2. BASIC PRINCIPLES ON EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES1. The primary function of educational facilities is to provide the proper school environment that is most conducive to effective teaching and learning.2. Functional and effective educational facilities are developed, operated and managed on the basis of a comprehensive plan of action of the school, prepared by all stakeholders in education in the community.
3. BASIC PRINCIPLES ON EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES3. It shall include sound educational facility planningand design process principles to:a.Maximize collaboration in school planning design.a.Build a proactive facility management program.c. Plan schools as neighborhood-scaled communitylearning centers considering the following steps:
4. BASIC PRINCIPLES ON EDUCATIONAL FACILITIESc.1 Locate the school in a well-defined neighborhoodas this will provide opportunities for children and parentsto walk to the school and provide an identity for thatcommunity;c.2 Provide a variety of services at flexible schedulesand make the same accessible to end-users of differentbackgrounds especially during calamities/disasterswherein the school buildings are being used asevacuation centers and temporary shelters to affectedcommunity members;
5. BASIC PRINCIPLES ON EDUCATIONAL FACILITIESc.3 Create an environment that draws the community tothe school and that increases interaction in compliancewith the principles of the Schools First Initiative (SFI)and the School-Based Management (SBM);c.4 The school shall provide facilities accessible to theentire community, creating an increased involvementand awareness of the educational process; andc.5 School facilities that act as true community centersto serve the broader society goals of providing the settingfor meaningful civic participation and engagement at thelocal level.
6. BASIC PRINCIPLES ON EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES A variety of social and economic factors havecreated an environment which educators can tap as alearning resource be these in urban, suburban or ruralsettings. This will establish partnership with museums,zoos, other public institutions as well as local business orindustrial workplace settings in compliance with RepublicAct No. 8525 otherwise known as the “Adopt-A-SchoolProgram”, involving external stakeholders in education.
7. SCHOOL MAPPINGSchool Mapping is a dynamic process of planning thedistribution, size and spacing of schools and physicalfacilities requirements for optimum utilization and benefit.It is a process of identifying current inadequacies indistribution and of providing appropriate types andpatterns of school plant. It is a continuous process involving the uninterruptedrecording of basic information required for analysis of theschool map at any given point in time.
8. 1. SCHOOL MAPPING PROCESSa. Specific Areas for ExpansionThe process of school mapping covers the following specificareas for expansion and improvement of facilities(1)Rationalization of existing facilities by:• locating existing schools and determining its vulnerability tovarious geological and hydro meteorological hazards;• new schools must be located outside areas alreadyidentified to be within hazard zones (Niño Relox, PAGASA);• shifting, closure, or amalgamation/ integration ofinstitutions; and• optimum utilization of buildings, equipments, furniture, etc.
9. 1. SCHOOL MAPPING PROCESSa. (2) provision of new or additional facilities by:• opening of new schools or upgrading existing ones;• providing additional teaching and non-teaching staff; and• providing new or additional buildings, furniture andequipment in institutions, etc. Before starting the exercise of school mapping, it isessential that the norms and standards for provisionand maintenance of educational services are clearly laiddown by the higher authorities.
10. 1. SCHOOL MAPPING PROCESSb. Initial Steps in School Mapping(1) Diagnosis of the Existing Situation The initial step in school mapping is to make a surveyof the existing situation in order to obtain all informationabout the network of schools and their physical resourcesand means considering the following factors:• Environmental/geographic factors include both natural(rivers, mountains, etc.) and man-made (source ofelectricity, roads, railways, communication network, etc.)features.
11. 1. SCHOOL MAPPING PROCESS• Demographic factors pertain to such characteristics ofpopulation as size, growth, density, social structure,migratory trends, school drop-outs and retention rates, etc.• Economic factors refer to per capita income, commercialestablishments, mass media, size of schools/classes, etc.• Educational factors include the number of study hoursper week and their distribution by subjects, the number ofpupils/students per class, normal length of time for whichpremises shall be used and the possibility of introducingdouble shift, teachers’ working hours, etc.
12. 1. SCHOOL MAPPING PROCESS• Political factors cover those political and policy prioritiesand constraints, which usually, dictate thecreation or expansion of specific types of educationalinstitutions.• Manpower factors refer to the present and futurestructures of employment which generally affect therelative weights in educational contents and diversification.
13. 1. SCHOOL MAPPING PROCESS(2) Projection of future requirements After a comprehensive diagnosis, it is necessary tomake projections to identify the potential demands.Simultaneously, it is necessary to draw up perspectiveschool maps involving the following steps:• Estimating the number of children to be enrolled; and• Determining the capacity of existing schools and definingtheir catchment areas. Catchment area refers to a specific territory, which isserved by a school based on the environmental,demographic and economic factors. These areas togetherwith their respective schools are plotted on a map.
14. 1. SCHOOL MAPPING PROCESS(3) Drawing up of perspective school map The school map produced shall not be regarded asfinal unless it has been considered and discussed bycentral administrators, local authorities, teachers, parents,etc.
15. 2. BASIC DATA NEEDED FOR SCHOOL MAPPINGa. Education Data(1) Annual Statistical Report(2) Geographical distribution of schools(3) Site and catchment area conditions(4) Size of the existing school plantFor individual schools(1) exact location or verbal description of location(2) nature of catchment area (relief/landelevation, barriers to movement, predominanteconomic activity,area of immigration or population decline)(3) number of student spaces available in eachyear, indication of the state of buildings
16. 2. BASIC DATA NEEDED FOR SCHOOL MAPPINGb. Population Data (analysis of the census)c. Other Planning Data(1)general rural and urban development policies(2) social facilities (school health, recreationalcenters, etc.) to encourage nucleation ofpopulation at the central points.
17. 3. EXPECTED RESULTS OF SCHOOL MAPPING(1) School buildings requiring repairs(2) Schools requiring additionalclassrooms(3) Opening of New Schools(4) Phasing out of existing schools(5) Resource allocation(6) Environmental Mapping
18. 5. SPECIFIC OUTPUTS OF SCHOOL MAPPING a. Prioritization of schools based on defined set of criteria, e.g. selection of place to open a school taking note of available resources, as well as vulnerability of location to both natural and man-made hazards (PAGASA). b. Identifying the location of new schools based on a defined radial distance from existing schools or barangays (attention in range, i.e. walking distance from nearest schooling facilities) c. Grouping of entries based on a defined set of attributes. (e.g. availability of land, local contributions)
19. 6. THE SCHOOL MAPPING EXERCISE (SME) OF DepEd
20. MODE OF ACQUISITION OF SCHOOL SITES A school site may be acquired through any of the following methods: 1.Purchase 2.Donation 3.Contract of Usufruct 4.Expropriation 5.Barter 6.Presidential Proclamation 7.Gratuitous Conveyance
21. MODE OF ACQUISITION OF SCHOOL SITESPurchase. This is the most reliable, stable and non-controversial mode of acquisition. A school site may beacquired by direct purchase from the legal owner whovoluntarily sells it on an agreed price.Donation. May either be simple, conditional, inter vivos ormortis causa.Contract of Usufruct. In case the property is registered inthe name of an individual, province, city, municipality orbarangay, but is not allowed to be donated, butDepED/school is allowed full use or perpetual right of usethrough gratuitous act (without consideration).
22. MODE OF ACQUISITION OF SCHOOL SITESExpropriation. Private land desired for school purposesmay be acquired through expropriation proceedings.Presidential Proclamation. Public lands declared asreservation areas (including ancestral lands) throughPresidential Proclamation are sometimes targeted as sitesfor educational purposes.Gratuitous Conveyance. Real property belonging to thegovernment, when needed for school purposes, may beconveyed by way of gift, sale, lease, exchange.