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Personality development public relationDocument Transcript
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC RELATIONPersonality can be defined as the enduring personal characteristics of anindividual. Bradshaw defines an individuals personality as an aggregateconglomeration of decisions that a person has made throughout their lives. Apersonality is developed by inherent natural, genetic and environmental factors.Hereditary factors are said to contribute to personality development as a resultof the way in which people interact with the particular social environments inwhich they reside.Notable theories on personality development that you might be interested inlearning more about include:• Jean Piagets Stages of Development• Erik Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development• Sigmund Freuds theories about the interaction of id, ego and super ego• Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers personalities typology tests• Carl Jungs school of Analytical PsychologyBy contrast, public relations is not an inherent amalgamation of personality.Instead it can be viewed as an art or social science that is mainly concernedwith enhancing and maintaining the image of a business, organization, event orindividual (for instance politicians and celebrities) amongst the public.In the modern day, public relations is a multi-million dollar industry. In the United
States alone there are around 21,000 people employed in the public relations(PR) sector.Public relations is used in order to build a rapport with employees, investors,customers, voters or members of the general public. Any individual ororganization that has a stake in the way in which it is portrayed in public willmostly likely employ some kind of public relations strategy in order to help thembe looked upon as favorably as possible in public.
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTAn individuals personality is an aggregate conglomeration of the decisions they havemade throughout their life and the memory of the experiences to which these decisionsled. There are inherent natural, genetic, and environmental factors that contribute tothe development of our personality. According to process of socialization, "personalityalso colors our values, beliefs, and expectations ... Hereditary factors that contribute topersonality development do so as a result of interactions with the particular socialenvironment in which people live." There are several personality types as KatharineCook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers illustrated in several personalities typology tests,which are based on Carl Jungs school of Analytical psychology. However, these testsonly provide enlightenment based on the preliminary insight scored according to theanswers judged by the parameters of the test.EXAMPLES InfancyDuring the first two years of life, an infant goes through the first stage: LearningBasic Trust or Mistrust (Hope). Well-nurtured and loved, the infant develops trustand security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, the infant becomes insecureand learns "basic mistrust." ToddlerhoodThe second stage occurs during early childhood, between about 18 months totwo years and three to four years of age. It deals with Learning Autonomy orShame (Will). Well-parented, the child emerges from this stage with self-confidence, elated with his or her newly found control. The early part of thisstage can also include stormy tantrums, stubbornness, and negativism,depending on the childs temperament. PreschoolThe third stage occurs during the "play age," or the later preschool years fromabout three to entry into formal school. The developing child goes throughLearning Initiative or Guilt (Purpose). The child learns to use imagination; tobroaden skills through active play and fantasy; to cooperate with others; and tolead as well as to follow. If unsuccessful, the child becomes fearful, is unable tojoin groups, and harbors guilty feelings. The child depends excessively on adultsand is restricted both in the development of play skills and in imagination.
School AgeThe fourth stage, Learning Industry or Inferiority (Competence), occurs duringschool age, up to and possibly including junior high school. The child learns tomaster more formal skills: relating with peers according to rules progressing from free play to play that is structured by rules and requires teamwork (team sports) learning basic intellectual skills (reading, arithmetic) Adolescence The fifth stage, Learning Identity or Identity Diffusion (Fidelity), occurs during adolescence from age 13 or 14. Maturity starts developing during this time; the young person acquires self-certainty as opposed to self- doubt and experiments with different constructive roles rather than adopting a negative identity, such as delinquency. The well-adjusted adolescent actually looks forward to achievement, and, in later adolescence, clear sexual identity is established. The adolescent seeks leadership (someone to inspire him or her), and gradually develops a set of ideals to live by. The Child Development Institute (CDI) rightfully points out that very little knowledge is available on the type of specific environment that will result, for example, in traits of trust being more developed in a persons personality. Helping the child through the various stages of emotional and personality development is a complex and difficult task. Searching for the best ways of accomplishing this task accounts for most of the research carried out in the field of child development today. Common ProblemsInfants who are just a few weeks old display differences between each other inhow active they are, how responsive they are to change, and how irritable theyare. Some infants cry constantly while others seem happy and stay fairly quiet.Child development research conducted by the CDI has identified ninetemperamental traits that may contribute to a childs personality developmentbeing challenging or difficult: activity level (how active the child is generally) distractibility (degree of concentration and paying attention when the child is not particularly interested) intensity (how loud the child is) regularity (the predictability of biological functions like appetite and sleep)
sensory threshold (how sensitive the child is to physical stimuli: touch, taste, smell, sound, light) approach/withdrawal (characteristic responses of a child to a new situation or to strangers) adaptability (how easily the child adapts to transitions and changes such as switching to a new activity) persistence (stubbornness, inability to give up) mood (tendency to react to the world primarily in a positive or negative way)Temperamental traits are enduring personality characteristics that are neither"good" nor "bad." Early on, parents can work with the childs temperamentaltraits rather than oppose them. Later, as the child grows up, parents can helpthe child to adapt to his or her own world in spite of inborn temperament. Parental ConcernsMost children experience healthy personality development. However, someparents worry as to whether their infant, child, or teenager has a personalitydisorder. Parents are usually the first to recognize that their child has a problemwith emotions or behaviors that may point to a personality disorder.Children with personality disorders have great difficulty dealing with otherpeople. They tend to be inflexible, rigid, and unable to respond to the changesand normal stresses of life and find it very difficult to participate in socialactivities. When these characteristics are present in a child to an extreme, whenthey are persistent and when they interfere with healthy development, adiagnostic evaluation with a licensed physician or mental health professional isrecommended. When to Call the DoctorParents who suspect that their child has a personality disorder should seekprofessional help. It is a very important first step in knowing for sure whether thereis a disorder, and if so, what treatment can best help the child. Child andadolescent psychiatrists are trained to help parents sort out whether their childspersonality development is normal.
PUBLIC RELATIONPublic relations involves the cultivation of favorable relations fororganizations and products with its key publics through the use of avariety of communications channels and tools. Traditionally, thismeant public relations professionals would work with members of thenews media to build a favorable image by publicizing theorganization or product through stories in print and broadcastmedia. But today the role of public relations is much broader andincludes: building awareness and a favorable image for a company or client within stories and articles found in relevant media outlets closely monitoring numerous media channels for public comment about a company and its products managing crises that threaten company or product image building goodwill among an organization‟s target market through community, philanthropic and special programs and eventsIIThe profession or practice of creating and maintaining goodwill ofan organizations various publics (customers, employees, investors,suppliers, etc.), usually through publicity and other nonpaid forms ofcommunication. These efforts may also include support of arts,charitable causes, education, sporting events, and other civicengagements.
EXAMPLES While the goal of public relations is often described as the promotionof a feeling of goodwill towards a particular person or organization,the seasoned public relations professional works to influencebehaviors as well. Common goals of public relations efforts include: Motivate new behavior Modify negative behavior Reinforce existing positive behaviorWhen developing a public relations plan, the public relationsspecialist typically follows a six step process. 1. Research : Preliminary research helps the professional understand the variables within the case. 2. Strategic planning : Data must be worked into a comprehensive plan of action that answers all key questions. 3. Counseling : Experienced public relations professionals understand the importance of seeking input from others before implementing a plan. 4. Internal education: Everyone affected by the plan must be informed of what steps will be taken. 5. Action: The plan must be carried out, with careful notes taken to document progress. 6. Evaluation: Determining if the plan was successful helps develop a course of action for future public relations efforts.
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