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Chpater 7 Presentation (Cp)
 

Chpater 7 Presentation (Cp)

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Chpater 7 Presentation (Cp) Chpater 7 Presentation (Cp) Presentation Transcript

  • Weathering, Erosion, and Soil CHAPTER 7
  • Weathering SECTION 7.1
  • Introduction
  • Introduction weathering -the process by which rocks on or near earth’s surface break down and change
  • Introduction weathering -the process by which rocks on or near earth’s surface break down and change erosion - the removal and transport of weathered materials from one location to another
  • Mechanical Weathering
  • Mechanical Weathering mechanical weathering (physical weathering) - the process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces
  • Mechanical Weathering mechanical weathering (physical weathering) - the process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces no change in rocks composition
  • Mechanical Weathering mechanical weathering (physical weathering) - the process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces no change in rocks composition only changes size and sometimes shape
  • Temperature
  • Temperature when water freezes it expands and increases in volume
  • Temperature when water freezes it expands and increases in volume water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts pressure on rocks and causes to split
  • Temperature when water freezes it expands and increases in volume water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts pressure on rocks and causes to split frost wedging - the repeated thawing and freezing of water in the cracks of rocks
  • Temperature when water freezes it expands and increases in volume water in rocks freezes, expands, exerts pressure on rocks and causes to split frost wedging - the repeated thawing and freezing of water in the cracks of rocks responsible for formation of potholes in rocks
  • Pressure
  • Pressure bedrock @ great depths is under pressure from overlaying rock
  • Pressure bedrock @ great depths is under pressure from overlaying rock when layers removed, former layers buried can now expand (cracks form)
  • Pressure bedrock @ great depths is under pressure from overlaying rock when layers removed, former layers buried can now expand (cracks form) exfoliation - the process by which outer rock layers are stripped away
  • Pressure bedrock @ great depths is under pressure from overlaying rock when layers removed, former layers buried can now expand (cracks form) exfoliation - the process by which outer rock layers are stripped away roots of trees can grow in cracks and further split rocks
  • Chemical Weathering
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering - the process by which minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering - the process by which minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering - the process by which minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as oxygen the result of chemical reactions
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as oxygen the result of chemical reactions carbon dioxide
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as oxygen the result of chemical reactions carbon dioxide acids
  • Chemical Weathering chemical weathering 5 significant agents: - the process by which minerals water undergo changes in their composition as oxygen the result of chemical reactions carbon dioxide acids temperature
  • Water
  • Water can dissolve many kinds of minerals and rocks
  • Water can dissolve many kinds of minerals and rocks has active role in some reactions
  • Water can dissolve many kinds of minerals and rocks has active role in some reactions serves as medium through which other reactions occur
  • Water can dissolve many kinds of minerals and rocks has active role in some reactions serves as medium through which other reactions occur hydrolysis - the reaction of water w/ other substances
  • Oxygen
  • Oxygen can combine w/ other substances
  • Oxygen can combine w/ other substances oxidation - the chemical reaction of oxygen w/ other substances
  • Oxygen can combine w/ other substances oxidation - the chemical reaction of oxygen w/ other substances ex. iron readily combines w/ oxygen in atmosphere to form minerals w/ oxidized form of iron
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon Dioxide produced by living organisms during respiration
  • Carbon Dioxide produced by living organisms during respiration when combined w/ water in air, it forms weak carbonic acid that falls to earth’s surface as precipitation
  • Carbon Dioxide produced by living organisms during respiration when combined w/ water in air, it forms weak carbonic acid that falls to earth’s surface as precipitation carbonic acid reacts w/ minerals to dissolve rock
  • Acid Rain
  • Acid Rain caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into air by human activities
  • Acid Rain caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into air by human activities 2 gases combine w/ oxygen and water in air to form sulfuric and nitric acid
  • Acid Rain caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into air by human activities 2 gases combine w/ oxygen and water in air to form sulfuric and nitric acid pH = 5.6 or lower
  • Acid Rain caused mainly by oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into air by human activities 2 gases combine w/ oxygen and water in air to form sulfuric and nitric acid pH = 5.6 or lower precipitation affects wildlife
  • What Affects the Rate of Weathering?
  • What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly
  • What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering
  • What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering climate
  • What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering climate rock type
  • What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering climate rock type surface area
  • What Affects the Rate of Weathering? natural weathering occurs very slowly certain conditions and interactions can accelerate or slow weathering climate rock type surface area topography
  • Climate
  • Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering
  • Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering variables of climate:
  • Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering variables of climate: precipitation
  • Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering variables of climate: precipitation temperature
  • Climate major influence on rate of chemical weathering variables of climate: precipitation temperature evaporation
  • Climate cont...
  • Climate cont... interaction b/c temperature and precipitation has greatest effect
  • Climate cont... interaction b/c temperature and precipitation has greatest effect chemical weathering occurs readily in climates of warm temperatures
  • Climate cont... interaction b/c temperature and precipitation has greatest effect chemical weathering occurs readily in climates of warm temperatures physical weathering occurs readily in cool, dry climates
  • Rock Type and Composition
  • Rock Type and Composition how hard or resistant rocks are to be broken down, depends on their type an composition
  • Rock Type and Composition how hard or resistant rocks are to be broken down, depends on their type an composition sedimentary rocks more easily weathered than harder igneous and metamorphic rocks
  • Surface Area
  • Surface Area as pieces get smaller, surface areas increase
  • Surface Area as pieces get smaller, surface areas increase the higher the total surface area, the more weathering that occurs
  • Topography and Other Variables
  • Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes
  • Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity
  • Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity as move down slope, exposes underlying rock surfaces and provides more opportunities for weathering to occur
  • Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity as move down slope, exposes underlying rock surfaces and provides more opportunities for weathering to occur organisms affect weathering
  • Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity as move down slope, exposes underlying rock surfaces and provides more opportunities for weathering to occur organisms affect weathering decaying organic matter
  • Topography and Other Variables materials on level areas likely to remain in place as they undergo changes materials on slopes have greater tendency to move as result of gravity as move down slope, exposes underlying rock surfaces and provides more opportunities for weathering to occur organisms affect weathering decaying organic matter living plant roots
  • Erosion and Deposition SECTION 7.2
  • Intro
  • Intro erosion process that transports earth’s minerals from one location to another
  • Intro erosion process that transports earth’s minerals from one location to another running water, glaciers, wind, and ocean currents
  • Intro erosion process that transports earth’s minerals from one location to another running water, glaciers, wind, and ocean currents deposition - minerals are dropped in another location
  • Gravity’s Role in Erosion
  • Gravity’s Role in Erosion force gravity pulls materials down slope
  • Gravity’s Role in Erosion force gravity pulls materials down slope w/out gravity, glaciers would not move downslope and streams would not flow
  • Erosion by Running Water
  • Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles
  • Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows
  • Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows small streams join into larger streams (watershed)
  • Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows small streams join into larger streams (watershed) rill erosion - erosion by running water in small channels, on side of slope
  • Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows small streams join into larger streams (watershed) rill erosion - erosion by running water in small channels, on side of slope gully erosion - when channels becomes steep and wide
  • Erosion by Running Water water has a lot of power to move large particles great potential to erode materials b/c steeper slope, faster water flows small streams join into larger streams (watershed) rill erosion - erosion by running water in small channels, on side of slope gully erosion - when channels becomes steep and wide problem in farming and grazing areas
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion weathering process continue in ocean
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion weathering process continue in ocean ocean currents, waves, and tides carve out cliffs, arches, and edges of continents
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion weathering process continue in ocean ocean currents, waves, and tides carve out cliffs, arches, and edges of continents sand particles accumulate on shorelines forming dunes and beaches
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion cont...
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs constant movement of water
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs constant movement of water sand repeatedly picked up and moved
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs constant movement of water sand repeatedly picked up and moved sandbars form
  • Costal Deposition and Erosion cont... erosion occurs constant movement of water sand repeatedly picked up and moved sandbars form can turn into barrier islands
  • Glacier Erosion
  • Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic
  • Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic scrape and gorge out large sections
  • Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic scrape and gorge out large sections can carry huge rocks and piles of debris over great distance
  • Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic scrape and gorge out large sections can carry huge rocks and piles of debris over great distance features left in wake of glacier movement:
  • Glacier Erosion erosional effects large-scale and dramatic scrape and gorge out large sections can carry huge rocks and piles of debris over great distance features left in wake of glacier movement: valleys, majestic water falls, lakes, deposits of sediment
  • Wind Erosion
  • Wind Erosion major erosional agent in areas that experience limited rain and high temperatures
  • Wind Erosion major erosional agent in areas that experience limited rain and high temperatures areas have little vegetation to hold sediments in place
  • Wind Barriers
  • Wind Barriers reduces effect of wind erosion
  • Wind Barriers reduces effect of wind erosion trees and other vegetation planted perpendicular to direction of wind
  • Erosion by Plants, Animals, and Humans
  • Erosion by Plants, Animals, and Humans as plants and animals carry on life process they move materials from one place to another
  • Erosion by Plants, Animals, and Humans as plants and animals carry on life process they move materials from one place to another humans excavate areas