• Education is concerned with modification of
• Guided and scaled down approach is
required to bring out desirable behavior
• Educational objectives will serve the
purpose of guiding teachers and students in
the achievement of desirable behavior
• When the purposes and objectives are
stated clearly than the educational
program will be effective.
• The objectives are desirable outcomes
of intended actions through the mode
• The educational Objectives are expressions of
what a teacher hopes his/her students can
accomplish as a result of his/her teaching.
• EO are policy statements of direction and
provide foundation of the entire educative
• These are the statements, which express
specifically and in measurable terms, an attitude
that will be developed cognitive or psychomotor
skills that the students wouid be able to do as a
result of prescribed mode of instruction.
• Prepares Teaching-Learning Program
• Facilitates Course Planning
• Communicates desirable emphasis on
• Provides for selective approach
• Helps in curriculum design
• Facilitates evaluation
• Faciliates learning
CLASSIFICATION OF E O
• Institutionnel or General Objectives
• Intermediate or Departmental
• Instructional or Specific Objectives
• Central Objective
• Contributory Objective
• Indirect Objective
Institutionnel or General Objectives
• Followed by all institutions offering same
• Developed with consensus with the general
curriculum objectives of the educational
• Written for the attainment of overall aim or
objective of a particular educational
Institutionnel or General Objectives
Example: Students acquire knowledge
and able to provide comprehensive
care to the clients in institution and
community in health and sickness.
• These objectives are related to particular
learning experience or subject matter.
• Developed by the curriculum committee.
• Example: Students acquire knowledge and
able to provide comprehensive care to the
clients with eye, ear and nose diseases.
• These are specific, precise, attainable,
measurable and corresponding to each specific
teaching – learning activity.
• They are formulated by the teachers at the
• These objectives are written in a way to cater
the individual learning needs of the students.
• These objectives are clear and unambiguous
description of teacher’s educational expectations
of each students in the class.
1. Defines Peptic Ulcer
2. Lists down the etiology of peptic ulcer
3. Explain the medical management of peptic
• These are written for every lesson or topic.
• This is of supreme importance in any teaching
• It provides a basis for formulating subsequent
• Example: At the end of the class, students
acquire knowledge regarding lecturing
techniques, determinates the merits and
demerits of lecture and able to practice it in an
effective way by minimizing the demerits.
• These are synonymous with specific objectives.
• The attainment of central objective is only
possible through the attainment of contributory
• These objectives has to be written in terms of
knowledge, abilities, attitudes, skills,
appreciation and interest which will develop in
the student as a result of specific teaching –
• Indirect or Concomittent objectives are the
byproducts of the attainment of other objectives.
• They have to be written down in order to bring
out certain understandings, ideals and attitudes
along with the attainment of contributory and
• Examples: Appreciate the value of Lecture
Characteristics of Objectives
• Relevant: confirm to the needs of the learner
and institutional objectives.
• Unequivocal: clear action verbs to be used.
• Feasible: be within the time limit and resources
• Observable: able to see the action performed
e.g. Writing, spoken, performed.
• Measurable: able to evaluate, check and recheck
e.g. rating, grading, marking etc.
• Blooms and his associates developed a
system of classification of objectives
called the taxonomy of educational
• Taxonomy of educational objectives
classifies objectives into three domains.
• These levels are arranged in the form
• These domains consists of six levels of
objectives, each of which is divided into
• Level -1: Knowledge
• Level – 2: Comprehension
• Level – 3: Application
• Level – 4: Analysis
• Level – 5: Synthesis
• Level – 6: Evaluation
• Knowledge: Knowledge is defined as recall of
specifics and universals, recall of methods and
processes or the recall of a pattern, structure or
setting specific stands for definite things like
terminologies and specific facts.
• Action Verbs – Define, State, List, Name,
Outline, Write, Recall, Recognize, Label,
Underline, Select Describe etc
• Comprehension – demonstrative understanding
of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing,
translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and
stating main ideas:
– Translation – using other words to communicate
something said or printed without altering the
– Interpretation – ability of the students to explain the
meaning of an information without altering the
– Extrapolation – ability to work out or estimate
unknown information from the known information.
• Application: Ability to use learned materials
such as rules, principles concepts etc, to new and
• Action Verbs: Predict, Select, Assess, Explain,
Choose, Find, Show, Demonstrate etc.
• Analysis – ability to breakdown information into
its component parts, which may be elements of
information, relationships between elements or
organization and structure of information.
• Analysis helps to separate the important aspects
of information from the less important, thus
clarifying the meaning.
• Action Verbs: Analyse, Identify, Conclude,
Differentiate, Select, Separate, differentiates and
• Synthesis – At this level learner is expected to
combine various parts to form a new whole
learning outcomes inthis area stress creative
behaviors with major emphasis on the
formulation of new patterns or structures.
• Action verbs: Combine, Restate, Summarize,
Precise, Argue, Discuss, Organize, Compose
• Evaluation: This level is concerned with the ability
to judge the value of material for a given purpose.
Judgements are to be based on definite criteria.
• Action Verbs: Judge, Evaluate, Determine,
Recognize, Support, Defend, criticize, justify etc.
• It consists of five levels.
• Franscis M Quinin describes 5 levels of affective
domain as 1. Feelings, 2. Attitudes, 3. Values and
• ‘Values’ refer to the person’s concepts of what he
or she considers desirable.
• ‘Attitudes are positive or negative feelings about
certain things and consists of both cognitive and
• Level 1: (Receiving) – The student is sensitive to
the existence of something. The teacher’s concern
is that that student’s attention is focused.
Intended outcomes include the pupil’s awareness
that a thing exists.
• Action Verbs: Asks, Chooses and Replies.
• Example: Asks right questions by honoring the
dignity of the patient during history collection.
• Level 2: Responding – Students participates
actively. Pupil not only attends to the stimulus
but reacts in some way.
• Verbs: Answers, Assists, Complies, Conforms etc.
• Example: Assists patient in carrying out activities
of daily living.
• Level 3: Valuing. Objectives at this level indicates
acceptance and internalization of the values or
• Verbs: Initiates, Invites, Joins, Justifies etc.
• Example: Initiates the building of Interpersonal
relationship with patients during clinical postings.
• Level 4: Organization: Bringing together different
values, rsolving conflicts among them. And
starting to build an internally consistent value
• Verbs: Alters, Arranges, Combines, Modifies etc.
• Examples: Combines various interpersonal skills
to nurture interpersonal relationship with
• Level 5: Characterization: At this level the learner
has held a value system that has controlled his
behavior for a sufficiently long time that a
characteristic ‘life style’ has been developed.
• Behavior is consistentl pervasive and predictable.
• Verbs: Listens, Acts, Displays,
• Example: Displays confidence while caring for
patients with myocardial infarction.
• This domain is characterized by
progressive levels of behaviors from
observation to mastery of a physical
• There are seven levels of
• Level 1: Perception- perception of
sensory cues that guide action and
ranges from awareness of stimuli to
translation into action.
• Verbs: Chooses, Differentiates,
• Example: Detects the early signs of
• Level 1: Set: Readiness to act
• Verbs: Starts, Begins, Moves Reacts.
• Example: Reacts promptly to the
emergency situation during trauma
• Level 1: Guided Response: It is a
initial stage in learning a complex
skill that includes initiation, trial and
error. Adequacy of performance is
achieved by practicing.
• Verbs: Carries out, Performs,
• Example: Performs bed making as
demonstrated by the teachers.
• Level 4: Mechanism: The
performance becomes habitual at
this level. The learned skills are
performed with some confidence
• Verbs: Similar to level 3
• Example: Calculates the volume of
fluid required in the first day for a
patient admitted with 60 percentage
burns and weighing 50 Kg.
• Level 5: Complex overt response:
This level typies the skilled
performance and involves economy
of effort , smoothness of action,
accuracy and efficiency etc.
• Verbs: Similar to lvel 3
• Example:Performs ET Tube
• Level 6: Adaptation: Skills are well
developed and the individual can
modify movement patterns to fit
• Verbs: Adapts, Modifies, Reorganizes
• Example:Modifies sterlization
techniques according to the articles
to be sterlized.
• Level 7: Organization: Creating new
movement patterns to fit a particular
situation or specific problem.Learning
outcomes emphasize creativity based
upon highly developed skills.
• Verbs:Composes, Creates, Designs etc.
• Example: Design a splint to restrain the
forearm of a child who is on IV