The Effectiveness of PQ4R to improve Vocabulary Proviciency on Reading Skills for Slow Learners (An Experimental Study at Third Year Students of St Xaverius Elementary School in Semarang) By: Hino Yudistira A4C009026
OUTLINEI. INTRODUCTIONII. LITERARY REVIEWIII. RESEARCH METHODIV. FINDING AND DISCUSSIONV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
I. INTRODUCTION Teacher WHY?Fast Learners Slow Learners Average Learners WHAT?
1. The school’s requirement to enter the elementary school only based on school age.2. There is no standardized test or psychological test for preschool students who wants to continue their study to elementary school
Children are unique, especially inhow they learn about theirenvironments and how they gatherinformation in their early stage oftheir life.
The Objective of Research The main purpose is to create a learning strategy that suitable with the students
The main purpose is to create a learning strategy that suitable with the students2. Is PQ4R learning method more effective to improve students’ vocabulary in their reading skill?
II. Literary ReviewA. Previous ResearchMost early studies dealt with PQ4R in other content areas outside thelanguage field such as psychology and science. One of the researcheswas Suhlan (2007), who studied on Pengunaan Metode Elaborasimelalui metode PQ4R pada mata Pelajaran Pendidikan AgamaIslam. He used qualitative approach in the study because he wanted toanalyze the use of PQ4R method.The result of the Suhlan’ research showed that the subject scoreincrease from 71.75 on the pretest into 79.99 on the first treatmentand it became 83.15 on the second treatment and on the thirdtreatment increase, it became 87.20. From the result, it can beconcluded that the use of PQ4R method can increase students’achievement.
Gardners Theory of multiple intelligences Gardner listed seven intelligences: • linguistic, • logic-mathematical, • musical, • spatial, • bodily/kinesthetic, • interpersonal and • intrapersonal.
• “slow learner” is not about abnormal children, but it is about students who have difficulties in learning or to understand about the lesson in the school.
The characteristics of Slow Learners • First, slow learners are frequently immature in their relations with others and do poorly in school. • Secondly, they cannot do complex problems and work very slowly. • They lose track of time and cannot transfer what they have learned from one task to another well. • They do not easily master skills that are academic in nature, such as the time tables or spelling rules. • Perhaps the most frustrating trait is their inability to have long-term goals. They live in the present, and so have significant problems with time management probably due to a short attention span and poor concentration skills.Alan Haskvitz
LISTENING SPEAKING Four Basic S k i l l sREADING WRITING
• The focus of the reading skill is how the reader understands about the meaning on the text that is why the vocabularies knowledge to interpret words is very important”. The researcher has an opinion that by teach the slow learner students to memorize the vocabularies by using things around them is regarded to be much helpful.
Reading Skills Definition Harmer (1998: 70) states “reading is an incredibly active occupation. It is not passive skill. Readers have to understand what the words mean.” Williams (1989) states “reading is a process whereby one looks at and understanding what has been written
The Importance of Reading The reader can understand the meaning of the words in the text so they can catch the text or the story in general by guessing, although they do not understand the whole text or the story proficientlySome reading strategies• Skimming• Scanning• Guessing and making inference• Using imaginary• Taking notes.• Translating• Associating/ Elaborating• Knowing the purpose of reading• Placing new words into a context• Asking questions .
Vocabulary Definition • Chad (1969,535) states “vocabulary is an alphabetical list of words with explanation; ranged of words employed”. • Oxford (1990, 1331) states “vocabulary is the total number of words in a language”.
Teaching Vocabulary • Creating sense of need for a word. • Showing the meanings of words method • Drawing attention to meanings before drilling words. • A look at a textbook lesson
PQ4R (Preview, Question, Reading, Reflect, Recite, Review) LearningMethod. PQ4R was developed from Francis Robinson’s theory of Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review (SQ3R) Learning Method in 1941. PQ4R learning method is a teaching learning concept which helps teacher relates their teaching materials to be presented with their students, so it can improve the students’ achievement. PQ4R learning method represents one part of elaborate method. Elaborate method is used to assist students to remember what they read, and help them to remember the materials especially on vocabulary.
III. RESEARCH METHOD •The research was conducted at St. Xaverius elementary school Semarang in 2010/2011 Academic Year. •There were 13 girls and 17 boys as the subject of this research. •The subject of the research was chosen by using purposive sample method •This research is an experimental research by using quantitative approach in analysis. •The quantitative data were gained from the students’ test which was taken from pre test, post test and follow up test.
Slow Learners Identification Procedures • Collecting the data through observation • Interview the teacher and the headmaster. • Read the students’ mark report. • Analyzed the data • Decide which students were suitable with the characteristic of slow learners and which students who were not according to the relevant theories.
Research Design Experiment Group Experiment Group In the beggining of experiment In the end of experiment treatment Non Experiment Group Experiment Group In the beggining of experiment In the end of experiment compared
Procedure of the Research • The researcher selected the participants from the population of class IIIA and IIIB, by reading the report of the students when they were still on the second grade. • The researcher consolidated with the other CLT teachers who handled the students based on their report. • The teacher consolidated with the school teacher about the list of students that were going to be the subject of the research. • The researcher conducted the pre-test to find out the mean of pre-test. • Homogeneity test was conducted by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) program. • The teacher started to teach using PQ4R method for experimental group and expository method for control group. • The result of post-test and follow up were taken and calculated to find out the mean of post-test and the follow up test. • The researcher compared the mean of pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test by using t-test to find out whether there was difference of vocabulary test achievement or not for the student taught using PQ4R learning method and expository method or not.
Preview•Ask the students to follow theteacher’s voices and scan the difficultwords.•For example: –Good morning –Good afternoon –Good evening –Good night
Question (Ask about informative question)• Can anyone tell Mr.Hino what is (good morning, good night, good evening, good afternoon) in bahasa?• What do you find in the morning, afternoon, in the evening and at night?
• Ask the students to make question from the topic.• For example the topic is about “Farm”• Student A: What is this?• Student B: This is a/an ……
ReadThe writer use story bookentitled “The New Fun withDick and Jane”.The purpose is to make thestudents actively read the textand give response to thequestion and the text that theyhave read.
Reflect• Can you mention what do you see there?• How is the sound if kangaroo jump?• What cat looks like?• What is the color of zebra?
ReciteThe researcher gives Does it eat people?the students a game Type of activity:that relate to the Pair work, arrangingtopic, we can use Function practiced: Asking about habitthe same material. Structures: Does it (fly)? Yes, it does/ No, it doesn’t Topic area: Animal Essential vocabulary: Eat, swim, fly, jump, bite, grass Meat, water, milk, wool Note: the name of the animal is essential for playing game
Material and Preparation HOW TO USE THE GAME 1. Give 8 cards to student A and B randomly. 2. Put a tape on the back of each cards. 3. Ask the student A to put on student B’s back. 4. Student B ask by use the animal’s characteristic “Does it (fly, eat meat, swim, etc)?” Student A answer yes it does or No. it does not. Until Student B can guest the name of the animal.
Review•Ask the students to read again the text materialbefore the class over, make them stand in line andask them about the topic before they get out fromthe class.
IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS Based on the theory and after analyzing between the pre-test and post-test, there were difference and improvement on the experiment group’s report compare with the control group with the same material using expository teaching method.
Experimental Group’s Score and Result The average score of experimental group in pretest was 65.27, while it showed an improvement in the posttest (73.47). The average score of follow up result showed slight decrease from posttest (73.47) to the follow up test (73.27). There was 0.20 point decreasing on the experimental group. From the result, it is seen that PQ4R method turns out to improve the slow learner students’ achievement on their reading skills, especially on their vocabulary skill because the follow up average score of experimental group, because most of the slow learners in experimental group could increase their score.
Control Group’s Score and Result The control group’s average score on pretest, posttest, and follow up showed improvement on pretest (64.20) to posttest (66.00), however the average score of follow up test on the control group decrease from 66.00 (posttest) to 65.20 (follow up test). The slow learners on control group could maintain their score or to improve their vocabulary proficiency. It was proven on the follow up test, because most of the students could not increase their score or they could maintain their score on their posttest score.
• The experimental group’s average improves higher than the control group. The increasing can be seen from the table below. Group Pretest Posttest Follow Up Control 64.20 66.00 65.20 Experimental 62.27 73.47 73.27
A Comparison between Pre-test and Post-test Score of Control Group and Experimental Group 76 73,47 73,27 74 72 70 68 66,00 66 65,27 65,20 64 64,20 62 60 58 Pretest Posttest Follow Up Experim ental Group Control Group
Conclusion and Suggestion Based on the result and discussion on the previous chapter, the researcher concludes that: 1. There is significant difference of vocabulary skills achievement of control group and experimental class. 2. Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review (PQ4R) learning method turns out to be capable to improve the slow learners in memorizing the lesson and it gave effect on slow learners’ achievement of vocabulary skills better than expository method. 3. Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review (PQ4R) learning method turns out to be more effective to teach the slow learners students.
Suggestion From the conclusion above, the writer proposes some suggestions for those who concern on the slow learners or the field of study. They are: – Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review (PQ4R) method can be applied as one of the methods to teach slow learner students since it is effective in practice to improve the students’ achievement than by using expository method. – For the future research, Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review (PQ4R) method can be applied not only to teach vocabulary skills on reading skill, but also on other language skills, such as listening, writing, and speaking. – The teacher should conduct some research on how to use Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review (PQ4R) method to teach their students, especially the slow learners.
The Affectivity Teaching Model Level of involvement 10% Reading 20% Hearing words Passive 30% Looking at picture Watching a video 50% Looking at an exhibit Watching a demonstration Seeing in done on location Participating in discussion 70% Giving a talk active Doing a dramatic presentation 90% Simulating the real experience Doing the real thing