Introduction to Embedded Systems
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Introduction to Embedded Systems

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this Session was for Shobra University

this Session was for Shobra University

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Introduction to Embedded Systems Introduction to Embedded Systems Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction To ES Mohamed Abd Elhay Copyright © 2012 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  •  Embedded Systems  Embedded Systems Applications  Embedded Systems Types  Memories  Embedded system developing  Embedded Systems Market in Egypt Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Copyright © 2014Embedded Systems Committee
  • •Embedded system is a special purpose system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions. • Embedded systems are computing systems with tightly coupled hardware and software integration. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • The Word “Embedded” reflects the fact that these systems are usually an integral part of a larger system, known as the embedding system. “A computer built into a system and not seen by the user as being a computer” It is usually Embedded as a part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Can Personal Computer be considered as an Embedded System as it integrates hardware and software to perform functions? Why? NO PC cannot be considered as an embedded system because 1. It uses a General-Purpose Processor 2. The system is built independently from the software runs on it. Else ATM machine Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Communication: Mobile Handsets Switches and Routers Image processing and Consumers: Cameras Mp3 and Mp4 players PlayStation Automotive: Engine Management System Claimant Control System Appliances: Microwave Washing Machines Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • 1) Microprocessors. 2) Microcontrollers. 3) DSPs. Copyright © 2012 Embedded Systems Committee
  • o CPU = ALU + Registers + Control unit o Microprocessor function is to fetch the instructions from the memory then decode and execute them. o Microprocessor alone is useless Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • CPU design divide into three parts: o The datapath does all of the actual data processing o A control unit uses the programmer’s instructions to tell the datapath what to do o An instruction set is the programmer’s interface to CPU Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Control Unit and Datapath Control Unit and Datapath Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • o The hardware part of the processor that performs the processing operations. o Contain from Three Parts: Computations Fast temporary storage Large memory storage ALU Register file RAM Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • o programs with the data-path : converts program instructions into control signals for data-path. Executes program instructions in the correct sequence. V C N Z Branch Control PC ADRS Instruction RAM OUT Instruction Decoder DA AA BA MB FS MD Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee WR
  • • CPU = ALU + Registers + Control unit Datapath Control Unit V C N Z D W R DA PC ADRS Instruction RAM Register file AA Branch Control A B B A constant 1 0 Mux B MB OUT Instruction Decoder DA AA B A MB FS MD W R FS V C N Z MW A ADRS B ALU MW Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee Data RAM OUT G 0 1 Mux D DATA MD
  • Harvard arch.: includes two memory units : o o o An instruction memory holds the program A separate data memory is used for computations The advantage is that we can read an instruction and load or store data in the same clock cycle Von Neumann arch.: includes one memory unit : o a single main memory that holds both program instructions and data Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • RISC CISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer Complex Instruction Set Computer optimize execution of instructions by single instruction limiting capabilities integrate several functionalities in one instruction The Compiler is simple as has wide verity of The compiler or programmer synthesizes complicated operations instructions to perform the complicate operation by combining several simple instructions. (ex: divide operation) Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • : RISC CISC simple operations that can each execute in a single cycle the instructions are often take many cycles to execute. have a large general-purpose register set. dedicated registers for specific purposes Any register can handle with ALU dedicated registers specific for ALU operation ALU can‟t deal with Memory directly ALU can deal with memory directly Due to Memory accesses are costly : the core can operate at higher clock frequencies. and operate at lower clock frequencies Separate load and store instructions transfer data between the register bank and external memory are needed to all ALU operations Separate load and store instructions transfer data between the register bank and external memory aren’t needed to all ALU operations Copyright Helps to pipeline execution of instructions © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • : • Microcontroller = CPU + Memory + Peripherals •Designed for standalone operation. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • : Microcontroller Main Components Microcontroller has eight main components: 1. Central processing unit (CPU) 2. ROM 3. RAM 4. Input and Output (GPIO or DIO) 5. Timer 6. Interrupt circuitry 7. Buses 8. Watchdog Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • • Like microcontrollers BUT Focus on very efficient execution of arithmetic operations. • DSP has : o specialized arithmetic units, o optimized design in the memory, o Addressing and bus architectures with multiprocessing capability that allow the DSP to perform complex calculations extremely fast in real time. • Used widely in digital signal processing in communications systems such as Cell phones and Image and video processing. • TI (Texas Instruments) has been the dominant player in the DSP market for several years. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Multi-core system on chip Like mobile handset which has one chip contains: o DSP processor o Embedded processors like ARM o Custom hardware for GSM o Custom peripherals for board interface (keyboard, touch screen, memory card interface) Copyright © 2014Embedded Systems Committee
  • 1-Program Memory MROM • • • • Masked ROM Programmed by the manufacturer. The term „masked‟ comes from the manufacturing process In case of a large-scale production, the price is very low. PROM • • • • Programmable rom Also called One time programmable ROM enables programmer to download a program into it one time only. If an error is detected after downloading, the only thing you can do is to download the correct program to another chip. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • 1-Program Memory UV EPROM • UV Erasable Programmable ROM • It enables data to be erased under strong ultraviolet light. • After a few minutes it is possible to download a new program. EEPROM • ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE ROM • can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge Flash Memory • • • • Invented in the 80s in the laboratories of INTEL Represented as the successor to the UV EPROM. Can be written and cleared practically an unlimited number of times, most microcontrollers are manufactured in flash technology. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • 2-Data Memory SRAM: • Static random access memory • uses multiple transistors, typically four to six, for each memory cell • doesn't have a capacitor in each cell. DRAM: • Dynamic random access memory • has memory cells with a paired transistor and capacitor requiring constant refreshing. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Trade off between HW and SW For a certain application o Which functional blocks should be performed in Hardware?? o Which functional blocks should be performed in software?? Copyright © 2014Embedded Systems Committee
  • Software characteristics o Highly configurable o Shorter development cycle o Easier in versions updates o Cheaper o Constrained with processor speed which may satisfy real time application and may not Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Hardware characteristics o Longer development cycle o Customized for specific application o Better performance in high speed real time application Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • SYSTEM ON BOARD Board Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • SYSTEM ON CHIP Keyboard controller LCD controller USB interface CPU Memories Customized hardware ASIC Chip Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • HW / SW Partitioning • In complicated systems functional blocks could be: o Level 1: External discrete hardware component on board. o Level 2: Hardware integrated with CPU on chip (SoC). o Level 3: Done by software running on CPU. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • “Those systems in which the correctness of the system depends not only on the logical result of the computation, but also on the time at which the results are produced” Real Time Systems are a very fast systems? Real-time means completing tasks within specified deadlines, it is not defined or limited by a specific execution speed. Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • System Development Cycle 1. System Specification Analysis 2. System Design 3. Development  Hardware Development  Software Development 4. System Integration 5. System Validation Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Software Development Cycle 1-Software Specification 2-Software Design 3-Coding / Testing 4-Software Integration 5-Software Validation Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • 1- Assembly a-Lowest level human readable b-Platform specific. c-Assembly has one-to-one corresponding machine language d-Using compiler to convert High Level language to Assembly 2-C Language Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • References • ESC Training Team Copyright © 2014 Embedded Systems Committee
  • info@escommittee.net Copyright © 2012 Embedded Systems Committee