Mexicanos: a history of mexicans in the united states By: Miryam Hernandez
The book Occupied America: The Chicano’s Struggle toward Liverationby Rodolfo Acuna published in 1972 provides an insight on Mexica American History. Acuna was able to easily talk about conflict and racial discrimination in his book. The book exposed inequality between Mexicans and Americans in the United States which was one of the causes of so many injustices I the early 1970s. Insight on mexicanamerica history
Distinctions created by…. Geography Race Gender Class status Language Historic events Mexican-american communities
To provide a balanced view of the Mexican experience as a Mexican citizen, immigrant and American citizen. To provide the reader with Mexicans who changed the history of Mexico. To help the reader understand the difference between Mexican, Chicano/a and Mestizo. Goals of Manuel g. gonzales
Spaniards and native americansprehistory-1521
Spaniard history in the early 1500s They are a product of multiplicity of cultures. Spanish Portuguese Europe Italian
Christopher Columbus, an Italian became known as one of the most famous Spanish explorers.
The amerindians in the early 1500s Cultivated may crops such as beans, squash, tomatoes, avocados, potatoes and pumpkins. They lived off the land and were not aware that other places existed. They excelled in the arts and sciences. They had slaves captured from other tribes during battle.
The conquest of mexico Hernan Cortes defeated Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc on August 13, 1521. The 1520 epidemic killed may inhabitants which helped the Spaniards easily take over the land and eventually expand. Marriages between Natives and Spaniards was encouraged to civilize the Natives.
The spanish frontier1521-1821
Spanish exploration of the far north and settlement of new mexico Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca accidentally discovered the American Southwest. In 1540 Vasquez de Coronado discovered a desert land we now call the state of Arizona. The great Pueblo Revolt of 1680 killed may settlers by the hands of villagers. By 1680 the Spanish rebuilt their towns and began to expand.
Settlement of the northern frontier beyond new mexico In 1560 the Spanish conquered the Philippines which successfully created a trade route between the islands and New Spain. After the Seven Years’ War, in 1763 the Spanish acquired Louisiana. Juan Bautista de Anza began populating what is now known as San Francisco. By 1781 the Spanish population of Alta California was slowly increasing.
Major trends Between 1785-1786 Indians died of smallpox, had difficulty living in a hostile environment, and had limited food, especially in Texas. After the Treaty of Paris in 1783 also known as the independence from England, Americans began an interest in expanding to the Pacific. American interest in expanding was mostly for trade interest.
The mexican far north 1821-1848
Mexican independence, California and new Mexico In 1848 Mexican won its independence from Spain. During the 1800s many people owned ranches. American traders began to protest against Governor Armijo (governor of New Mexico) regarding heavy trading fees. The Catholic religion was strong during this time.
Arizona, Texas and the clash of cultures Arizona and Texas suffered a decline in population in 1829. According to Arnoldo De Leon racial animosity of Texans towards Mexicans began occur by 1836. By the mid-1840s a large number of immigrants began to arrive.
The Texas revolt and the Mexican war On March 6, 1836 General Santa Anna and his army attacked at a old Fraciscan mission in San Antonio. A month after General Santa Anna’s victory, Texas won its independence. Texas made an attempt to invade New Mexico. On April 23, 1846 Mexico declared war on the United States.
The american southwest1848-1900
Gringos and greasers, California and Arizona Prejudice against Mexicans and Americans increased during the conflict over land ownership. July 5, 1851 the first woman was lynched in the State of California which caused the term “greaser” to be a racial discrimination factor. In 1848 Mexicans signed the Treaty of Guadalupe. Due to the treaty many Mexicans resided in Arizona.
New mexico The Hispanic during the 1840s was broke down into two groups; rich and poor. In the 1850s the Mescaleros ad the Navajo were forced to the Bosque Redondo reservation at Fort Sumner in eastern New Mexico by the American cavalry. In 1892 Francisco Chavez, a Democratic political leader was assassinated.
texas Texas entered the union in 1845. Tejanos fought for rights. The Chihuahua trade was affected after the Mexican-American war. By the 1890s El Paso became the major America port of entry from Mexico. Immigrants arriving from Chihuahua and Sonora were educated.
The great migration1900-1930
Motives for Mexican Immigration, the Mexican Revolution and the Economic Development of the southwest Reed-Johnson Immigration Act of 1924 was passed to regulate immigration. In February 1915, an attempt to overthrow U.S. rule and reclaim the Southwest was initiated in southern Texas. Mexican population greatly increased between 1900-1930.
The Immigrant, the contratista and rural life After the postwar depression (1921-1922) was over, labor needs were soaring in the Southwest of the United States. Labor contractors also known as Contratistas brought labor abuse within the Mexican community by charging immigrants extra fees for boarding, travel and anything they could think of for profit. Mexicans lived in secluded rural areas.
Mexicans Beyond the Southwest and Mexican and European Immigration: a Comparison By the 1920s Mexican sugar beet workers moved into other Rocky Mountain States such as Utah and Idaho. In 1929 federal legislation made it a felony to enter the United States illegally. The difference between European migration and Mexican migration is based on physical discrimination.
The depression, Urbanization, and urbanization in the midwest The New York stock exchange on October 29, 1929 also known as the Great Depression The barrio population in East Los Angeles had overcrowded housing. By 1930 approximately 58,000 Mexicans resided in the Midwest. All immigrants feared economic competition against other groups.
The “Mexican problem”, repatriation, and the dust bowl migration Groups such as the Ku Klux Klan expressed their opposition against Mexicans residing in the United States. Due to the racial segregations and government reaction towards Mexican immigration, many Mexicans in the United States returned to their homeland. Agricultural employment grew 63.6 between 1935 and 1940 areas like Bakersfield and Kern County.
Labor strife and Mexican women and the labor movement The Western Federation of Miners (WFM), the only mining union and its members included Mexicans and other immigrants. American employers prefer Mexican immigrant workers because Mexican workers prefer to do an honest day’s job for an honest day’s pay. Women labor leaders like Lucy Gozales Parsons had a great impact on Mexican labor unions and women in society.
The second world war and its aftermath1940-1965 LULAC FOUNDERS
Mexicans In the military and urbanization: trials and tribulations Mexicans participated in World War I and World War II. Veteran benefits offered Mexicans education opportunities, job training and the right to own a home. Pachuchos also known as “zoot-suiters” first appeared in El Paso. They were caught between society trend and old fashion Mexican traditions.
The bracero program and operation wetback Labor unions began to defend the right of Mexican immigrants against the bracero program. Wetbacks are commonly known as undocumented workers or fence-jumpers. The Operation Wetback was a campaign program initiated by INS to deport undocumented Mexicans in 1954. During the 1950s most undocumented workers were men.
The mexicanamerican generation and the mexican-american intelligentsia 1987 Educational Equality in Texas, Mexican children were segregated into “Mexican” schools. 1945 Mendez et al. v. Westmister School District of Orange country (1947), suit filed by parents of a Mexican student. The Democratic vote was large due to the Mexican community. Carlos Eduardo Castaneda, Arthur Leon Campa ad George I. Sanchez were the first Mexicans that helped shape Mexican-American intellectual culture in the United States.
THE CHICANO MOVEMEnt1965-1975
The Mexican community In the mid-sixties, origins of the chicano movement and chavez, huerta and the United farmworkers Mexican children were graduating High School by seventy five percent in the 1960s. Because of the black civil rights movement, it helped Mexicans to begin their own rights movement campaigns. Cesar Chavez began the Mexican rights movement in 1964. Dolores Fernandez Huerta formed alliance with Chavez to fight for farm workers rights.
The Delano strike, other early chicano leaders and the chicano student movement Chavez’s boycott of union grapes (1968-1975) Reies Lopez Tijerina, the son of migrant farm laborers, he and his supporters ivaded the courthouse at Tierra Amarilla to free jailed Alianza members and make a citizens’ arrest of local district attorey. March 3, 1968 Los Angeles student strike consisted of High School staff and Mexican students demanding a better school system.
The chicano movement in the community, the chicana movement, the decline of chicanismoand the chicano legacy August 29, 1970 thirty thousand people gathered at Laguna Park to protest U.S. involvement in Vietnam and the disproportionate loss of Latino lives in the war. The Chicana movement based their focus on women's rights. Because immigrants became more focused in earning a living and employment opportunities, Mexican civil rights became unimportant the decline of Chicanismo began. Chavez will remain the leader of the labor Mexican movement.
Pain and promise1975-1998
Demographics, immigration and the north american free trade agreement By 1990 about ninety percent of the Mexican population in the United States was urban, a higher percentage than the population at large according to the U.S. Census Bureau. 1996 eight percent of the Mexican population lived in poverty. Mexican immigrants were no only being deported but also arrested for falsifying immigration documents. The North American Free Trade Agreement (FAFTA) legislated into effect on January 1, 1994.
The decade of the hispanic: the unfulfilled promise, mexicancatholicism and feminista: the second generation By the late 1990s Mexican vote became the largest most important Decomat vote. Mexican women were becoming the head of household by the 1990s. Gangs in Los Angeles became a huge problem not only for California but for the Mexican culture which hurt the Mexican community alliance and created a stereotype that all Mexicans were part of a gang. About nine percent of Mexicans were infected with the AIDS virus in 1990. The second generation feministas were given more rights by the end of the 1900s, thus creating their own movement and support groups.
The chicano renaissance Peter Rodriguez a famous muralist founded the Mexican Museum in San Francisco in 1972. There were many Mexican musicians. Ritchie Valence (Ricardo Valenzuela) born to migrant workers open doors for many other Mexican musicians like Selena. The pursuit for Chicano rights gave way to other groups such as Cubans to pursue the same American dream.