DRUG EDUCATION (PREVENTION & CONTROL)
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9165
AN ACT INSTITUTING THE COMPREHENSIVE DANGEROUS DRUG ACT OF 2002, REPEALING
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6425, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE DANGEROUS DRUG ACT OF 1972, AS
AMENDED, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress
Approved and Signed by the President on June 7, 2002
-Took Effect on July 4, 2002
SECTION 1 OF RA 9165:
Short Title- This Act shall be known and cited as the “Comprehensive Dangerous Drug Act of 2002”
SECTION 2 OF RA 9165:
DECLARATION OF POLICY-It is the policy of the State to safeguard the integrity of its territory and the
well-being of its citizenry particularly the youth, from the harmful effects of dangerous drugs on their
physical and mental well-being, and to defend the same against acts of omissions detrimental to their
development and preservation. In view of the foregoing the State needs to enhance further the efficacy
of the law against dangerous drugs, it being one of today’s more serious social ills.
Toward this end, the government shall pursue an intensive and unrelenting campaign against
the trafficking and use of dangerous drugs and other similar substances through an
integrated system of planning, implementation and enforcement of anti-drug abuse policies,
programs and projects. The government shall however aim to achieve a balance in the
national drug control program so that people with legitimate medical needs are not prevented
from being treated with adequate amounts of appropriate medications, which include the use
of dangerous drugs.
It is further declared the policy of the State to provide effective mechanism or measures to
reintegrate into society individuals who have fallen victims to drug abuse or dangerous drug
dependence through sustainable program of treatment and rehabilitation.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
ADMINISTER- Any act of introducing any dangerous drug into the body of any person, with or
without his/her knowledge, by injection, inhalation ingestion or other means, or committing
any act of indispensable assistance to a person in administering a dangerous drug to
himself/herself unless administered by a duly licensed practitioner for purposes of medication.
BOARD- Refers to the Dangerous Drugs Board under, Section 77, Article IX of RA 9165.
CENTERS- Any of the treatment and rehabilitation centers for drug Dependents referred to in
Section 75, of Article VIII of RA 9165.
CLANDESTINE LABORATORY- Any facility use for illegal manufacture of any dangerous drug
and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.
CULTIVATE OR CULTURE- Any act of knowingly planting, growing raising, or permitting the
planting, grow or raising of any plant which is the source of dangerous drug.
DANGEROUS DRUGS- Include those listed in the Schedules annexed to the 1961 Single
Convention on Narcotics Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and in the Schedules
annexed to the 1971 Single Convention on Psychotropic Substances as enumerated in the
attached annex which is an Integral part of the RA 9165.
DELIVER- Any act of knowingly passing a dangerous drug to another, personality or otherwise,
and by any means, with or without consideration.
DISPENSE- Any act of giving away, selling or distributing medicine or any dangerous drug with
or without the use of prescription.
DRUG SYNDICATE- Any organized group of two (2) or more persons forming or joining together
with the intention of committing any offense prescribed under RA 9156.
DRUG- is a chemical substance that affects the functions of the body or mind when taken into
the body or applied through the skin.
DRUG ABUSE- is the overuse of a drug without due regard to accepted medical practices
resulting in the individual’s physical, mental emotional or behavioral impairment.
DRUG DEPENDENCE- a compulsive behavior brought about by drug abuse. It can either be
“physical” or “psychological” of physiological, behavioral and cognitive phenomena of variable
intensity, in which use of psychoactive drug takes on a high priority thereby involving, among
others, strong desire or a sense of compulsion to take the substance and the difficulties in
controlling substance-taking behavior in terms of its onset, termination, or levels of use.
DRUG ADDICTION- a state of periodic and chronic intoxication produced by the habitual
consumption of drug, either in its materials or synthetic form which is detrimental to both
individual and society.
DRUG USER- another term for “Drug Addict” which refers to an individual who is dependent on
FINANCIER- Any person who pays for, raises or supplies money for, or underwrites any of the
illegal activities prescribed under RA9165.
ILLEGAL TRAFFICKING- The illegal cultivation, culture, delivery, administration, dispensation,
manufacture, sale, trading, transportation, distribution, importation, exportation and
possession of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.
INSTRUMENT- Any thing is used in or intended to be used in any manner in the commission of
illegal drug trafficking or related offenses.
PDEA- Refers to the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency under Section 82, Article IX of RA
PLANTING OF EVIDENCE- The willful act by any person of maliciously and surreptitiously
inserting, placing, adding or attaching directly, through any overt or covert act, whatever
quantity of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical in the
person, house, effects or in the immediate vicinity of an innocent individual for the purpose of
implicating, incriminating or imputing the commission of any violation of RA 9165.
PUSHER- Any person, who sells, trades, administers, dispenses, delivers or gives away to
another, on any terms whatsoever, or distributes, dispatches, in transit or transports dangerous
drugs or who acts as a broker in any of such transactions, in violation of RA 9165.
SCREENING TEST- A rapid test performed to establish potential/presumptive positive result.
SELL- Any act of giving away any dangerous drug/or controlled precursor and essential chemical
whether or money or any other consideration.
TRADING- Transactions involving the illegal trafficking of dangerous drugs and/or controlled
precursors and essential chemicals using electronic devices such as, but not limited to, text
messages, email, mobile or landlines, two-way radios, internet, instant messengers and chat
rooms or acting as a broker in any of such transactions whether for money or any other
consideration in violation of this Act (RA 9165)
USE- Any act of injecting, intravenously or intramuscularly, of consuming, either by chewing
smoking, sniffing, eating, swallowing, drinking or otherwise introducing into physiological
system of the body, any of the dangerous drugs.
MAIN DRUG OF ABUSE TODAY
THE SECOND DRUG OF CHOICE AMONG DRUG ABUSERS
A new drug in the market which is becoming popular among the moneyed members of our
For thirty years since its approval, Republic Act 6425 had been the backbone of the
Philippine drug law enforcement system
Three factors contributed to the growth and expansion of local and even international drug
syndicates operating in the country.
(1) The profitability of the illegal drug trade; and
(2) Existing laws that imposed light punishment for offenders; and
(3) The “I DON’T CARE” attitude of the citizenry.
RA 9165 AND THE PDEA
Enactment of RA 9165
Ra 9165 defines more concrete courses of action for the national anti-drug campaign.
Creation of PDEA
PDEA is now the lead agency in the campaign against illegal drug trafficking and abuse
in the country.
Reorganization of the Philippine Drug Enforcement System
Creation of the new Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) that serves as the policy and strategy
The Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) as its implementing arm.
The secretariat of the National Drug Law Enforcement and Prevention Coordinating Center
or DEP Center has been absorbed by the new agency.
The Narcotics Group of the PNP, the Narcotics Division of the NBI and the Narcotics
Interdiction Unit of the Bureau of Customs have also been abolished.
The PDEA is not under the Philippine National Police
The PDEA is under the Office of the President
Its head, the Director General, has the equivalent rank of Undersecretary
ILL EFFECTS OF DRUGS
A. Cardiac (HEART) Pathology
B. Pulmonary (LUNG) Illness
C. Hepatic (LIVER) Problems
D. Renal (KIDNEY) Disease
CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS ACCORDING TO;
Natural- anything that comes from nature.
Ex. Plants (Marijuana) and Animals (Snake venom- snakebites)
Synthetic- anything that is produced artificially or processed in the laboratory.
KINDS OF DRUGS ACCORDING TO EFFECTS:
(Also known as “upper”)
-Any of a group of drugs that excite the central nervous system, in which increase alertness, alleviate
fatigue, reduce hunger and provide a feeling of well being.
- Dilated pupils
- Increase in blood pressure/ Heart rate/ Breathing rate/ Body Temperature
- Involuntary muscle twitching
- A sense of well being
- Feels energetic/Alert
Also called as “downers” or “barbs”
Any drug or chemical that decreases the activity of any bodily function. The term most often is
used to refer to drugs that reduce the activity of the central nervous system.
(Ex: Sedatives/ Sleeping Pills/ Tranquilizers)
Small does: calmness and relaxation
Large doses: slurred speech, staggering, poor judgment, slow body movements and uncertain reflexes.
Psychosis, Restlessness, Irritability/ anxiety, Sleeplessness, Stuffy or running nose
Ulcerated mucous membrane of nose, Lung damage
(Also called psychedelics)
First developed as appetite suppressant any one of a large number of natural or synthetic
Psychoactive drugs that produce marked distortions of the senses and changes in perception.
Drugs capable of provoking changes in sensation, thinking, self-awareness and emotion.
Alteration of time and space perception and hallucination.
(Ex. MJ/ LSD/ Ecstasy/ Ketamine)
Faster heart beat and pulse rate
Bloodshot Eye/ blurred vision/ Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
Dry mouth and throat
Appetite loss & sleeping problems (MDMA)
LONG TERM EFFECTS:
Severe irritation of the nasal passages that they may become prone to frequent nose bleed
Renal damage heart disease and strokes
Injecting MDMA from contaminated needles may lead to risk of infections resulting in inflammation
of the blood vessels, infection of the heart valves, blood poisoning and AIDS all of which can lead to
Volatile chemical substances that contain psycho- active (mind/mood altering) vapors to produce
a state of intoxication.
Ex: Glue and Adhesive Cement/ Rugby/Super Glue/Thinner
DISASTER AWARENESS, PREPAREDNESS AND MANAGEMENT
(WITH REVISED RA 10121)
Hazard x Vulnerability = DISASTER RISK
RA 10121 Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction) Act and Management (PDRRM of 2010
-Signed on May 27, 2010 by Her Excellency President Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo
REPUBLIC ACT 10121
An Act Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and
Institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, Appropriating Funds
Therefore and For Other Purposes.
RA NO. 10121
21 years in the making
Signed into Law on May 27, 2010
1. Policy Statements and Terminologies on DRRM (Secs. 2&3)
2. Institutional Mechanisms (Secs. 5-12)
-DRRMCs (National, Regional, Provincial, City and Municipal Levels and Barangay Development
Council at the barangay Levels
-Office of Civil Defense
-Permanent Office on DRRM at the LGU Level; Barangay DRRM Committee
3. Operational Mechanisms (Secs. 15-18)
-Coordination during Emergencies
-Declaration of a State of Calamity
-Mechanism for the IHAN
4. Participation, Accreditation, Mobilization, Protection and Development of Disaster Volunteers
5. Training and Education in DRR
-Establishment of DRRM Training Institutes
-Mandatory Training in DRR for Public Sector Employees
-Integration of DRR in school curricula, training for out-of-school youth, Sangguniang Kabataan, and
7. Prohibited Acts
8. Penal Provisions
Republic Act No. 10121
Section 1. Title
This Act shall be known as the “Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Act of 2010”
Section 2. Declaration of Policy
1. Upholding people’s right to life and property and adherence to internationally accepted
principles, norms and standards for capacity building in DRRM and humanitarian assistance
2. Adoption of a holistic, comprehensive, integrated, proactive and multi- sector approach in
addressing the impacts of disasters, including climate change (Sub-Section d);
3. Development, promotion and implementation of a comprehensive National Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management Plan (NDRRMP) (Sub – Section e);
4. Mainstreaming DRR and Climate Change in national and local development plans and
development processes (e.g. policy formulation, socio –economic development planning,
budgeting and governance) (Sub- Section f, g and h)
5. Mainstreaming DRR into the peace process and conflict resolution (Sub- Section i);
6. Ensuring DRR and CC- Gender responsive measures, sensitive to indigenous knowledge and
respect to human rights (Sub- Section j);
7. Strengthening capacity building of - > LGUs on DRR (e.g. decentralized powers,
(Sub – Sections k and I), and > Vulnerable and marginalized groups (Sub – Section n);
8. Engaging the participation of CSOs, private sector and volunteers in DRR (Sub- Section m);
9. Promotion of breastfeeding before and during a disaster or emergency (Sub –Section o), an
10. Ensuring maximum care, assistance and services to affected individuals and families (SubSection p)
Definition of Terms
Whenever used in these rules, the following shall refer to:
(a) “ Adaption”- the adjustment in natural or human systems response to actual or expected
climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities
(b) “Capacity”- a combination of all strengths and resources available within a community,
society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or effects of a disaster. Capacity
may include infrastructure and physical means, Institutions, societal coping abilities, as well
as human knowledge, skills, tools, systems, processes, appropriate technologies and
collective attributes such as social relationships, leadership and management. Capacity may
also be described as capability.
(c) “Civil Defense”- Disaster preparedness and prevention activities, other than military actions,
geared towards the reduction of loss of life and property brought about by natural and
human induced disasters. Civil Defense may also be referred to as Civil Protection.
(d) “Civil Society Organizations” or “CSOs”- non- state actors whose aims are neither to
generate profits nor to seek governing power. CSOs unite people to advance shared goals
and interests. They have a presence in public life, expressing the interests and values of
their members or others, and are based on social, ethical, cultural, scientific, religious or
philanthropic and other considerations, foundations, independent research institutes,
community- based organizations (CBOs), faith- based organizations, people’s organizations,
social movements, and labor unions,
“Climate Change”- a change in climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or
variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period typically decades or
longer, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.
“Community – based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management” or “CBDRRM”- a process
of disaster risk reduction and management in which at risk communities actively engaged in
the identification, analysis, treatment, monitoring and evaluation of disaster risk in order to
reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities, and where the people are the
hearth of decision – making and implementation of disaster risk reduction and management
“Complex Emergency”- a form of human – induced emergency in which the cause of the
emergency as well as the assistance to the afflicted is complicated by intense level of
“ Contingency Planning”- a management process that analyzed specific potential events or
emerging situations that might threaten society or the environment and establishes
arrangements in advance to enable timely, effective and appropriate responses to such
events and situations.
“ Disaster”- a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving
widespread human, material, economic or environment losses and impacts, which exceed
the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Disasters are often described as a result of the combination of the exposure to a hazard; the
condition of vulnerability that are present; and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce or
cope with the potential negative consequences, Disaster impacts may include loss of life, injury,
disease and other negative effects on human, Physical, Mental and social well being, together
with damage to property, environmental degradation.
(j) “Disaster Mitigation”- the lessening or limitation of the adverse impacts of hazards and
related disasters. Mitigation measures include but not limited to the engineering techniques
and hazard-resistant construction but includes as well as improved environmental policies
and programs and public awareness.
(k) “ Disaster Preparedness”- the knowledge and capacities developed by governments,
professional response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to
effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from- the impacts of likely, imminent or
current hazard events or conditions.
(l) “Disaster Prevention”- the outright avoidance of adverse impacts of hazard and related
disasters. It expresses the concept and intention to completely avoid potential adverse
impacts through action taken in advance such as construction of dams or embankments that
eliminate flood risk, land-use regulations that do not permit any settlement in high-risk
zones, and seismic engineering designs that ensure the survival and function of a critical
building in any likely earthquake.
(m) “Disaster Response” – the provision of emergency services and public assistance during or
immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public
safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. Disaster response is
predominantly focused on immediate and short-term needs and is sometimes called
(n) “Disaster Risk”- the potential disaster losses in lives, health status, livelihood, assets and
service, which could occur to a particular community or a Society over some specified future
(o) “Disaster Risk Reduction”- the concept and practice of reducing disaster risk through
systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through
reduced exposures to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise
management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events.
(p) “Disaster Risk Reduction and Management”- the systematic process of using administrative
directives, organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies,
policies and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards
and the possibility of disaster.
(q) “Disaster Risk Reduction Management Information System”- a specialized database which
contains, among others, information on disasters and their human material, economic and
environmental impact, risk assessment and mapping and vulnerable groups.
(r) “Disaster Victims”- persons or group of persons who have been adversely affected by a
natural or human-induced hazards who have to leave their habitual places of residence due
to existing or impending threats, damaged shelter units, with casualty among immediate
family members or those who remained in their habitual places of origin when still habitable
but whose main source of income or livelihood had been damaged and are experiencing
hopelessness and difficulty in coping or responding to the onslaught of the hazardous events
on their own resources.
(s) “Early Recovery”- multidimensional process recovery that begins in a humanitarian setting.
It guided by development principles that seek to build on humanitarian programmers and
catalyze sustainable development opportunities.
(t) “Early warning System”- the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely
and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations
threatened by a hazard to prepare and act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the
possibility to harm or loss.
Four key elements: knowledge of the risk; monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards;
communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings.
(u) “Emergency”- unforeseen or sudden occurrence, especially danger, demanding immediate
(v) “Emergency Management”- the organization and management of resources such as
volunteers, funds, donations, food and non food items, temporary/evacuation centers, and
responsibilities for addressing all aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness,
response and initial recovery steps.
(w) “Exposure”- the degree to which the elements at risk are likely to experience hazard events
of different magnitudes.
(x) “Geographic Information System”- a database which contains, among others, geohazard
assessments, information on climate change, and climate risk reduction and management.
(y) “Hazard”- a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may
cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts property damage, loss of livelihood and
service, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
(z) Internally Displaced Person (IDPs) or persons Displaced by the Disaster- are persons or
group of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or placed
of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of natural or
human-induced disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State
(aa) “Land-Use Planning”- the process undertaking by public authorities to identify, evaluate and
decide on difference options for the use of land including consideration of long-term
economic, social and environmental objectives and communities and interest the
implication for different communities and interest groups, and the subsequent formulation
and promulgation of plans that describe the permitted or acceptable uses.
“Mitigation”- structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse
impact of natural hazards, environmental degradation, and technological hazards and to
ensure the ability of at-risk communities to address vulnerabilities aimed at minimizing the
impact of disasters.
(cc) “National Disaster Risk Reduction and management Framework” or “NDRRM
Framework”- provides for comprehensive, all hazards, multi-sectoral, inter-agency and
community-based approach to disaster risk reduction and management.
“National Disaster Risk Reduction and management Framework” or NDRRM”- the
document to be formulated and implemented by the Office of Civil (OCD) that sets out goals
and specific objectives for reducing disaster risk together with related actions to accomplish
The NDRRMP- all provide for the identification of hazards, vulnerabilities and risks to be
managed at the national level; disaster risk reduction and management approaches and
strategies to be applied in managing said hazards and risks; agency roles, responsibilities and
lines of authority at all government levels, and vertical and horizontal coordination of disaster
risk reduction management in the pre-disaster and post-disaster phases and the budgetary
resources to implement the plan. It shall be in conformity with the NDRRMP Framework.
(ee)“Post Disaster Recovery”- the restoration and improvement where appropriate, of facilities,
livelihood and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce
disaster risk factor, in accordance with the principles of “build back better”
(ff) “Preparedness”- pre-disaster actions and measures being undertaken within the context of
disaster risk reduction management and are based on sound risk analysis as well as predisaster activities to avert or minimize loss of life and property such as, but not limited to,
community organizing, training, planning, equipping, hazard mapping, insuring of assets,
and public information and education initiatives.
(gg) “Private Sector”- the key factor in the realm of the economy where the central social
concern and process are the mutually beneficial production and distribution of goods
services to meet the physical needs of human beings.
“Public Sector Employees”- all persons in the civil service.
(ii) “Rehabilitation”- measures that ensure the ability of affected communities/areas to restore
the normal level of functioning by rebuilding livelihood and damaged infrastructures and
increasing the communities’ organizational capacity.
(jj) “Resilience”- the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist,
absorb accommodate and recover from the effects of a hazards in timely and efficient
(kk) “Response”- any concerted effort by two (2) or more agencies, public or private, to provide
assistance or intervention during or immediately after a disaster to meet the life
preservation and basic subsistence needs of those people affected and in the restoration of
essential public activities and facilities.
(ll) “Risk”- the combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences.
(mm) “Risk Assessment”- a methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk by
analyzing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability that together
could potentially harm exposed people, property, services, livelihood and the environment
on which they depend.
“Risk Management”- the systematic approach and practice of managing uncertainly to
minimize potential harm and loss.
“Risk transfer”- the process of formally shifting the financial consequences of particular
risks from one party to another whereby a household, community, enterprise or state
authority shall obtain resources from the other party after a disaster.
“State of Calamity”- a condition involving mass and/or major damages to property,
disruption of means of livelihoods roads and normal way of life of people in the affected
areas as a result of the occurrence of natural of human-induced hazard.
“Sustainable Development”- development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
(rr) “Volunteer”- individual/person of group who for reasons arising from their sociodevelopmental, business and corporate orientation, commitment or conviction, contribute
(ss) “Vulnerability”- the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that
make it susceptible to the damaging effects of the hazards.
(tt) “Vulnerability and Marginalized Groups”- individuals or groups of people that face higher
exposure to disaster risk and poverty including, but not limited to, women, especially
pregnant women, youth, children especially orphans and unaccompanied children.
Section 4. Scope
This Act provides for the development of policies and plans and the implementation of
actions and measures pertaining to all aspects of disaster risk reduction and management.
Section 5. National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) or the
National Council Composition
Section 6. Power and Functions of the NDRRMC Composition
Section 7. Authority of the NDRRMC Chairperson
Section 8. The Office of Civil Defense (OCD)
Section 9. Powers and Functions of the OCD
Section 10 Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Organization at the Regional Level
Section 11. Organization at the Local Government Level
IRR Rule 5, Section 5 LDRRMC Meetings and Quorum
Section 12. Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (LDRRMC)
Environmental degradation- has hugely contributed to increasing natural disaster
occurrence in the Philippines.
Climate Change- risks from global climate change are further exacerbating the country’s
vulnerability to natural hazards.
Rule #01 Preliminary Provisions
Section 1. Title- this rules shall be known and cited as the “Implementing Rules and Regulations
of the Philippine Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000”.
Section 2. Purpose- these rules are promulgated to prescribed the procedures and guidelines
for the implementation of the Philippine Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 9003” in
order to facilitate compliance therewith and achieve the objectives thereof.
Section 3. Scope- these rules shall lay down the powers and functions of the department of
Environment and Natural Resources.
Section 4. Construction- these implementing Rules and regulations shall be liberally constructed
to carry out the National Policy of adopting a systematic, comprehensive and ecological Solid
Waste management program consistent with the pursuit of sustainable development.
Section 5. Administrative and Enforcement- these rules and regulations shall be administered
by the Secretary or his duly authorized representative or through any other department,
bureau, office, agency, local government for assistance in the form of personnel, facilities and
other resources as the need arises in the discharge of its functions.
The 7 Environmental Principles (EPs)
Below are the 7 EPs, articulated in 3 similar ways.
Balance of the Nature
Nature Knows Best
Ang Kalikasan ang Mas Nakakaalam
All Forms of Life Are Important
Ang Lahat ng May Buhay ay Mahalaga
Everything Is Connected to Everything Else
Ang Lahat ng Bagay ay Magkakaugnay
Everything Must Go Somewhere’
Ang Lahat Ay May Patutunguhan
Ours Is a Finite Earth
Ang Lahat Ay May Hangganan
Nature Is Beautiful and We Are Stewards of God’s Creation
Ang Kalikasan ay Maganda at Tayo ang Tagapangalaga ng Nilikha ng Diyos
Biodegradable- any material that can be broken down by naturally -occurring organisms
such as bacteria and fungi in air, water, and soil.
Non-biodegradable- any material that cannot be degraded or decomposed by naturally
occurring –organisms such as bacteria in air, water and soil.
Recycling- the re-use, retrieval, re-commissioning of element matter for any and all
purposes necessary to healthful and productive living.
Environmental impacts- the effects of people’s activities undertaken in a particular
Sustainable development- pursuing economic activities to meet people’s needs while
giving equal consideration to environmental integrity.
Agricultural Waste- Refer to waste generated from planting or harvesting of crops,
trimming or pruning of plants and wastes or run-off materials from farm or fields.
Bureau- Refer to Environmental Management Bureau.
Collection- Refer to the act of removing solid waste from the source or from a
communal storage point.
Controlled Dump- Refer to a disposal site at which solid waste is deposited in
Disposal Site- Refer to a site where solid waste is finally discharged and deposited.
Ecological Solid Waste Management- shall refer to the systematic administration of
activities, which provides for segregation at source, segregated transportation, storage,
transfer, processing, treatment, and disposal of solid waste and all other solid waste
management activities, which do not harm the environment.
Ecosystem- is a group of organisms and their interaction or interrelationships with the
Open Dump- refer to disposal area wherein the solid wasted are indiscriminately
thrown or disposed of without the due planning and consideration for environmental
and health standards.
Segregation- refer to sorting and segregation of different materials found in solid waste
in order to promote recycling and re-use of resources and to reduce the volume of
waste for collection and disposal.
Segregation at Source- refer to solid waste management practice of separating, at the
point of origin, different materials found in solid waste I order to promote recycling and
re-use of resources and reduce the volume of the waste for collection and disposal.
Solid Waste- refer to all discarded household, commercial waste, non-hazardous
institutional, ports/harbor and industrial waste, street sweepings, construction debris,
agriculture waste, and other non-hazardous/non-toxic solid waste.
Solid Waste management Facility- refers to any resource recovery system or
Storage- refers to the interim containment of solid waste after generation and prior to
collection for ultimate recovery or disposal.
Two Types of Recycling
HEALTH AND SAFETY EDUCATION
Sanitation- the science and practice of affecting healthful and hygienic condition.
Hygiene-is the individual employment of practices that will keep him and others healthy.
First Aid- is an immediate care given to a person who has been injured or has suddenly taken ill.
SAFETY AND SURVIVAL EDUCATION
An earthquake can happen anytime. To prevent confusion and panic at the time of
the earthquake, it is advisable that you discuss precautions with your family.
A. BASIC TIPS:
1. Prepare emergency food and drinking water and keep them easily accessible
to be used in the event of emergency.
2. Make sure that furniture in your home is firmly fixed to pillars walls so that it
will not topple over.
3. Discuss with your family in advance where to go and how to communicate
with one another in case of an emergency.
B. WHAT TO PREPARE IN CASE OF AN EARTHQUAKE:
1. Three-day supply of drinking water and basic foods (3 liters per person)
5. Matches/Dust mask/First Aid Kit/Whistle
C. WHAT TO DO BEFORE AN EARTHQUAKE:
1. Familiarize yourself with your place of work and residence.
2. Prepare your place of work and residence of the event.
D. WHAT TO DO DURING AN EARTHQUAKE:
1. If you are inside a structurally sound building, stay there.
Protect your body from falling debris by bracing yourself in a doorway or by getting under a
sturdy desk or table.
EARTHQUKE INTENSITY SCALE:
Liquifaction- is a process by which loose saturated sand loses strength during an earthquake and
behaves like liquid.
PRINCIPLES OF SURVIVAL
S-Size of the Situation
U-Undue haste makes waste
R-Remember your training
V-Vanquish fear and panic
A-Act like natives
L-Learn basic skills.