Weathering, Erosion, and
         Soil
         CHAPTER 7
Weathering
  SECTION 7.1
Introduction
Introduction

weathering -the process by which rocks on
or near earth’s surface break down and
change
Introduction

weathering -the process by which rocks on
or near earth’s surface break down and
change

erosion - the remov...
Mechanical Weathering
Mechanical Weathering

 mechanical weathering (physical weathering)
 - the process by which rocks and minerals
 break down...
Mechanical Weathering

 mechanical weathering (physical weathering)
 - the process by which rocks and minerals
 break down...
Mechanical Weathering

 mechanical weathering (physical weathering)
 - the process by which rocks and minerals
 break down...
Temperature
Temperature
when water freezes it expands and increases
in volume
Temperature
when water freezes it expands and increases
in volume

  water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts
  pressure on...
Temperature
when water freezes it expands and increases
in volume

  water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts
  pressure on...
Temperature
when water freezes it expands and increases
in volume

  water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts
  pressure on...
Pressure
Pressure
bedrock @ great depths is under pressure
from overlaying rock
Pressure
bedrock @ great depths is under pressure
from overlaying rock

  when layers removed, former layers
  buried can ...
Pressure
bedrock @ great depths is under pressure
from overlaying rock

  when layers removed, former layers
  buried can ...
Pressure
bedrock @ great depths is under pressure
from overlaying rock

  when layers removed, former layers
  buried can ...
Chemical Weathering
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering
- the process by
which minerals
undergo changes in
their composition as
the result...
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering
- the process by
which minerals
undergo changes in
their composition as
the result...
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering
- the process by
which minerals
undergo changes in
their composition as
the result...
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering    5 significant agents:
- the process by
which minerals
undergo changes in
their c...
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering    5 significant agents:
- the process by
which minerals           water
undergo ch...
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering    5 significant agents:
- the process by
which minerals           water
undergo ch...
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering    5 significant agents:
- the process by
which minerals           water
undergo ch...
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering    5 significant agents:
- the process by
which minerals           water
undergo ch...
Chemical Weathering
chemical weathering    5 significant agents:
- the process by
which minerals           water
undergo ch...
Water
Water

can dissolve many kinds of minerals and
rocks
Water

can dissolve many kinds of minerals and
rocks

  has active role in some reactions
Water

can dissolve many kinds of minerals and
rocks

  has active role in some reactions

  serves as medium through whic...
Water

can dissolve many kinds of minerals and
rocks

  has active role in some reactions

  serves as medium through whic...
Oxygen
Oxygen

can combine w/ other substances
Oxygen

can combine w/ other substances

oxidation - the chemical reaction of oxygen
w/ other substances
Oxygen

can combine w/ other substances

oxidation - the chemical reaction of oxygen
w/ other substances

  ex. iron readi...
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide

produced by living organisms during
respiration
Carbon Dioxide

produced by living organisms during
respiration

when combined w/ water in air, it forms
weak carbonic aci...
Carbon Dioxide

produced by living organisms during
respiration

when combined w/ water in air, it forms
weak carbonic aci...
Acid Rain
Acid Rain

caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide
and nitrogen oxides released into air by
human activities
Acid Rain

caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide
and nitrogen oxides released into air by
human activities

  2 gas...
Acid Rain

caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide
and nitrogen oxides released into air by
human activities

  2 gas...
Acid Rain

caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide
and nitrogen oxides released into air by
human activities

  2 gas...
What Affects the Rate
   of Weathering?
What Affects the Rate
   of Weathering?
 natural weathering occurs very slowly
What Affects the Rate
   of Weathering?
 natural weathering occurs very slowly

 certain conditions and interactions can
 ...
What Affects the Rate
   of Weathering?
 natural weathering occurs very slowly

 certain conditions and interactions can
 ...
What Affects the Rate
   of Weathering?
 natural weathering occurs very slowly

 certain conditions and interactions can
 ...
What Affects the Rate
   of Weathering?
 natural weathering occurs very slowly

 certain conditions and interactions can
 ...
What Affects the Rate
   of Weathering?
 natural weathering occurs very slowly

 certain conditions and interactions can
 ...
Climate
Climate

major influence on rate of chemical
weathering
Climate

major influence on rate of chemical
weathering

variables of climate:
Climate

major influence on rate of chemical
weathering

variables of climate:

  precipitation
Climate

major influence on rate of chemical
weathering

variables of climate:

  precipitation

  temperature
Climate

major influence on rate of chemical
weathering

variables of climate:

  precipitation

  temperature

  evaporati...
Climate cont...
Climate cont...

interaction b/c temperature and precipitation
has greatest effect
Climate cont...

interaction b/c temperature and precipitation
has greatest effect

  chemical weathering occurs readily i...
Climate cont...

interaction b/c temperature and precipitation
has greatest effect

  chemical weathering occurs readily i...
Rock Type and
 Composition
Rock Type and
       Composition

how hard or resistant rocks are to be broken
down, depends on their type an composition
Rock Type and
       Composition

how hard or resistant rocks are to be broken
down, depends on their type an composition
...
Surface Area
Surface Area


as pieces get smaller, surface areas increase
Surface Area


as pieces get smaller, surface areas increase

  the higher the total surface area, the
  more weathering t...
Topography and Other
      Variables
Topography and Other
        Variables
materials on level areas likely to remain in place as
they undergo changes
Topography and Other
        Variables
materials on level areas likely to remain in place as
they undergo changes

materia...
Topography and Other
        Variables
materials on level areas likely to remain in place as
they undergo changes

materia...
Topography and Other
        Variables
materials on level areas likely to remain in place as
they undergo changes

materia...
Topography and Other
        Variables
materials on level areas likely to remain in place as
they undergo changes

materia...
Topography and Other
        Variables
materials on level areas likely to remain in place as
they undergo changes

materia...
Erosion and Deposition
       SECTION 7.2
Intro
Intro

erosion process that transports earth’s
minerals from one location to another
Intro

erosion process that transports earth’s
minerals from one location to another

  running water, glaciers, wind, and...
Intro

erosion process that transports earth’s
minerals from one location to another

  running water, glaciers, wind, and...
Gravity’s Role in Erosion
Gravity’s Role in Erosion


 force gravity pulls materials down slope
Gravity’s Role in Erosion


 force gravity pulls materials down slope

   w/out gravity, glaciers would not move
   downsl...
Erosion by Running
      Water
Erosion by Running
           Water
water has a lot of power to move large particles
Erosion by Running
           Water
water has a lot of power to move large particles

  great potential to erode materials...
Erosion by Running
           Water
water has a lot of power to move large particles

  great potential to erode materials...
Erosion by Running
           Water
water has a lot of power to move large particles

  great potential to erode materials...
Erosion by Running
           Water
water has a lot of power to move large particles

  great potential to erode materials...
Erosion by Running
           Water
water has a lot of power to move large particles

  great potential to erode materials...
Costal Deposition and
       Erosion
Costal Deposition and
       Erosion

weathering process continue in ocean
Costal Deposition and
       Erosion

weathering process continue in ocean

  ocean currents, waves, and tides carve
  out...
Costal Deposition and
       Erosion

weathering process continue in ocean

  ocean currents, waves, and tides carve
  out...
Costal Deposition and
    Erosion cont...
Costal Deposition and
    Erosion cont...
erosion occurs
Costal Deposition and
    Erosion cont...
erosion occurs

  constant movement of water
Costal Deposition and
    Erosion cont...
erosion occurs

  constant movement of water

     sand repeatedly picked up and...
Costal Deposition and
    Erosion cont...
erosion occurs

  constant movement of water

     sand repeatedly picked up and...
Costal Deposition and
    Erosion cont...
erosion occurs

  constant movement of water

     sand repeatedly picked up and...
Glacier Erosion
Glacier Erosion
erosional effects large-scale and dramatic
Glacier Erosion
erosional effects large-scale and dramatic

  scrape and gorge out large sections
Glacier Erosion
erosional effects large-scale and dramatic

  scrape and gorge out large sections

     can carry huge roc...
Glacier Erosion
erosional effects large-scale and dramatic

  scrape and gorge out large sections

     can carry huge roc...
Glacier Erosion
erosional effects large-scale and dramatic

  scrape and gorge out large sections

     can carry huge roc...
Wind Erosion
Wind Erosion


major erosional agent in areas that
experience limited rain and high
temperatures
Wind Erosion


major erosional agent in areas that
experience limited rain and high
temperatures

  areas have little vege...
Wind Barriers
Wind Barriers


reduces effect of wind erosion
Wind Barriers


reduces effect of wind erosion

  trees and other vegetation planted
  perpendicular to direction of wind
Erosion by Plants,
Animals, and Humans
Erosion by Plants,
Animals, and Humans

as plants and animals carry on life process
they move materials from one place to
...
Erosion by Plants,
Animals, and Humans

as plants and animals carry on life process
they move materials from one place to
...
Chpater 7 Presentation (Cp)
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  • Chpater 7 Presentation (Cp)

    1. 1. Weathering, Erosion, and Soil CHAPTER 7
    2. 2. Weathering SECTION 7.1
    3. 3. Introduction
    4. 4. Introduction weathering -the process by which rocks on or near earth’s surface break down and change
    5. 5. Introduction weathering -the process by which rocks on or near earth’s surface break down and change erosion - the removal and transport of weathered materials from one location to another
    6. 6. Mechanical Weathering
    7. 7. Mechanical Weathering mechanical weathering (physical weathering) - the process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces
    8. 8. Mechanical Weathering mechanical weathering (physical weathering) - the process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces no change in rocks composition
    9. 9. Mechanical Weathering mechanical weathering (physical weathering) - the process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces no change in rocks composition only changes size and sometimes shape
    10. 10. Temperature
    11. 11. Temperature when water freezes it expands and increases in volume
    12. 12. Temperature when water freezes it expands and increases in volume water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts pressure on rocks and causes to split
    13. 13. Temperature when water freezes it expands and increases in volume water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts pressure on rocks and causes to split frost wedging - the repeated thawing and freezing of water in the cracks of rocks
    14. 14. Temperature when water freezes it expands and increases in volume water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts pressure on rocks and causes to split frost wedging - the repeated thawing and freezing of water in the cracks of rocks responsible for formation of potholes in rocks
    15. 15. Pressure
    16. 16. Pressure bedrock @ great depths is under pressure from overlaying rock
    17. 17. Pressure bedrock @ great depths is under pressure from overlaying rock when layers removed, former layers buried can now expand (cracks form)
    18. 18. Pressure bedrock @ great depths is under pressure from overlaying rock when layers removed, former layers buried can now expand (cracks form) exfoliation - the process by which outer rock layers are stripped away
    19. 19. Pressure bedrock @ great depths is under pressure from overlaying rock when layers removed, former layers buried can now expand (cracks form) exfoliation - the process by which outer rock layers are stripped away roots of trees can grow in cracks and further split rocks
    20. 20. Chemical Weathering
    21. 21. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering - the process by which minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
    22. 22. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering - the process by which minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
    23. 23. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering - the process by which minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
    24. 24. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
    25. 25. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
    26. 26. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as oxygen the result of chemical reactions
    27. 27. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as oxygen the result of chemical reactions carbon dioxide
    28. 28. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as oxygen the result of chemical reactions carbon dioxide acids
    29. 29. Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as oxygen the result of chemical reactions carbon dioxide acids temperature
    30. 30. Water
    31. 31. Water can dissolve many kinds of minerals and rocks
    32. 32. Water can dissolve many kinds of minerals and rocks has active role in some reactions
    33. 33. Water can dissolve many kinds of minerals and rocks has active role in some reactions serves as medium through which other reactions occur
    34. 34. Water can dissolve many kinds of minerals and rocks has active role in some reactions serves as medium through which other reactions occur hydrolysis - the reaction of water w/ other substances
    35. 35. Oxygen
    36. 36. Oxygen can combine w/ other substances
    37. 37. Oxygen can combine w/ other substances oxidation - the chemical reaction of oxygen w/ other substances
    38. 38. Oxygen can combine w/ other substances oxidation - the chemical reaction of oxygen w/ other substances ex. iron readily combines w/ oxygen in atmosphere to form minerals w/ oxidized form of iron
    39. 39. Carbon Dioxide
    40. 40. Carbon Dioxide produced by living organisms during respiration
    41. 41. Carbon Dioxide produced by living organisms during respiration when combined w/ water in air, it forms weak carbonic acid that falls to earth’s surface as precipitation
    42. 42. Carbon Dioxide produced by living organisms during respiration when combined w/ water in air, it forms weak carbonic acid that falls to earth’s surface as precipitation carbonic acid reacts w/ minerals to dissolve rock
    43. 43. Acid Rain
    44. 44. Acid Rain caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into air by human activities
    45. 45. Acid Rain caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into air by human activities 2 gases combine w/ oxygen and water in air to form sulfuric and nitric acid
    46. 46. Acid Rain caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into air by human activities 2 gases combine w/ oxygen and water in air to form sulfuric and nitric acid pH = 5.6 or lower
    47. 47. Acid Rain caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into air by human activities 2 gases combine w/ oxygen and water in air to form sulfuric and nitric acid pH = 5.6 or lower precipitation affects wildlife
    48. 48. What Affects the Rate of Weathering?
    49. 49. What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly
    50. 50. What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering
    51. 51. What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering climate
    52. 52. What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering climate rock type
    53. 53. What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering climate rock type surface area
    54. 54. What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering climate rock type surface area topography
    55. 55. Climate
    56. 56. Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering
    57. 57. Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering variables of climate:
    58. 58. Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering variables of climate: precipitation
    59. 59. Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering variables of climate: precipitation temperature
    60. 60. Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering variables of climate: precipitation temperature evaporation
    61. 61. Climate cont...
    62. 62. Climate cont... interaction b/c temperature and precipitation has greatest effect
    63. 63. Climate cont... interaction b/c temperature and precipitation has greatest effect chemical weathering occurs readily in climates of warm temperatures
    64. 64. Climate cont... interaction b/c temperature and precipitation has greatest effect chemical weathering occurs readily in climates of warm temperatures physical weathering occurs readily in cool, dry climates
    65. 65. Rock Type and Composition
    66. 66. Rock Type and Composition how hard or resistant rocks are to be broken down, depends on their type an composition
    67. 67. Rock Type and Composition how hard or resistant rocks are to be broken down, depends on their type an composition sedimentary rocks more easily weathered than harder igneous and metamorphic rocks
    68. 68. Surface Area
    69. 69. Surface Area as pieces get smaller, surface areas increase
    70. 70. Surface Area as pieces get smaller, surface areas increase the higher the total surface area, the more weathering that occurs
    71. 71. Topography and Other Variables
    72. 72. Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes
    73. 73. Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity
    74. 74. Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity as move down slope, exposes underlying rock surfaces and provides more opportunities for weathering to occur
    75. 75. Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity as move down slope, exposes underlying rock surfaces and provides more opportunities for weathering to occur organisms affect weathering
    76. 76. Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity as move down slope, exposes underlying rock surfaces and provides more opportunities for weathering to occur organisms affect weathering decaying organic matter
    77. 77. Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity as move down slope, exposes underlying rock surfaces and provides more opportunities for weathering to occur organisms affect weathering decaying organic matter living plant roots
    78. 78. Erosion and Deposition SECTION 7.2
    79. 79. Intro
    80. 80. Intro erosion process that transports earth’s minerals from one location to another
    81. 81. Intro erosion process that transports earth’s minerals from one location to another running water, glaciers, wind, and ocean currents
    82. 82. Intro erosion process that transports earth’s minerals from one location to another running water, glaciers, wind, and ocean currents deposition - minerals are dropped in another location
    83. 83. Gravity’s Role in Erosion
    84. 84. Gravity’s Role in Erosion force gravity pulls materials down slope
    85. 85. Gravity’s Role in Erosion force gravity pulls materials down slope w/out gravity, glaciers would not move downslope and streams would not flow
    86. 86. Erosion by Running Water
    87. 87. Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles
    88. 88. Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows
    89. 89. Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows small streams join into larger streams (watershed)
    90. 90. Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows small streams join into larger streams (watershed) rill erosion - erosion by running water in small channels, on side of slope
    91. 91. Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows small streams join into larger streams (watershed) rill erosion - erosion by running water in small channels, on side of slope gully erosion - when channels becomes steep and wide
    92. 92. Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows small streams join into larger streams (watershed) rill erosion - erosion by running water in small channels, on side of slope gully erosion - when channels becomes steep and wide problem in farming and grazing areas
    93. 93. Costal Deposition and Erosion
    94. 94. Costal Deposition and Erosion weathering process continue in ocean
    95. 95. Costal Deposition and Erosion weathering process continue in ocean ocean currents, waves, and tides carve out cliffs, arches, and edges of continents
    96. 96. Costal Deposition and Erosion weathering process continue in ocean ocean currents, waves, and tides carve out cliffs, arches, and edges of continents sand particles accumulate on shorelines forming dunes and beaches
    97. 97. Costal Deposition and Erosion cont...
    98. 98. Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs
    99. 99. Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs constant movement of water
    100. 100. Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs constant movement of water sand repeatedly picked up and moved
    101. 101. Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs constant movement of water sand repeatedly picked up and moved sandbars form
    102. 102. Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs constant movement of water sand repeatedly picked up and moved sandbars form can turn into barrier islands
    103. 103. Glacier Erosion
    104. 104. Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic
    105. 105. Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic scrape and gorge out large sections
    106. 106. Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic scrape and gorge out large sections can carry huge rocks and piles of debris over great distance
    107. 107. Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic scrape and gorge out large sections can carry huge rocks and piles of debris over great distance features left in wake of glacier movement:
    108. 108. Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic scrape and gorge out large sections can carry huge rocks and piles of debris over great distance features left in wake of glacier movement: valleys, majestic water falls, lakes, deposits of sediment
    109. 109. Wind Erosion
    110. 110. Wind Erosion major erosional agent in areas that experience limited rain and high temperatures
    111. 111. Wind Erosion major erosional agent in areas that experience limited rain and high temperatures areas have little vegetation to hold sediments in place
    112. 112. Wind Barriers
    113. 113. Wind Barriers reduces effect of wind erosion
    114. 114. Wind Barriers reduces effect of wind erosion trees and other vegetation planted perpendicular to direction of wind
    115. 115. Erosion by Plants, Animals, and Humans
    116. 116. Erosion by Plants, Animals, and Humans as plants and animals carry on life process they move materials from one place to another
    117. 117. Erosion by Plants, Animals, and Humans as plants and animals carry on life process they move materials from one place to another humans excavate areas
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