Module 4
ORGANIZING THE ACTIVITIES OF
SALES MANAGERS AND SALES PEOPLE
11
C a m p b e ll's O ld S a le s O r g a n iz a t io n
D iv is io n M a n a g e r s
D is t r ic t M a n a g e r s
A c c o u ...
C a m p b e ll's N e w S a le s O r g a n iz a t io n
R e g io n a l M a n a g e r s
S u p e r v is o r s
S a le s R e p s...
Purposes of sales organization
An organizational structure is an arrangement of activities
involving a group of people. Th...
An organizational structure should serve 3 purposes:
a. Activities should be divided and arranged in such a
way that the f...
Horizontal structure of the sales force
The first issue to be decided concerning the organization of the
sales force is wh...
ECONOMIC METHOD OF DETERMINING IF
OUTSIDE
AGENTS ARE APPROPRIATE
In a given selling situation, a company sales force and i...
Sales Volume
Selling
Cost
Total
Cost of
Agents
Total
Cost of
Sales
Force
Variable
Cost of
Sales
Force
Fixed
Cost of
Sales
...
Example:
A company is faced with a planning decision of
whether to use a company sales force or outside agents.
It estimat...
CONTROL AND STRATEGIC CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING
IF A COMPANY SALES FORCE SHOULD BE USED
Managers argue that internal sales ...
Horizontal Sales Force Organizational Structures
If the organization decides that it needs its own sales force, it will
ha...
G eographic S pecialization
C entral R egional Sales M anager
C onnecticut and R hode Island M aine
N ew H am pshire V erm...
Geographic organization
The assignment of individual sales people to separate
geographic territories.
Strengths:
1. Low co...
ProductSpecialization
Central Regional Sales Manager
Dictation Equipment Salesperson Typewriter Salesperson
Programmable C...
Product Organization
Separate sales forces for each product (or related group of
products) in their product assortment.
St...
CustomerSpecialization
Central Regional Sales Manager
Salesperson for Schools and Colleges Salesperson for Bank Customers
...
Customer Organization
Organizing the sales force by customer type.
Strengths:
1. Better understanding of customer needs.
2...
Organizing by Selling Function
Such as having one sales force specializing in
prospecting for and developing new accounts ...
Organizing to serve national or key accounts
Key accounts are large accounts. Key accounts need more service
than smaller ...
Rely on regular sales force members.
Advantage:
No additional administrative or selling expense.
Disadvantage:
Major accou...
Assign key accounts to sales executives.
Advantage:
Important customers are serviced by people high in the
organization wh...
A separate key account division.
Advantage:
Allows for the close integration of functional areas.
Disadvantage:
a. Duplica...
A separate sales force for major accounts.
Advantages:
a. Account managers can become familiar with
their customers needs ...
ALLOCATING SELLING EFFORT AND
DESIGNING SALES TERRITORIES
2424
In this section we are concerned with allocating selling effort
across our accounts, determining how many salespeople will...
Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts
The allocation of selling effort across accounts deals with the
question “How mu...
Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts:
Single Factor Models
Single factor models classify all accounts based on one va...
Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts:
Single Factor Models
We could establish guidelines for the number of calls that...
Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts:
Portfolio Models
Portfolio models go one step further than single factor models...
Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts:
Portfolio Models
Competitive Position
Strong Weak
AccountOpportunity
LowHigh
Ve...
Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts:
Decision Models
Decision models rely on past, historical data to develop a
regr...
Three methods are widely used to calculate the size of the sales
force:
1. The Incremental Method
2. The Breakdown Method
...
Determining Sales Force Size:
The Incremental Method
The basic premise underlying the incremental method of determining
sa...
3434
Sales Revenue = $1,000,000 √x
X
# of Sales People
$
Cost of Sales Force = $100,000x
$
Profit = $1,000,000 √x - $100,0...
3535
Example Problem:
Yearly revenue generated by the sales force is subject to the
Law of Diminishing Returns such that:
...
3636
Profit (π) = Revenue – Cost
Profit (π) = $1,000,000 √x - $100,000 xSolution
XX
5.
=
The simplest way to calculate the optimal sales force
size is the breakdown method .
The breakdown method assumes that all...
Example:
A firm forecasts total sales of $10 million for the coming year. If
each sales person is capable of producing $25...
Advantages:
1. Simple.
Disadvantages:
1. No allowance for sales person turnover.
2. Assumes each sales rep has equal produ...
The Workload Method is based on an equal
workload for all sales people.
To find the number of sales people needed,
managem...
(1) Classify customers and prospects into groups according
to the amount of work required to service that group (usually
b...
The workload method consists of the following steps:
(1) Classify customers and prospects into groups
according to the amo...
(2) Determine the number of sales calls an account should
receive per year and the desired length of these calls. These
es...
(3) Calculate the total amount of selling effort required to
serve the entire market. The number of accounts in each categ...
Determining Sales Force Size:
The Workload Method
(4) Estimate the time available per sales person. The average hours
work...
Determining Sales Force Size:
The Workload Method
(5) Allocate the time available per salesperson by the function
s/he per...
Determining Sales Force Size:
The Workload Method
(6) Determine the sales force size by dividing the total workload
hours ...
The territory design process strives to make all territories equal
with respect to the amount of sales potential they cont...
The Sales Territory Design Process
Select the
Basic Control
Unit
Examine the
Market Potential
In Each Control
Unit
Combine...
Routing and Scheduling Sales Person Travel
Once territories have been defined, sales management needs to
Route and schedul...
Routing Sales Person Travel
Routing is the geographic pattern that sales people follow
in order to cover their territory.
...
Routing Sales Person Travel
Since daily or weekly travel routes tend to start and end in
the same location (such as the sa...
Routing Sales Person Travel
If the size and diversity of the territory prevent the use of the
straight-line method, a clov...
Routing Sales Person Travel
A hop-scotch pattern follows more of a hub-and-spoke, rather
than a circular travel route. Sev...
Scheduling Sales Person Activities
Whereas routing involves geographic considerations,
scheduling takes into account the a...
Scheduling Sales Person Activities
Time Management
To develop effective time management strategies, it is useful to
classi...
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  • Routing and Scheduling Sales Person Travel
  • Chapter 4, sales organization

    1. 1. Module 4 ORGANIZING THE ACTIVITIES OF SALES MANAGERS AND SALES PEOPLE 11
    2. 2. C a m p b e ll's O ld S a le s O r g a n iz a t io n D iv is io n M a n a g e r s D is t r ic t M a n a g e r s A c c o u n t M a n a g e r s S a le s R e p s . V ic e P r e s id e n t , S a le s C a n n e d F o o d s D iv is io n M a n a g e r s D is t r ic t M a n a g e r s A c c o u n t M a n a g e r s S a le s R e p s . V ic e P r e s id e n t , S a le s F r o z e n F o o d s D iv is io n M a n a g e r s D is t r ic t M a n a g e r s A c c o u n t M a n a g e r s S a le s R e p s . V ic e P r e s id e n t , S a le s F r e s h / R e fr ig e r a t e d D iv is io n M a n a g e r s D is t r ic t M a n a g e r s A c c o u n t M a n a g e r s S a le s R e p s . V ic e P r e s id e n t , S a le s S p e c ia l P r o d u c t s G e n e r a l S a le s M a n a g e r V ic e P r e s id e n t S a le s a n d M a r k e t in g Campbell’s Example 22
    3. 3. C a m p b e ll's N e w S a le s O r g a n iz a t io n R e g io n a l M a n a g e r s S u p e r v is o r s S a le s R e p s . G e n e r a l M a n a g e r W e s t R e g io n a l M a n a g e r s S u p e r v is o r s S a le s R e p s . G e n e r a l M a n a g e r S o u t h R e g io n a l M a n a g e r s S u p e r v is o r s S a le s R e p s . G e n e r a l M a n a g e r C e n t r a l R e g io n a l M a n a g e r s S u p e r v is o r s S a le s R e p s . G e n e r a l M a n a g e r E a s t V ic e P r e s id e n t G e n e r a l S a le s M a n a g e r V ic e P r e s id e n t S a le s a n d M a r k e t in g Campbell’s Example 33
    4. 4. Purposes of sales organization An organizational structure is an arrangement of activities involving a group of people. The goal in designing an organization is to divide and coordinate activities in such a way that the group can accomplish its common objectives better than they could by acting as individuals. 44
    5. 5. An organizational structure should serve 3 purposes: a. Activities should be divided and arranged in such a way that the firm can benefit from the specialization of labor. b. The organization structure should provide for stability and continuity in the firms selling efforts. c. The structure should provide for the coordination and integration of various activities assigned to different people in the sales force. 55
    6. 6. Horizontal structure of the sales force The first issue to be decided concerning the organization of the sales force is whether the firm should hire its own sales people or use outside agents (e.g., manufacturers' reps). Types of Agents 1. Manufacturers' representatives http://www.jba-inc.com/ 2. Selling (or sales) agents When are outside agents appropriate? 1. Economics criteria 2. Control and strategic criteria 66
    7. 7. ECONOMIC METHOD OF DETERMINING IF OUTSIDE AGENTS ARE APPROPRIATE In a given selling situation, a company sales force and independent agents are likely to produce different levels of costs and sales volume. The fixed costs of using external agents are lower than a company sales force because there is less administrative overhead involved and also because manufacturers' reps do not receive a salary or reimbursement for field selling expenses. However, costs of using agents tend to rise faster as sales volume increases because agents usually receive higher commissions than company sales people. Consequently, there is a breakeven level of sales volume below which the costs of external agents is lower, but above which a company sales 77
    8. 8. Sales Volume Selling Cost Total Cost of Agents Total Cost of Sales Force Variable Cost of Sales Force Fixed Cost of Sales Force 88
    9. 9. Example: A company is faced with a planning decision of whether to use a company sales force or outside agents. It estimates that salaries and expenses will amount to $30,000 per sales person and that the company will require 10 sales people to cover the territory. Furthermore, the sales people will receive a 5% commission on the dollar volume that they sell. If the company decided to use outside agents however, it would have to pay a fixed 15% commission on the dollar volume that they sell. Determine when the company should use agents and when it should use a company sales force? 99
    10. 10. CONTROL AND STRATEGIC CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING IF A COMPANY SALES FORCE SHOULD BE USED Managers argue that internal sales forces are preferable to agents because agents are more difficult to control. Agents can be viewed as independent actors who are expected to act opportunistically in pursuit of their own short-run objectives (i.e., sales). This makes agents reluctant to pursue new accounts or smaller customers as well as perform service and support activities. On the other hand, managers can control their own sales force in many ways: - selection - training - supervision - operating procedures - reward mechanisms - etc. Furthermore, monitoring performance of a company salesforce is easier than with independent agents if performance is based on anything more than dollar sales volume. 1010
    11. 11. Horizontal Sales Force Organizational Structures If the organization decides that it needs its own sales force, it will have to decide on its organizational structure. Generally, there are four ways that sales forces are usually organized: 1. Geographic Organization 2. Product Organization 3. Customer Organization 4. Organizing by Selling Function (Functional Organization) 5. Combination 1111
    12. 12. G eographic S pecialization C entral R egional Sales M anager C onnecticut and R hode Island M aine N ew H am pshire V erm ont M assachusetts N ew Y ork N ortheast D istrict Sales M anager N ew Jersey Pennsylvania D elaw are W ashington D .C. V irginia M aryland M idatlantic D istrict Sales M anager N orth C arolina South Carolina G eorgia A labam a M ississippi Florida Southern D istrict Sales M anager Eastern R egional Sales M anager W estern R egional Sales M anager N ational Sales M anager 1212
    13. 13. Geographic organization The assignment of individual sales people to separate geographic territories. Strengths: 1. Low cost. 2. Lack of confusion concerning who the customer should talk to if problems arise. Weakness: 1. Does not provide any benefits from the division and specialization of labor. 1313
    14. 14. ProductSpecialization Central Regional Sales Manager Dictation Equipment Salesperson Typewriter Salesperson Programmable Calculator Salesperson Large Computer Salesperson Minicomputer Salesperson Copier Salesperson Northeast District Sales Manager Dictation Equipment Salesperson Typewriter Salesperson Programmable Calculator Salesperson Large Computer Salesperson Minicomputer Salesperson Copier Salesperson Midatlantic District Sales Manager Dictation Equipment Salesperson Typewriter Salesperson Programmable Calculator Salesperson Large Computer Salesperson Minicomputer Salesperson Copier Salesperson Southern District Sales Manager Eastern Regional Sales Manager Western Regional Sales Manager National Sales Manager 1414
    15. 15. Product Organization Separate sales forces for each product (or related group of products) in their product assortment. Strengths: 1. Familiarity with products and methods of selling those products. 2. Closer cooperation between sales and production. 3. Enables sales management to control the selling effort across the company's various products. Weakness: 1. Duplication of effort. 2. Higher selling expenses and administrative costs. 3. Confusion among the firm's customers. 1515
    16. 16. CustomerSpecialization Central Regional Sales Manager Salesperson for Schools and Colleges Salesperson for Bank Customers Salesperson for Manufacturers Salesperson for Retail Customers Salesperson for Government Agencies Salesperson for Wholesale Customers Northeast District Sales Manager Salesperson for Schools and Colleges Salesperson for Bank Customers Salesperson for Manufacturers Salesperson for Retail Customers Salesperson for Government Agencies Salesperson for Wholesale Customers Midatlantic District Sales Manager Salesperson for Schools and Colleges Salesperson for Bank Customers Salesperson for Manufacturers Salesperson for Retail Customers Salesperson for Government Agencies Salesperson for Wholesale Customers Southern District Sales Manager Eastern Regional Sales Manager Western Regional Sales Manager National Sales Manager 1616
    17. 17. Customer Organization Organizing the sales force by customer type. Strengths: 1. Better understanding of customer needs. 2. Easier to train for different selling approaches for different markets. 3. Ideas for new products. 4. Ability to control selling effort across different markets. Disadvantages: 1. Duplication of effort. 2. Increased selling and overhead expenses. 1717
    18. 18. Organizing by Selling Function Such as having one sales force specializing in prospecting for and developing new accounts while a second sales force maintains and services existing customers. 1818
    19. 19. Organizing to serve national or key accounts Key accounts are large accounts. Key accounts need more service than smaller accounts (80/20 Rule). As a result, some organizations have special organizational structures set up specifically to deal with key accounts. Generally, there are 4 ways that firms organize their sales forces to serve key accounts: 1. Rely on regular sales force members 2. Assign key accounts to sales executives 3. Form a separate key account division 4. Form a separate sales force for key accounts 1919
    20. 20. Rely on regular sales force members. Advantage: No additional administrative or selling expense. Disadvantage: Major accounts often require more detailed and sophisticated treatment than smaller customers. 2020
    21. 21. Assign key accounts to sales executives. Advantage: Important customers are serviced by people high in the organization who have authority to make important decisions. Disadvantage: a. Managers sometimes allocate too much of the firm's resources to their own accounts to the detriment of smaller, but still profitable customers. b. Assigning selling tasks to managers takes time away from their management activities. 2121
    22. 22. A separate key account division. Advantage: Allows for the close integration of functional areas. Disadvantage: a. Duplication of effort. b. Tremendous additional expense. c. Risky. 2222
    23. 23. A separate sales force for major accounts. Advantages: a. Account managers can become familiar with their customers needs and provide a high level of service to them. b. The firm can select its most competent sales people to become members of the national account sales force. c. Provides an internal benefit to the selling company (i.e., motivation mechanism). Disadvantages: Similar to those for customer type organization. 2323
    24. 24. ALLOCATING SELLING EFFORT AND DESIGNING SALES TERRITORIES 2424
    25. 25. In this section we are concerned with allocating selling effort across our accounts, determining how many salespeople will comprise the sales force, designing the territories that salespeople will cover, and routing and scheduling sales person activities. Therefore, this section is broken into three categories: 1. Allocating selling effort across accounts. 2. Determining sales force size. 3. Designing sales territories. 4. Routing and scheduling sales person activities. Introduction 2525
    26. 26. Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts The allocation of selling effort across accounts deals with the question “How much selling time should each one of our accounts receive?” Three basic analytical approaches are used to help answer this question: 1. Single factor models. 2. Portfolio models. 3. Decision models. 2626
    27. 27. Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts: Single Factor Models Single factor models classify all accounts based on one variable, such as sales volume. For example, we could classify our large accounts as A accounts, those with over $50,000 of sales volume per year. B accounts could be those accounts with sales volume between $25,000 and $49,999 per year, and C accounts could be those accounts with less than $25,000 per year in sales volume. 2727
    28. 28. Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts: Single Factor Models We could establish guidelines for the number of calls that each type of account should receive: Account # Calls per Year A 24 B 12 C 6 2828
    29. 29. Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts: Portfolio Models Portfolio models go one step further than single factor models because they look at two factors, account opportunity and competitive position to determine the relative attractiveness of each account in the company’s account portfolio. Account opportunity is the customer’s need and ability to pay for and purchase the firm’s products or services. Competitive position is the strength of the relationship between the firm and the customer. 2929
    30. 30. Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts: Portfolio Models Competitive Position Strong Weak AccountOpportunity LowHigh Very Attractive: Accounts should receive heavy selling effort. Very Unattractive: Accounts should receive minimal selling effort. Potentially Attractive, additional analysis should be done to see how the firm could be more competitive Moderately Attractive, Accounts should receive enough selling effort to keep the accounts. 3030
    31. 31. Allocating Selling Effort Across Accounts: Decision Models Decision models rely on past, historical data to develop a regression equation representing the relationship between sales calls and sales volume by account. 3131
    32. 32. Three methods are widely used to calculate the size of the sales force: 1. The Incremental Method 2. The Breakdown Method 3. The Workload Method Determining Sales Force Size Increasing the size of the sales force almost always results in increased sales for the company. However, the sales force is also the most costly form of promotion for the firm. Therefore, firms need to determine the optimal number of sales people to have in the sales force. 3232
    33. 33. Determining Sales Force Size: The Incremental Method The basic premise underlying the incremental method of determining sales force size is that sales reps should be added as long as the additional profit produced by their addition exceeds the incremental cost of their addition. This method recognizes that their will be diminishing returns associated with adding more sales people. The computation of sales force size using this method is greatly facilitated using spreadsheet programs with optimizer features. 3333
    34. 34. 3434 Sales Revenue = $1,000,000 √x X # of Sales People $ Cost of Sales Force = $100,000x $ Profit = $1,000,000 √x - $100,000x Optimal Number of Sales People on the Sales Force X
    35. 35. 3535 Example Problem: Yearly revenue generated by the sales force is subject to the Law of Diminishing Returns such that: Revenue = $1,000,000 √x; where x = the number of sales people on the sales force. In addition, the cost of a salesperson averages $100,000 per year, so the cost of the sales force can be computed as: Cost = $100,000 x; where x is the number of people on the sales force. How large should the sales force be in order to maximize profit and what is the maximum profit at this sales force level?
    36. 36. 3636 Profit (π) = Revenue – Cost Profit (π) = $1,000,000 √x - $100,000 xSolution XX 5. =
    37. 37. The simplest way to calculate the optimal sales force size is the breakdown method . The breakdown method assumes that all sales people have the potential to produce the same amount of sales in one year. The estimated productivity for one sales person is divided into the company's forecasted sales to determine how many sales reps are needed. Determining Sales Force Size: The Breakdown Method 3737
    38. 38. Example: A firm forecasts total sales of $10 million for the coming year. If each sales person is capable of producing $250,000 in sales per year, how many sales people will be required? Number required = Forecasted Sales Productivity per sales person = $10,000,000 / $250,000/sales rep = 40 sales reps Determining Sales Force Size: The Breakdown Method 3838
    39. 39. Advantages: 1. Simple. Disadvantages: 1. No allowance for sales person turnover. 2. Assumes each sales rep has equal productivity. 3. Uses reverse logic. 4. Considers sales rather than profits as the desired end result. Determining Sales Force Size: The Breakdown Method 3939
    40. 40. The Workload Method is based on an equal workload for all sales people. To find the number of sales people needed, management determines the amount of work it takes to cover the target market. It then divides this estimate by the workload the average sales person can manage. Determining Sales Force Size: The Workload Method 4040
    41. 41. (1) Classify customers and prospects into groups according to the amount of work required to service that group (usually based on sales volume). (2) Determine the number of sales calls an account should receive per year and the desired length of these calls. (3) Calculate the total amount of selling effort required to serve the entire market. (4) Estimate the time available per salesperson. (5) Allocate the time available per sales person by the function that s/he performs. (6) Determine the sales force size. The Workload Method Consists of 6 Steps: 4141
    42. 42. The workload method consists of the following steps: (1) Classify customers and prospects into groups according to the amount of work required to service that group (usually based on sales volume). Example: Type of Sales Number of Account Volume Accounts A $50,000+ 120 B $20,000-50,000 250 C under $20,000 400 Determining Sales Force Size: The Workload Method 4242
    43. 43. (2) Determine the number of sales calls an account should receive per year and the desired length of these calls. These estimates are made by past experience or judgement. The estimates are then multiplied to find the number of contact hours per year necessary for each account type. Type of Estimated calls Estimated call Total Contact Account per Year Length Hours/Year A 25 60 Minutes 25 Hours/Year B 15 40 Minutes 10 Hours/Year C 8 15 Minutes 2 Hours/Year Determining Sales Force Size: The Workload Method 4343
    44. 44. (3) Calculate the total amount of selling effort required to serve the entire market. The number of accounts in each category are multiplied by the number of contact hours required for each type of account. Type of Number of Contact Hours Workload Account Accounts per Account Hours A 120 25 3,000 B 250 10 2,500 C 400 2 800 _________________________________________________ Total Workload Hours 6,300 Determining Sales Force Size: The Workload Method 4444
    45. 45. Determining Sales Force Size: The Workload Method (4) Estimate the time available per sales person. The average hours worked per week is multiplied by the weeks worked per year (taking into account holidays, sickness, and vacation). 40 hours/week x 49 weeks/year = 1,960 hours/year 4545
    46. 46. Determining Sales Force Size: The Workload Method (5) Allocate the time available per salesperson by the function s/he performs. Task % of Time Hours Per Task Selling 50% 980 Nonselling 30% 588 Travel 20% 392 1,960 Hours 4646
    47. 47. Determining Sales Force Size: The Workload Method (6) Determine the sales force size by dividing the total workload hours by the selling hours available per salesperson. 6,300 hours required to cover the market = 6.42 Reps. 980 hours per salesperson, actual selling time 7 representatives are required to perform the necessary tasks. 4747
    48. 48. The territory design process strives to make all territories equal with respect to the amount of sales potential they contain and amount of work it takes a sales person to cover them effectively. Sales Territory Design 4848
    49. 49. The Sales Territory Design Process Select the Basic Control Unit Examine the Market Potential In Each Control Unit Combine Control Units into Tentative Territories Perform a Workload Analysis for each Tentative Territory Adjust the Territories to Allow for Workload Differences Assign Salespeople to Territories 4949
    50. 50. Routing and Scheduling Sales Person Travel Once territories have been defined, sales management needs to Route and schedule their sales people so that the sales people can Manage their territories efficiently and effectively. Advise is given to sales people concerning the geographic pattern of account coverage, as well as the length and frequency of visits to customers. These issues are referred to as routing and scheduling respectively. 5050
    51. 51. Routing Sales Person Travel Routing is the geographic pattern that sales people follow in order to cover their territory. Routing begins by plotting the geographic locations of actual and potential customers on a map of the territory. Topographical and climatic characteristics of the territory must be taken into account when developing an orderly succession of calls. Travel distances between two calls should be minimized, and backtracking and crisscrossing across a territory should be avoided. 5151
    52. 52. Routing Sales Person Travel Since daily or weekly travel routes tend to start and end in the same location (such as the sales person’s home), a pattern begins to emerge. For example, the sales person may begin the day or week with a call to a customer located at the periphery of the territory and work back to the home base. This is known as the straight-line method of routing. 5252
    53. 53. Routing Sales Person Travel If the size and diversity of the territory prevent the use of the straight-line method, a cloverleaf pattern of four or more adjoining circular sequences can provide the desired intensity of coverage without sacrificing economy. In a four-leaf clover, each account is visited every four weeks. 5353
    54. 54. Routing Sales Person Travel A hop-scotch pattern follows more of a hub-and-spoke, rather than a circular travel route. Several spokes radiate from the sales person’s residence, and the sales person works back from there in a zigzag manner. 5454
    55. 55. Scheduling Sales Person Activities Whereas routing involves geographic considerations, scheduling takes into account the activities the sales rep must perform during the day, week, or month. Scheduling refers to the task of allocating the salesperson’s time to individual activities. Estimates must be made regarding the average time it takes to perform sales activities such as customer contact, waiting, travel, etc. 5555
    56. 56. Scheduling Sales Person Activities Time Management To develop effective time management strategies, it is useful to classify alternative time uses with regard to their productivity. Uses of a Salesperson’s Time Productivity Customer contact Planning Support Travel Waiting Productive Unproductive 5656
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