Electric Vehicles: What’s in Your Garage?
                 CleanTALK San Diego
                    in partnership with
   ...
• Disclosure                       • Objectives
   – My own opinions based           – Increase awareness and
     upon sc...
• Imagination and Future Vision
   – Read the 23 pages of Chapter 10 in Thomas Friedman’s
     book, “Hot, Flat , and Crow...
San Diego County Energy Consumption
Units       Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum Fuels       Total
Gallons               ...
Were the Price Equal to the Cost
Reasons for Alternative and Renewable Fuels
• Air Quality                  • Climate Change
   – NOX                      ...
If You Can Afford them
CARB ZEV Requirement is Pushing




$5,000 penalty per each ZEV credit not produced
How Fast?
EV’s Best Friend
Charging Stations
Nissan Leaf Battery Electric Plug-in Vehicle

Energy Diet
• 100 Mile Range
• 24kWh battery (gas tank)
• 240Wh/mile (mileag...
LA 4 Drive Cycle
BEV Fuel Efficiency

                            Electricity   Charger
           Power                                   ...
Gasoline 30 MPG Vehicle

Energy Diet
• 300 Mile Range
• 10 Gallons (gas tank)
• 30 MPG (mileage)
• $3.00/Gallon (fuel cost...
Energy Efficiency of Operation

 Vehicle       Range    Energy     Energy         Net
              (Miles)   Storage    S...
Fuel Costs of Operation

     Vehicle        Fuel Cost    Mileage     Cost/Mile
Gasoline ICE        $3.00/gal    30 mi/gal...
Estimated Cost of Operation
                                                   Maintenance (Based on 100,000 miles)
      ...
BEV vs. 30 MPG ICE

• BEV Advantages                     • 30 MPG ICE Advantages
  – Home fueling                       – ...
Battery Basics
• Chemistry                   • Packs
  – Individual cells            – Series cells to minimize
  – Revers...
Desired Battery Characteristics
• Safety in operation       •   Long shelf life
• Light weight (power and   •   High opera...
Some Battery Observations

• Cycle life exponentially   • High rate charges and
  increases with               discharges ...
More Battery Observations
• Avoiding “empty” and       • Heat is the enemy of
  “full” can be the best       batteries, in...
Power and Energy
• Power                    • Energy
  – Capacity                 – Power over time
  – Up front cost     ...
Energy Path
• Fuel or battery into vehicle (1/2 mv²)
• Vehicle into brakes
• Vehicle into hill climb (30 feet = 30mph)
   ...
References
• “Hot, Flat, and Crowded,” Thomas Friedman, New
  York Times Journalist
• “Deep Hot Biosphere,” Thomas Gold de...
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09
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Electric Vehicles Nov 19 09

  1. 1. Electric Vehicles: What’s in Your Garage? CleanTALK San Diego in partnership with San Diego Regional Clean Fuels Coalition November 19, 2009
  2. 2. • Disclosure • Objectives – My own opinions based – Increase awareness and upon science and understanding for engineering estimates making better informed and various available personal and business references choices – If you like it you can hire – Start a dialog for public me consensus and support – If you don’t like it, I’m on key issues happy to help you get – Capture a little of your started on your own imagination quest
  3. 3. • Imagination and Future Vision – Read the 23 pages of Chapter 10 in Thomas Friedman’s book, “Hot, Flat , and Crowded” – Energy and transportation will be more closely connected – Changes are going to affect the way we live, our children live and the way our grandchildren live • Lessons from history – Transportation has been one of the most significant influences in the development in civilization, life style, and the economy – Transportation is 64% of San Diego’s energy consumption
  4. 4. San Diego County Energy Consumption Units Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum Fuels Total Gallons 1,880,000,000 BTU 2.162E+14 MMTh 581 GWh 18,648 17,027 63,362 99,037 % of Total 18.8% 17.2% 64.0% Electricity 19% Natural Gas 17% Petroleum Fuels 64%
  5. 5. Were the Price Equal to the Cost
  6. 6. Reasons for Alternative and Renewable Fuels • Air Quality • Climate Change – NOX – GHG – HC – Carbon caps and taxes – Particulates are coming • Healthcare Costs • International trade • National Security policies – Global Economy – Reliable Energy for the Economy – New Business and Employment Sectors – Follow the Money
  7. 7. If You Can Afford them
  8. 8. CARB ZEV Requirement is Pushing $5,000 penalty per each ZEV credit not produced
  9. 9. How Fast?
  10. 10. EV’s Best Friend
  11. 11. Charging Stations
  12. 12. Nissan Leaf Battery Electric Plug-in Vehicle Energy Diet • 100 Mile Range • 24kWh battery (gas tank) • 240Wh/mile (mileage) • 15.5¢/kWh (fuel cost) • 3.72¢/mile
  13. 13. LA 4 Drive Cycle
  14. 14. BEV Fuel Efficiency Electricity Charger Power Propulsion Fuel Transmission & & Plant Motor Distribution Battery 33% typical 93% 80% 90% 22% (50% CC) Local Solar Charger Propulsion Sun Inverter & Motor Battery (PV 22%) (95%) 80% 90% 72%
  15. 15. Gasoline 30 MPG Vehicle Energy Diet • 300 Mile Range • 10 Gallons (gas tank) • 30 MPG (mileage) • $3.00/Gallon (fuel cost) • 10¢/mile
  16. 16. Energy Efficiency of Operation Vehicle Range Energy Energy Net (Miles) Storage Storage Efficiency (kWh) (Gallons) to Propulsion Gasoline 300 366 10 20% ICE BEV-Grid 100 24 0.66 22% BEV- Local 100 24 0.66 72%
  17. 17. Fuel Costs of Operation Vehicle Fuel Cost Mileage Cost/Mile Gasoline ICE $3.00/gal 30 mi/gal 10¢ BEV-night 5¢/kWh 4.2 mi/kWh 1.2¢ BEV-mid peak 10¢/kWh 4.2 mi/kWh 2.4¢ BEV-base tier 1 13¢/kWh 4.2 mi/kWh 3.1¢ BEV-mid tier 2 15¢/kWh 4.2 mi/kWh 3.8¢
  18. 18. Estimated Cost of Operation Maintenance (Based on 100,000 miles) Fuel Fuel Total Mntnce/ Total Vehicle Fuel Cost Mileage Cost/Mile Battery Engine Brakes Tires Misc Mntnce Mile Cost/Mile Gas ICE 3.00 30 0.10 100 2,700 3000 500 500 6,800 0.07 0.17 BEV 0.05 4.2 0.01 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.10 BEV 0.10 4.2 0.02 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.11 BEV 0.15 4.2 0.04 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.12 BEV 0.20 4.2 0.05 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.14 BEV 0.25 4.2 0.06 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.15 BEV 0.30 4.2 0.07 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.16 BEV 0.35 4.2 0.08 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.17 BEV 0.40 4.2 0.10 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.18 BEV 0.45 4.2 0.11 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.20 BEV 0.50 4.2 0.12 7200 0 1000 500 200 8,900 0.09 0.21
  19. 19. BEV vs. 30 MPG ICE • BEV Advantages • 30 MPG ICE Advantages – Home fueling – Range and fueling – Zero emissions infrastructure traditional – Minimal service – Time to refuel • No oil, belts, filters – Slightly less expensive • >3x brake life • Disadvantages – Local storage for grid – Oil, air quality, GHG • Disadvantages – Service cost, time – Needs infrastructure and – Time and distance to PUC tariffs for sustainability fuel station – Time to refuel – Needs noise
  20. 20. Battery Basics • Chemistry • Packs – Individual cells – Series cells to minimize – Reversible wasted heat electrochemical energy – Need heat rejection – Unique characteristics design for safety and • Power long life • Energy – Equalization • Life – Balancing • Charge rate – Battery Management • Resistance System • Cost – High capital for • Toxicity economies of scale
  21. 21. Desired Battery Characteristics • Safety in operation • Long shelf life • Light weight (power and • High operation cycle life energy density) • Easily manufactured • Quick charge/discharge • Easily recycled • High power • Environmentally safe • High energy • Available materials • Wide temperature • High Quality, Fast operation Delivery, Cheap –Pick • Inexpensive two!
  22. 22. Some Battery Observations • Cycle life exponentially • High rate charges and increases with discharges can shorten decreasing depth of the battery life and discharge (DoD) waste more energy due • Energy capacity (range) to heat generation- may significantly efficiencies can easily decease in extremely drop 30%-increasing the cold temperatures – cost of usable kWh needs to be managed
  23. 23. More Battery Observations • Avoiding “empty” and • Heat is the enemy of “full” can be the best batteries, inverters, and thing you do for your electric motors. battery life. • Each cell in a series • Charging is not linear- pack gets exactly the 85% in half the time for same current. a full charge. • BMS is required • Braking regeneration because cells are saves fuel, but uses different and age some battery life differently.
  24. 24. Power and Energy • Power • Energy – Capacity – Power over time – Up front cost – What you pay for – Limits – Range charging/discharging – Acceleration – Load – Slope
  25. 25. Energy Path • Fuel or battery into vehicle (1/2 mv²) • Vehicle into brakes • Vehicle into hill climb (30 feet = 30mph) – Design highways to go up for deceleration and go down for acceleration • Brakes into heating air and wearing brakes – Over 2,000 MWh/day in San Diego • Alternatively, brakes into regeneration, storage, and reuse
  26. 26. References • “Hot, Flat, and Crowded,” Thomas Friedman, New York Times Journalist • “Deep Hot Biosphere,” Thomas Gold deceased • CARB ZEV Presentations • EPA • DoE – EERE – NREL – ANL

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