Leprosy Definition: It is a chronic infectious systemic disease of man caused by mycobacterium leprae. Etiology: Caused by : Mycobacterium leprae -Acid fast bacilli. -Obligate intracellular organism. -Not grow on artificial culture media.
Mode of transmission: 1.Air-borne transmission: through inhalation of the bacilli. 2.Indirect transmission: Clothes and sleeping mates . 3.Direct contact with skin.
Incubation period : 3-5 years . Classification of Leprosy : 1.Indeterminate leprosy. 2.Tuberculoid leprosy . 3.Border-line leprosy: i.Borderlinetuberculoid. ii.Borderline borderline. iii.Borderlinelepromatous. 4.Lepromatous leprosy
Clinical Picture : Indeterminate Leprosy : -Non-specific hypopigmented ill-defined macule having normal sensation. -Affecting mainly the face,extrmities or the trunk. Fate of indeterminate leprosy is disappearing or changing to tuberculoid or lepromatous leprosy.
Borderline Leprosy : Manifestation are in between the tuberculoidand lepromatous leprosy. If these are more towards tuberculoid = bordeerlinetuberculoid. If these are more towards lepromatous= borderline lepromatous.
Diagnosis: 1.History. 2.Symptoms and signs. 3.Bacteriological examination of smear from specific lesion=acid fast bacilli. 4.Skin biopsy. N.B: lepromin test is not diagnostic test but it determines theimmunological state of the patient to help in classifying the disease(tuberculoid or lepromatous).
Treatment: 1.Multiple drug therapy: i.Dapsone. ii.Rifampicin. Iii.Clofazimine. Duration of treatment depend on : A.type of leprosy. B.Disappearance of lepra bacilli from the skin smear. 2.treatment of complications.