof student activism acrossthe nation Amherst College students using bullhorn & carrying signs as they during protest demonstration against US investments in South Africa which indirectly support apartheid, at General Electric Plant, 1965. John Loengard LIFE Magazine
  • 37. 1960s Counter Culture The war in Vietnam became the main focus for student protest activitiesSound clip: War written byBarrett Strong and NormanWhitfield, sung by Edwin Starr –1970 An anti-war demonstrator burns his draft card at a Vietnam War protest outside the Pentagon in October 1967.(Photo by Wally McNamee via Corbis)
  • 38. Students Protest The Vietnam War, John Muir College, 1965http://www-muir.ucsd.edu/40/pictures/pictures.html
  • 39. “War, huh, yeahWhat is it good forAbsolutely nothingUh-huh”War written by Barrett Strong andNorman Whitfield, sung by EdwinStarr – 1970 http://www.utwatch.org/archives/disorientut2005/military.html
  • 40. 1960s Counter CultureIn 1970 President RichardM. Nixon announced theexpansion of the war toCambodia"If when the chips are down,the worlds most powerfulnation acts like a pitifulhelpless giant, the forces oftotalitarianism and anarchywill threaten free nations...throughout the world.”President Richard M. Nixon,televised address announcing theinvasion of Cambodia, 1970 President Richard M. Nixon in a televised address announcing expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia,April 30, 1970 http://www.vw.vccs.edu/vwhansd/HIS122/KentState.html
  • 41. 1960s Counter CultureAt Kent State University inOhio studentsdemonstrated in response Students gather for protest rally at Kent State University, 1970 Howard Ruffner Gallery of Kent State Massacre Photos on Picasaweb http://picasaweb.google.com/hruffner/KentStateUniversityMay141970#
  • 42. 1960s Counter CultureThe National Guard wascalled in and four studentswere killed National Guardsmen at Kent State Universtty, May 1970 Howard Ruffner Gallery of Kent State Massacre Photos on Picasaweb http://picasaweb.google.com/hruffner/KentStateUniversityMay141970#
  • 43. 1960s Counter Culture Opposition to the United States involvement in Vietnam led to several domestic confrontations between antiwar demonstrators and government troops. National Guard troops stunned the nation when they shot into a crowd of protesters during a 1970 demonstration at Ohio’s Kent State University, killing four students and wounding nine. http://encarta.msn.com/media_461562516_761552642_-1_1/Kent_State_Shooting_Aftermath.html
  • 44. 1960s Counter CultureKent State Massacre, May 1970Howard Ruffner Gallery of Kent State Massacre Photos on Picasawebhttp://picasaweb.google.com/hruffner/KentStateUniversityMay141970#
  • 45. 1960s Counter CulturePulitzer prize winning photograph of Kent State Massacre by Paul Filo
  • 46. 1960s Counter CultureTwo weeks later twostudents were shot during aprotest at Jackson StateUniversity James Earl Green, one of the students shot at Jackson State University, May 1970 http://www2.kenyon.edu/Khistory/60s/webpage.htm
  • 47. 1960s Counter CultureThe events at Kent Stateand Jackson State sparkedfurther student protests anda government commissionon campus unrest Source: http://www2.kenyon.edu/Khistory/60s/webpage.htm The Report of the President’s Commission on Campus Unrest, 1970 http://farm3.static.flickr.com/ 2008/1655549123_f5947098e9.jpg
  • 48. 1960s Counter CulturePublic support for the warhit an all time low Source: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/learning_history/vietnam/ vietnam_pubopinion.cfm
  • 49. 1960s Counter CultureA major factor in dwindlingpublic support for the warwas the unprecedentedcoverage in the media Henry Huet, cover LIFE Magazine, February 11 1969 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Henri_Huet,_LIFE_cover,_110266.jpg
  • 50. 1960s Counter CultureIt has been called “theliving room war” because ofthe unprecedentedtelevision coverage Yale Joel, Nixon TV Speech
  • 51. 1960s Counter CultureIconic images of the warinclude this prize-winningphotograph of a Buddhistmonk who set himself onfire on a Saigon street Buddhist Monk Thich Quang Duc immolates himself in protest against South Vietnamese persecution of Monks, Saigon, 1963 Prize winning photograph by Malcolm Browne http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%ADch_Qu%E1%BA%A3ng_ %C4%90%E1%BB%A9c
  • 52. In 1968, during the Tet offensive, viewers of NBC news sawCol. Nguyen Ngoc Loan blow out the brains of his captive in aSaigon street.http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/V/htmlV/vietnamonte/vietnamonte.htmSouth Vietnamese National Police Chief Brig Gen. Nguyen Ngoc Loan executes a Viet Cong officer with a single pistol shot in the head in Saigon,Vietnam on Feb. 1, 1968 AP Photo: Eddie Adamshttp://www.nandotimes.com/nt/images/century/photos/century0258.html
  • 53. And in 1972, during the North Vietnamese spring offensive, the audience witnessed the aftermath of errant napalm strike, in which South Vietnamese planes mistook their own fleeing civilians for North Vietnamese troops. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/V/htmlV/vietnamonte/vietnamonte.htmNick Ut, Naplam Attack on a South Vietnamese Village, June 1972http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4517597.stm
  • 54. On Mar. 16, 1968, a unit of the U.S. army America division, led by Lt. William L. Calley, invaded the South Vietnamese hamlet of My Lai, an alleged Viet Cong stronghold. In the course of combat operations, unarmed civilians, including women and children, were shot to death; estimated to be about 500. http://library.thinkquest.org/C0129380/ events/mylai.htmlRonald L. Haeberle, Mai Lai Massacre, published in LIFE Magazine, 1969http://library.thinkquest.org/C0129380/events/mylai.html
  • 55. Hippie Culture and theGeneration GapDescendants of the“hipsters” and “beatniks” ofthe 1950s, Hippies were asub-group of the 1960scounterculture Hippies dancing to folk music during anti-war demonstration, San Francisco, 1967 Ralph Crane LIFE Magazine
  • 56. Hippie Culture and theGeneration GapEmbracing sex drugs androck ‘n roll they rebelledagainst the acceptedvalues of “TheEstablishment” Album cover for Timothy Leary Turn on Tune in Drop Out Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Soundtrack to a 1967 motion picture that was suppressed within weeks Test, 1968 of its premiere in LA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Leary.jpg
  • 57. Hippie Culture and the Generation Gap They called for a non- violent revolution that promoted the values of love and peaceSound clip: RevolutionThe Beatles1968
  • 58. Hippie Culture and theGeneration GapTheir exploration ofalternative lifestyles wassymptomatic of a widening“generation gap” Norman Mingo, cover of Mad Magazine, 1969 http://flickr.com/photos/66733752@N00/2036801738/
  • 59. Hippie Culture and theGeneration GapIcons of the Hippie subculture include the“Summer of Love” in SanFrancisco, 1967 Robert Altman, “The First Rave” http://www.yenra.com/music/summer-of-love.html
  • 60. Hippie Culture and theGeneration Gap“School was out for the summerand hundreds of young peopletraveled across the country to SanFranciscos Haight-Ashbury districtto become a part of a countercultural phenomenon that somesaid would change the world.Others werent so sure.Still others cared only aboutscoring some acid (LSD) for theJefferson Airplane show at theFillmore auditorium.The year was 1967 and thosewhod come to San Francisco wore Robert Altman, “The first Rave”flowers in their hair as part of the http://www.yenra.com/music/summer-of-love.htmlSummer Of Love.”http://www.jour.sc.edu/pages/wigginsweb/0204summer.html
  • 61. Hippie Culture and theGeneration GapAnd the Woodstock festivaland concert that drew half amillion people to Yasgur’sFarm in 1968
  • 62. Hippie Culture and theGeneration GapPopular music became aprimary expression of theyouth counter culture
  • 63. The American Experience: Summer of LoveChapter 2: (7:53)Disillusioned members of the Baby Boom generation embrace a utopian vision.http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/love/program/love_02_qt_lo.html