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Context clues

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    Context clues Context clues Presentation Transcript

    • USING CONTEXT CLUES DEVELOPMENTAL READING
    • CONTEXT CLUES -Context clues are hints found within a sentence, paragraph, or passage that a reader can use to understand the meanings of new or unfamiliar words.
    • Thereareseveraldifferenttypesofcontextclues. Someofthemare: 1.DEFINITION/DESCRIPTIONCLUE Thenewtermmaybeformallydefined,orsufficient explanationmaybegivenwithinthesentenceorin thefollowingsentence.Cluestodefinitioninclude “thatis,”commas,dashes,andparentheses. Thisisanoutrightexplanationofthemeaningofa wordbyintroducinganddescribingitwithinthe samecontext.
    • Example: The cornea is the transparent outer coating of the eyeball. 2. SYNONYM /RESTATEMENT CLUE  The reader may discover the meaning of an unknown word because it repeats an idea expressed in familiar words nearby.  Synonyms are words with the same meaning. Example: “The slender woman was so thin her clothes were too big on her”.
    • 3. SIMILE  Is a figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by employing the words "like" or "as" (also "if" and "than", although these are not common) Example: The boy’s eyes glistened like the bright stars in the sky. 4. EXAMPLE CLUE  Sometimes when a reader finds a new word, an example might be found nearby that helps to explain its meaning. Words like including, such as, and for example, point out example clues.
    • Example:  Piscatorial creatures, such as flounder, salmon, and trout, live in the coldest parts of the ocean.  “Piscatorial” obviously refers to fish. 5. APPOSITION CLUE  An appositive is a descriptive word, phrase, or clause placed beside the unknown word and is often enclosed. Example:  An ecologist, a scientist who specializes in the relationship between living things and their environment, is likely to have authoritative opinion on the problem of pollution versus man’s survival.
    • 6. CONTRAST / ANTONYM CLUE  Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. An opposite meaning context clue contrasts the meaning of an unfamiliar word with the meaning of a familiar term. Words like “although,” “however,” and “but” may signal contrast clues. Example:  Lynne is calm but her mother’s anxiety over trivial things sometimes makes her tense.
    • 7. INFERENCE CLUE  To infer is to reach an opinion based on the given facts. It involves making a conclusion as a result of reasoning.  Sufficient clues might be available for the careful reader to make an educated guess at the meaning. Example:  When you see that the sky is gray, you can infer that it is likely to rain while in the observation.
    • 8. ANALYSIS OR STRUCTURE CLUE  Many words are made of word parts which give direct clues to meaning.The word parts (roots, affixes)  The power of word parts lies in the ability to combine the roots and affixes with the context in which a word is used to discover the author’s meaning.
    • Example:  The story is incredible.  The root cred means “to believe,’ and the prefix it means “not.” Therefore, if a story is incredible, it is unbelievable.