Educational aims & objectives

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Educational Objectives

Educational Objectives

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  • 2. INTRODUCTION • Education is concerned with modification of behavior. • Guided and scaled down approach is required to bring out desirable behavior modifications. • Educational objectives will serve the purpose of guiding teachers and students in the achievement of desirable behavior modifications.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • When the purposes and objectives are stated clearly than the educational program will be effective. • The objectives are desirable outcomes of intended actions through the mode of education.
  • 4. MEANING • The educational Objectives are expressions of what a teacher hopes his/her students can accomplish as a result of his/her teaching. • EO are policy statements of direction and provide foundation of the entire educative structure. • These are the statements, which express specifically and in measurable terms, an attitude that will be developed cognitive or psychomotor skills that the students wouid be able to do as a result of prescribed mode of instruction.
  • 5. Purposes • Prepares Teaching-Learning Program • Facilitates Course Planning • Communicates desirable emphasis on treatment • Provides for selective approach • Helps in curriculum design • Facilitates evaluation • Faciliates learning
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION OF E O • Institutionnel or General Objectives • Intermediate or Departmental • Instructional or Specific Objectives • Central Objective • Contributory Objective • Indirect Objective
  • 7. Institutionnel or General Objectives • Followed by all institutions offering same educational programme. • Developed with consensus with the general curriculum objectives of the educational programme. • Written for the attainment of overall aim or objective of a particular educational program.
  • 8. Institutionnel or General Objectives Example: Students acquire knowledge and able to provide comprehensive care to the clients in institution and community in health and sickness.
  • 9. Intermediate Objectives • These objectives are related to particular learning experience or subject matter. • Developed by the curriculum committee. • Example: Students acquire knowledge and able to provide comprehensive care to the clients with eye, ear and nose diseases.
  • 10. Instructional Objectives • These are specific, precise, attainable, measurable and corresponding to each specific teaching – learning activity. • They are formulated by the teachers at the instructional level. • These objectives are written in a way to cater the individual learning needs of the students. • These objectives are clear and unambiguous description of teacher’s educational expectations of each students in the class.
  • 11. Instructional Objectives • Examples: 1. Defines Peptic Ulcer 2. Lists down the etiology of peptic ulcer 3. Explain the medical management of peptic ulcer
  • 12. Central Objectives • These are written for every lesson or topic. • This is of supreme importance in any teaching activities. • It provides a basis for formulating subsequent contributory objectives. • Example: At the end of the class, students acquire knowledge regarding lecturing techniques, determinates the merits and demerits of lecture and able to practice it in an effective way by minimizing the demerits.
  • 13. Contributory Objectives • These are synonymous with specific objectives. • The attainment of central objective is only possible through the attainment of contributory objectives. • These objectives has to be written in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, skills, appreciation and interest which will develop in the student as a result of specific teaching – learning activity.
  • 14. Indirect Objectives • Indirect or Concomittent objectives are the byproducts of the attainment of other objectives. • They have to be written down in order to bring out certain understandings, ideals and attitudes along with the attainment of contributory and central objectives. • Examples: Appreciate the value of Lecture Method.
  • 15. Characteristics of Objectives • Relevant: confirm to the needs of the learner and institutional objectives. • logical • Unequivocal: clear action verbs to be used. • Feasible: be within the time limit and resources available. • Observable: able to see the action performed e.g. Writing, spoken, performed. • Measurable: able to evaluate, check and recheck e.g. rating, grading, marking etc.
  • 16. BLOOMS’S TAXONOMY • Blooms and his associates developed a system of classification of objectives called the taxonomy of educational objectives. • Taxonomy of educational objectives classifies objectives into three domains. • These levels are arranged in the form of hierarchy.
  • 17. Domains Cognitive Affective Psychomotor
  • 18. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • These domains consists of six levels of objectives, each of which is divided into subcategories. • Level -1: Knowledge • Level – 2: Comprehension • Level – 3: Application • Level – 4: Analysis • Level – 5: Synthesis • Level – 6: Evaluation
  • 19. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Knowledge: Knowledge is defined as recall of specifics and universals, recall of methods and processes or the recall of a pattern, structure or setting specific stands for definite things like terminologies and specific facts. • Action Verbs – Define, State, List, Name, Outline, Write, Recall, Recognize, Label, Underline, Select Describe etc
  • 20. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Comprehension – demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and stating main ideas: – Translation – using other words to communicate something said or printed without altering the meaning. – Interpretation – ability of the students to explain the meaning of an information without altering the meaning. – Extrapolation – ability to work out or estimate unknown information from the known information.
  • 21. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Action Verbs: Identify, Justify, Select, Indicate, Illustrate, Represent, Name, Formulate, Explain, Judge etc.
  • 22. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Application: Ability to use learned materials such as rules, principles concepts etc, to new and real situations. • Action Verbs: Predict, Select, Assess, Explain, Choose, Find, Show, Demonstrate etc.
  • 23. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Analysis – ability to breakdown information into its component parts, which may be elements of information, relationships between elements or organization and structure of information. • Analysis helps to separate the important aspects of information from the less important, thus clarifying the meaning. • Action Verbs: Analyse, Identify, Conclude, Differentiate, Select, Separate, differentiates and distinguishes etc.
  • 24. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Synthesis – At this level learner is expected to combine various parts to form a new whole learning outcomes inthis area stress creative behaviors with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. • Action verbs: Combine, Restate, Summarize, Precise, Argue, Discuss, Organize, Compose Create etc.
  • 25. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Evaluation: This level is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose. Judgements are to be based on definite criteria. • Action Verbs: Judge, Evaluate, Determine, Recognize, Support, Defend, criticize, justify etc.
  • 26. Affective DOMAIN • It consists of five levels. • Franscis M Quinin describes 5 levels of affective domain as 1. Feelings, 2. Attitudes, 3. Values and 4. Interests. • ‘Values’ refer to the person’s concepts of what he or she considers desirable. • ‘Attitudes are positive or negative feelings about certain things and consists of both cognitive and affective aspects.
  • 27. Affective DOMAIN • Level 1: (Receiving) – The student is sensitive to the existence of something. The teacher’s concern is that that student’s attention is focused. Intended outcomes include the pupil’s awareness that a thing exists. • Action Verbs: Asks, Chooses and Replies. • Example: Asks right questions by honoring the dignity of the patient during history collection.
  • 28. Affective DOMAIN • Level 2: Responding – Students participates actively. Pupil not only attends to the stimulus but reacts in some way. • Verbs: Answers, Assists, Complies, Conforms etc. • Example: Assists patient in carrying out activities of daily living.
  • 29. Affective DOMAIN • Level 3: Valuing. Objectives at this level indicates acceptance and internalization of the values or attitudes. • Verbs: Initiates, Invites, Joins, Justifies etc. • Example: Initiates the building of Interpersonal relationship with patients during clinical postings.
  • 30. Affective DOMAIN • Level 4: Organization: Bringing together different values, rsolving conflicts among them. And starting to build an internally consistent value system. • Verbs: Alters, Arranges, Combines, Modifies etc. • Examples: Combines various interpersonal skills to nurture interpersonal relationship with patients.
  • 31. Affective DOMAIN • Level 5: Characterization: At this level the learner has held a value system that has controlled his behavior for a sufficiently long time that a characteristic ‘life style’ has been developed. • Behavior is consistentl pervasive and predictable. • Verbs: Listens, Acts, Displays, • Example: Displays confidence while caring for patients with myocardial infarction.
  • 32. Psychomotor Domain • This domain is characterized by progressive levels of behaviors from observation to mastery of a physical skill. • There are seven levels of psychomotor domain.
  • 33. Psychomotor Domain • Level 1: Perception- perception of sensory cues that guide action and ranges from awareness of stimuli to translation into action. • Verbs: Chooses, Differentiates, Identifies Detects. • Example: Detects the early signs of Decubitus Ulcers.
  • 34. Psychomotor Domain • Level 1: Set: Readiness to act • Verbs: Starts, Begins, Moves Reacts. • Example: Reacts promptly to the emergency situation during trauma postings.
  • 35. Psychomotor Domain • Level 1: Guided Response: It is a initial stage in learning a complex skill that includes initiation, trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. • Verbs: Carries out, Performs, Calculates. • Example: Performs bed making as demonstrated by the teachers.
  • 36. Psychomotor Domain • Level 4: Mechanism: The performance becomes habitual at this level. The learned skills are performed with some confidence and proficiency. • Verbs: Similar to level 3 • Example: Calculates the volume of fluid required in the first day for a patient admitted with 60 percentage burns and weighing 50 Kg.
  • 37. Psychomotor Domain • Level 5: Complex overt response: This level typies the skilled performance and involves economy of effort , smoothness of action, accuracy and efficiency etc. • Verbs: Similar to lvel 3 • Example:Performs ET Tube intubation correctly.
  • 38. Psychomotor Domain • Level 6: Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. • Verbs: Adapts, Modifies, Reorganizes etc. • Example:Modifies sterlization techniques according to the articles to be sterlized.
  • 39. Psychomotor Domain • Level 7: Organization: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem.Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills. • Verbs:Composes, Creates, Designs etc. • Example: Design a splint to restrain the forearm of a child who is on IV infusion.