Leprosy

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Leprosy

  1. 1. Leprosy<br />Definition: <br />It is a chronic infectious systemic disease of man caused by mycobacterium leprae. <br />Etiology: <br />Caused by : Mycobacterium leprae<br /> -Acid fast bacilli. <br /> -Obligate intracellular organism. <br /> -Not grow on artificial culture media.<br />
  2. 2. Mode of transmission:<br />1.Air-borne transmission:<br /> through inhalation of the bacilli.<br />2.Indirect transmission: <br /> Clothes and sleeping mates .<br />3.Direct contact with skin. <br />
  3. 3. Incubation period : <br /> 3-5 years .<br />Classification of Leprosy :<br /> 1.Indeterminate leprosy.<br />2.Tuberculoid leprosy .<br />3.Border-line leprosy:<br />i.Borderlinetuberculoid.<br />ii.Borderline borderline.<br />iii.Borderlinelepromatous. <br />4.Lepromatous leprosy<br />
  4. 4. Clinical Picture :<br />Indeterminate Leprosy : <br />-Non-specific hypopigmented ill-defined macule having normal sensation. <br />-Affecting mainly the face,extrmities or the trunk. <br />Fate of indeterminate leprosy is disappearing or changing to tuberculoid or lepromatous leprosy.<br />
  5. 5. Borderline Leprosy :<br />Manifestation are in between the tuberculoidand lepromatous leprosy. <br />If these are more towards tuberculoid = bordeerlinetuberculoid. <br />If these are more towards lepromatous= borderline lepromatous.<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Complication of leprosy: <br />1.Muscle paralysis.<br />2.Trophic ulcer.<br />3.Testicular atrophy.<br />4.Amyloidosis.<br />5.Blindness.<br />6.Charcot joints.<br />
  8. 8. Diagnosis:<br />1.History.<br />2.Symptoms and signs. <br />3.Bacteriological examination of smear from specific lesion=acid fast bacilli.<br />4.Skin biopsy.<br />N.B: lepromin test is not diagnostic test but it determines theimmunological state of the patient to help in classifying the disease(tuberculoid or lepromatous).<br />
  9. 9. Treatment:<br />1.Multiple drug therapy:<br />i.Dapsone.<br />ii.Rifampicin.<br />Iii.Clofazimine.<br />Duration of treatment depend on :<br />A.type of leprosy.<br />B.Disappearance of lepra bacilli from the skin smear.<br />2.treatment of complications.<br />

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