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    Chapters 9/10 Presentation Chapters 9/10 Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9 Cognitive Development: The Information-Processing Approach
    • Information Processing Theory
      • Computer analogy
      • Basic Assumptions
        • Thinking is information processing
        • There are mechanisms or processes of change that underlie the processing of information
        • Cognitive development is a self-modifying process
        • Careful task analysis is crucial (microgenetic analysis)
    • Information Processing Models
      • Multistore models
        • Information moves through sensory register, short-term memory(working memory), and long term memory
      • Connectionist models
        • Organization, change in development, and use of neural networks/connections
      • Neo-Piagetian models (Table 9-1 page 318)
        • 4 stages of increasingly sophisticated problem solving
        • Executive control structure – plan for solving a problem
    • Cognitive Processes
      • Ways that the human mental system operates on information
      • Encoding and mental representation
        • Used to retain important information
      • Strategies
        • Used to enhance mental performance
      • Automatization
        • Conscious behaviors becoming unconscious
      • Generalization
        • Applying previously used strategies to similar problems
      • Executive Control Process
        • Guides the selection and use of problem solving strategies
    • Developmental Changes in Attention
      • Control of attention and focus increases with age (page 323)
      • Selective attention (Figure 9-6 page 324) – attending to relevant information and blocking irrelevant information
      • Combining attention and planning to solve problems and achieve goals
    • Memory
      • Memory and knowledge are interchangeable
      • Semantic memory – world knowledge and facts
      • Episodic memory – knowledge of specific events. Autobiographical
      • Remembering can be intentional and unintentional
    • Memory: Basic Capacities
      • Memory span – amount of information you can hold in short term memory ( activity )
      • Processing efficiency – automatization of one task to free up working memory and perform another task
      • Processing speed – the time it takes to carry out a mental act. increases linearly with age.
    • Memory Span Activity
      • Stand in a circle
      • First person: Say the number of the month and day you were born
      • Next Person: Repeat the number of the person(s) before you in order
    • Memory Strategies
      • Rehearsal – oral or mental repetition
      • Organization – arranging information into categories or hierarchical lists
      • Elaboration – adding to information
      • Mediational deficiency – inability to store info in long term memory using strategies
      • Production deficiency – inability to use strategies spontaneously
      • Utilization deficiency – inability to use a known strategy
    • Memory: Knowledge of the World
      • World knowledge – influences what they will understand in the present and remember later
      • Meaningfulness and Goals –
        • children remember better when they have a purpose or when situations are directly related to them.
        • Children in the courtroom Box 9-1 page 332
      • Autobiographical memory & narrative form – shared conversations about the past help children remember events
    • Problem Solving and Reasoning
      • Rule-based problem solving (page 336) – applying rules that describe the properties or elements of the problem
      • Solving by analogy – helps children broaden and deepen their understanding of relations between objects and across similar objects
      • Scripts – help children remember over a long period of time
      • Cognitive maps – as children age they notice more landmarks and are able to navigate greater area
      • Symbolic tools and representations – children may have difficulty using manipulatives or props and recalling information a different way
    • Problem Solving and Reasoning
      • Deductive reasoning – reaching conclusions based on set premises
      • Propositional reasoning – evaluating a statement based on the info in the statement
      • Transitive reasoning – not used properly because of children’s assumptions
      • Hierarchal categorization – evident in children from a very young age
      • Numerical reasoning - English vs. Chinese counting
    • Metacognition
      • Knowledge about knowing and control of cognitive activities
      • Knowledge about the task
        • Knowing when more information is needed
        • children understand what some things are harder to learn that others
      • Knowledge about strategies
        • Children are aware of external aids to memory
        • Not always used correctly
      • Limitations Page 347
    • Intelligence and Achievement Chapter 10
    • Class Discussion
      • What do you think it means to be intelligent?
        • What is intelligence?
        • Are differences in intelligence caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or both?
        • Are these differences permanent, or can they be changed?
        • Fact or Fiction: Brain Myths
    • Chapter Overview
      • Theories of Intelligence
      • Testing Intelligence
      • Why do people differ in measured intelligence?
      • Ethnicity, Social Class, and Intellectual Performance
      • Achievement Motivation and Intellectual Performance
      • Cognitive Intervention Studies
      • Beyond the Norms: Giftedness and Mental Retardation
      • Creativity
    • Theories of Intelligence
      • In attempting to formulate useful theories of intelligence, scientists have focused on three main issues:
        • Whether intelligence is unitary or multifaceted
        • Whether it is determined by genetic or environmental factors
        • Whether it predicts academic success and success outside of school
    • Theories of Intelligence
      • The Factor Analytic Approach
      • The Information-Processing Approach: Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
      • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
    • The Factor Analytic Approach
      • An early researcher, Charles Spearman (1927), used factor analysis to propose that intelligence is composed of a general factor (g) and a number of specific factors (s)
        • General factor (g) = general mental ability involved in all cognitive tasks
        • Specific factor (s) = factors unique to a specific task
      • This unitary concept of intelligence was challenged by Lewis Thurstone (1938) who proposed that 7 primary skills comprise intelligence:
        • Verbal meaning, perceptual speed, reasoning, number, rote memory, word fluency, and spatial visualization
      • Recent research (1993, 1997, 2004) has shown that children vary both in overall level of intellectual ability and how skilled they are in specific aspects of cognitive functioning.
    • The Information-Processing Approach: Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
      • Information-processing researchers focus on the processes involved in intellectual activity
      • They argue that to understand intelligence, we must assess how people use information-processing capabilities, such as memory and problem-solving skills, to execute intelligent activities
      • Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory proposes 3 major components of intelligence:
      • (1) Information-processing skills, (2) experience with a task, and (3) ability to adapt to the demands of a context
    • The Information-Processing Approach: Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
      • Recently, Sternberg expanded his theory into a theory of successful intelligence .
      • The ability to fit into, change, and choose environments that best fulfill one’s own needs and desires as well as the demands of one’s society and culture
        • Also includes analytical, creative, and practical abilities
        • Practical or tacit knowledge is implicit knowledge that is shared by many people and that guides behavior (“common sense”)
        • Triarchic Theory has been applied to school curricula and has helped teens improve their scores on college entrance exams
        • Also, children who were instructed with curricula based on this theory reported enjoying the material more than children taught the same information in a more traditional fashion
    • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
      • Howard Gardner (2004) proposed the theory of multiple intelligences which suggests that humans possess 8 kinds of intelligence
        • Linguistic
        • Logical-mathematical
        • Spatial
        • Musical
        • Bodily-kinesthetic
        • Intrapersonal
        • Interpersonal
        • Naturalistic
        • Possible 9 th form = spirituality or existential intelligence
      • Gardner believes all types are equally important to human functioning
      • His work has been used to improve public education with more individualized and varied instruction
      Refer to Table 10-2 on page 356
    • Testing Intelligence
      • Although psychologists have become increasingly interested in the processes that contribute to intellectual functioning, the study and testing of intelligence have traditionally focused on its products .
      • (ie: specific knowledge and skills displayed on an intelligence test)
      • Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = an index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence test relative to the way others her age perform
      Misconception! Many people think IQ is innate and does not change. But research has shown that IQ can change over the life span, for it can be modified by experience.
    • Testing Intelligence
      • Why do we measure intelligence?
        • Predicting academic performance
        • Predicting performance on the job
        • Assessing general adjustment and health
      • Keep in mind:
        • We can only infer intellectual capacity from the results of an IQ test
        • We can only measure performance
        • There is always some discrepancy between capacity and performance depending on the circumstances of a performance
        • (emotional state, precision of test, etc…)
        • IQ tests may biased towards certain racial groups and by class
          • Culture-fair tests work to exclude/minimize culturally biased content in IQ tests
    • Testing Intelligence – Infants & Children
    • Testing Intelligence – Infants & Children
    • Testing Intelligence - Terms
      • Psychometrician = psychologist who specializes in construction and use of tests
      • Test norms = values that describe the typical test performance (ie: age, gender, socioeconomic class, etc…)
      • Standardization = test constructors ensure that testing procedures, instructions, and scoring are identical on every testing occasion
      • Validity = Does your test actual measure what it claims to measure?
      • Reliability = Does your test yield consistent results over time or successive administrations?
    • Testing Intelligence
      • Is intelligence an absolute quality that remains fixed over time, or can it change as a function of experience?
      • Berkeley Guidance Study, Berkeley Growth Study, and the Fels Longitudinal Study followed individuals for 20-50 years
        • These and earlier studies found no significant relation between IQ scores recorded in infancy and those attained later in childhood or adulthood
        • Variability in IQ scores reflects the fact that different children develop cognitively at different rates of speed, just as they experience physical growth in spurts and at different ages
        • Experiential factors may also contribute to changes in IQ
        • (parental divorce, death in the family, change of schools, etc..)
      • Flynn Effect = increase in average IQ score in the U.S. and other developed countries since the early 1900s
    • Why do people differ in measured intelligence?
      • There is considerable support for the importance of heredity in intelligence.
        • Most estimates of the heredity intelligence support a figure of about 40% to 50% for middle-class European Americans
        • Subsequently, this suggests that the remaining 50% to 60% of the variability is due to environmental factors, both social (family, peers, school) and nonsocial (dietary and disease factors, pollutants)
      • Many psychologists disagree with this more or less 50-50 proposition
    • Why do people differ in measured intelligence?
      • Arthur Jensen, holding extreme views, proposes two types of learning which are BOTH inherited
        • Associative learning (Level I) = short-term memory, rote learning, attention, and simple associative skills
        • Cognitive learning (Level II) = abstract thinking, symbolic processes, conceptual learning, use of language in problem solving
      • According to Jensen, all people share the 1 st type of learning, but the 2 nd type is more prevalent among certain ethnic groups (middle class and European Americans)
    • Why do people differ in measured intelligence?
      • Culture and Inheritance
      • Comparing intelligence scores across groups is a complex process!
      • When we estimate heritability among people within a specific cultural or ethnic group, our estimates will be higher because such people by definition share some characteristics that are both inherited and environmental
      • It is inappropriate to apply heritability indexes based on one group to members of another
      • Because heritability estimates are based on specific groups of people, they yield average numbers; thus, they do not necessarily apply to an individual member of a group
    • Why do people differ in measured intelligence?
      • Environmental Factors
      • Even strong advocates for the genetic basis of human intelligence understand that children are brought up in circumstances that range from the most favorable to the most destructive
      • Significant environmental factors that affect the child’s intellectual functioning include:
        • Events during pregnancy and the child’s birth that can result in congenital defects (acquired during development and NOT through heredity)
          • Video segment: Childhood Obesity and IQ Scores
        • Interpersonal relationships that the child develops with family members, teachers, peers, and members of the community at large
    • Ethnicity, Social Class, and Intellectual Performance
      • Research has found relations between ethnicity and social class and intellectual performance
      • According to those who hold that intelligence tests are biased against members of minority groups, the content of standardized IQ tests is drawn from European American middle-class language, experience, and values and is thus inappropriate for other groups
        • Stereotype threat (Claude Steele, 1997): Being at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about the group to which one belongs; causes worry and self-doubt
      • Context is an important factor in children’s intellectual performance. Testing conditions, such as unfamiliar surroundings and European American examiners, may negatively affect the performance of lower class and minority children
    • Ethnicity, Social Class, and Intellectual Performance
      • The concept of cumulative risk suggests that the more negative aspects of experience that are present in a child’s life, and put the child at risk for unhealthy development, the more likely he is to score poorly on tests of intellectual skills
      • Refer to Figures 10-4 and 10-5 on pages 374-375
      • Varying styles of parent-child interactions in different social classes may influence a child’s development of verbal and cognitive skills
        • Studies indicate that early differences in mothers’ use of language and infants’ attention to their mothers’ speech may account for later differences in the use of verbal information
    • Ethnicity, Social Class, and Intellectual Performance
      • Research indicates that cultural differences in parents’ attitudes and enthusiasm for education may affect children’s performance on academic tasks
      • Chinese and Japanese students have been found to perform at a higher intellectual level, particularly in mathematics, than Asian American students who score higher than European American, African American, and Latino American students
      • Refer to Box 10-1 on pages 371 - 373
    • Achievement Motivation and Intellectual Performance
      • Children’s intellectual performance is influenced by their own achievement motivation
        • Achievement motivation = the emotions they associate with learning tasks, the ways they view themselves and their abilities, and their responses to success and failure
        • Refer to Figure 10-7 on page 378
      • Children who see themselves as helpless tend to give up easily or show deterioration when working on hard problems
      • In contrast, mastery-oriented children use failure to feedback to maintain or improve their performance.
      • Helpless children may hold an entity view of intelligence, whereas mastery-oriented children may hold an incremental view
    • Cognitive Intervention Studies
      • Since the 1960s, many intervention programs have been aimed at modifying the development of economically deprived children
      • Head Start is a federally funded program
      • for preschool children who are severely
      • deprived economically
      • In general, these programs have reported short-term gains in academic performance, though some others have reported a loss over time of the initial advances
    • Cognitive Intervention Studies
      • Keys to long-term success may be:
        • Involving children in these programs within the first 2 years of their lives
        • Continuing intervention efforts at least until children enter kindergarten
        • Offering two-generational programs in which educational, occupational, health, and counseling services are provided to the children’s parents at the same time as intervention efforts proceed with the children themselves
      • Refer to Table 10-6 on page 380
    • Beyond the Norms: Giftedness
      • Traditionally, specialists in intelligence testing have held that an IQ score above 130 signals intellectual giftedness
      • The question of how to educate and encourage exceptionally bright and talented children remains controversial.
      • Whether or not to advance children who display intellectual giftedness to higher grades in school remains controversial, although some such programs have shown success
      • Although some voice concerns that accelerated advancement will isolate gifted young children socially, others hold that such children are generally advanced socially as well as intellectually
    • Beyond the Norms: Mental Retardation
      • Traditionally, specialists in intelligence testing have held that an IQ score below 70 indicates mental retardation
      • Some 95% of children with mental retardation can pursue academic studies to a greater or lesser degree, hold jobs, and as adults live either independently or in supervised settings
      • Only 4% to 6% of children with MR must live under close supervision throughout their lives
    • Beyond the Norms: Mental Retardation
      • More than ½ of children with special education needs are identified as having specific learning disabilities that interfere with cognitive processing in some way
      • Schools differ in terms of how these children are integrated into the classroom
        • Some schools place children with learning disabilities in classes with normally functioning children
        • Other schools separate these children into special education classes
          • Inclusion , also called integration or mainstreaming, is practiced in many schools today
          • Some argue that inclusion programs enhance the academic achievement of children with learning disabilities
          • Others argue that such programs put children at risk for peer rejection or inappropriate labeling
    • Creativity
      • Creativity is defined by the ability to solve problems, create products, or pose questions in a way that is unique or novel
      • Are IQ and creativity related to each other?
        • The relationship between creativity and intelligence continues to be debated
        • Current theory suggests that the sources of creativity lie in intelligence and motivation as well as a willingness to meet challenges, overcome obstacles, and take risks
      • Because children lack the knowledge base required to evaluate true creative efforts, some psychologists believe that creativity begins in preadolescence.
      • Others, however, hold that young children have novel ideas, engage in creative acts, and use play to practice divergent thinking.
      • Encouraging imaginative play in children may promote future creativity.