1. PHYLUM : PORIFERA ( Porus=pore; ferre=bear; sponges) Porifera are commonly called sponges, mostly marine but may live in fresh water. Mostly sessile (stalk less) and attach to substratum. They are asymmetrical. They have cellular level organization. They have a single large opening called osculum.(intake and exit of food through a single opening). Theylack mouth, digestive cavity and anus. Sponges are covered with hard outer skeleton. Reproduction is both asexual as well as sexual. Examples: sycon, euplectella , euspongia etc.
2. PHYLUM : COELENTERATA/CNIDRIA (koilos=hollow; enteron= gut) These all organisms are aquatic (marine or fresh water.) They may be solitary or colonial. They have tissue level of organization but lacks organ and organsystem. Symmetry is radial. It has a single aperture, the mouth. It has no anus. Mouth bearstentacles (flexible processes). They have special stinging cells, called cnidoblasts for defensepurposes. Reproduction is mainly asexual but sometimes undergoes sexualreproduction. Fertilization may be internal or external. Hard skeleton occurs incorals Example: hydra(fresh water polyp), obelia (the sea fur), Aurelia (jellyfish).
SEAFUR (OBELIA)HYDRA AURELIA (JELLY FISH)
3. PHYLUM : PLATYHELMINTHES (platys=flat; helmins=worm; flatworm) These are most primitive, soft, leaf or ribbon likeorganisms without segmentation. These are mostly parasites, few are free living. They attach to the host by suckers or hooks. They are the first animals to have third primarygerm layer, this shows tissue differentiation leadingto organ formation. Digestive track is incomplete. They have flame-cells for excretion. They are mostly hermaphrophite (bisexual). Examples: dugesia (planaria), fasciola (liver fluke),taenia solium (tape worms).
DUGESIA (PLANARIA)TAENIA SOLIUM (TAPEWORM)
4. PHYLUM : NEMATODA (Roundworms) Animal body is cylindrical, flattened, bilateral,triploblastic(third layer), unsegmented. Size of the body varies from microscopic to severalcentimeters in length. Body wall is covered with tough cuticle. Cilia areabsent. Pseudocoelom (false body cavity) is present. Digestive track is complete. Sexes are separate (bisexual). These are generally parasites and causes diseases. They may be free living in soil or water. Examples: ascaris (intestinal sound-worm),hookworm, pinworm filarial worm.
ENTEREOBIUM (THE PIN WORM)ASCARIS (MALEAND FEMALE)
5. PHYLUM : ANNELIDA (Annelus=a ring; segmented worms) Animal body is soft, elongated, bilateral, flattened. Body is divided into segments by rings like groove andannule. Body bears locomotory appendages, parapodia, setae. Alimentary canal is complete, straight and extends frommouth to anus. These are first animals to have true body cavity. The specialized cells called metanephridia helps in excretion. Closed circulatory system has appeared and nervous systemstarts developing. Reproduction occurs by sexual means. Sexes may beseparate (unisexual) or united (hermaphroditic). Examples: nereis (the sandworm), pheretima (earthworm),tubiflex (bloodworm).
HIRUDINARIA (LEECH) PHERETIMA (EARTHWORM)
6. PHYLUM : ARTHOPDA (Arthos=jointed; podos=foot; animals with jointed feet) It is the largest phylum includes prawn, crabs, insects,spiders, etc. They occur in soil, water and as parasites in plants andanimals. Body is segmented externally but not separated internally. Body is divided into 3 regions: head, thorax and abdomen. Interior part of the body forms head and bears sense organsand small brain. Sexes are separate. Hard exoskeleton is made up of cuticle. Body contains blood,alimentary canal is complete, respiration take place by gills,trachea, book lungs etc. Examples: prawn, lobsters, housefly, dragon etc.
7. PHYLUM : MOLLUSCA (molluscus = soft) It includes aquatic organisms like snails, octopus, slugs,oysters etc. Animal body is soft, unsegmented without appendages. . Body is divided into 3 regions: head, visceral mass andfoot. . Sometimes body is covered by fleshy folds calledmantle. . In most cases, calcarious shell is secreted by mantlewhich covers the body. . Alimentary canal is complete. Respiration is throughgills and sexes are separate. . Examples: octopus, snail, logio, sepia etc.
8.. PHYLUM :: ECHINODERMATA8 PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA (Spiny skinned animals) (Spiny skinned animals). These are marine, gregarious(at bottom), slowmoving animals.. The shape of the animal ay be star-like,cylindrical, melon, flower-like etc.. Body is covered by spines. True body cavity,podia for movement and all animals lacks head.. Sexes are separate.. Examples: a s te ria s (starfish), ho lo thuria ns(sea-cucumber), a nte d o n (feather star)
9. PHYLUM : CHORDATA PROTOCHORDATA PROTOCHORDATA VERTEBRAT VERTEBRAT A A MAMMALI MAMMALIPISCESPISCES AMPHIBIA AMPHIBIA REPTILIA REPTILIA AVES AVES A A
Subphylum :: PROTOCHORDATA Subphylum PROTOCHORDATA . These animals have notochords at early stageof life. . Notochord provides place for attachment ofmuscles, internal support and locomotorypowers. . These are mainly bilateral, unsegmented,triploblastic, have body cavity, marine, soft andhave warm or vase like body. Examples : amphioxus, balanoglossus, herd
amphioxus balanogloss us
Subphylum : VERTEBRATA . These are bilateral, triploblastic, have bodycavity. . The animal body consists of 4 regions: head,neck, trunk and tail. . Well developed nervous system and senseorgans. . There are 2 pairs of appendages (fins or limbs). . Respiration is through gills. Sexes are separate. . Vertebrata is divided into 5 classes:
Cold blooded animals having 2chambered heart. Body may be long, laterally compressedand spindle shaped. It consists of head, trunk and tail. Skin iscovered with scales. They are egg laying animals. Fertilization is external. Fishes breathethrough gills.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FISHES
There are many kinds of fishes. They have beenbroadly grouped under 3 categories:1. CYCLOSTOMATA : The round mouthed fishes.Example :- The hag fish, the lamprey.2. CHONDRICHTHYES : The cartilaginous fishes.Examples :- Scoliodon (dog fish or the Indian Shark),Sting ray, electric ray (torpedo).
Scoliodon (dogfish or the IndianShark) 3. OSTEICHTHYES : The body fishes. Examples :- labio rogita (rohu), hippocampus (sea horse), tuna, etc.hippocampus (seahorse)
The animals included in ambhibia are calledamphibians. Respiration can takes place by gills, skin andlungs. Heart is 3 chambered. There are 2 pairs of pentadactyl limbs. The skin issmooth, moist, rich in mucous and poison glands.Scales are mostly absent. Amphibians occur in fresh water and moist land.There are no marine forms. Examples :- rana tigerina (Indian frog), bufo (toad),hyla (tree frog), necturus (mud puppy) etc.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS
It includes lizards, snakes, tortoises, turtles, etc. These are terrestrial animals and live in warmerregions. These are cold blooded. Body is covered bywaterproof scales. Teeth are usually present in all reptiles except intortoises and turtles. Respiration occurs by lungs. Heart is 3 chambered. Most reptiles arecarnivorous or insectivorous but tortoises areherbivorous. Example: Hemidactylus (wall lizard), chameleon,varanus, python, Draco, cobra, crocodiles, etc.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF REPTILES
The class aves includes birds which are the mostbeautiful. They range in size from smallest hummingbird to largest ostrich. There are 2 pairs of limbs. The forelimbs aremodified into wings. The body is covered by a n exoskeleton offeathers. Mouth is surrounded by beak and there are noteeth. Respiration takes place by lungs. Heart is 4 chambered. Examples : columbo (pigeon), struthio (ostrich),kite, pea fowl, etc.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF BIRDS
Mammals are terrestrial. The body is divisibleinto head, neck, trunk and tail. The body is covered by exoskeleton of hair.Respiration occurs by lungs. Heart is 4 chambered. Mammals are mostlyviviparous (alive-bearing) but some are oviparousand lay eggs like - platypus and echidna. Examples: kangaroo, bat, rattus (rat),oryctolagus (rabbit), felis (cat), etc.