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Presentation on American culture in the 1950s and the counter culture

Presentation on American culture in the 1950s and the counter culture

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    4.1 america 1950s2 4.1 america 1950s2 Presentation Transcript

    • American  Culture  in  the  1950s  Art  109A:    Contemporary  Art    Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  Dr.  Melissa  Hall  
    • America  in  the  1950s   The  United  States  emerged  from  World   War  II  with  a  booming  economy  and  a   new  sense  of  global  importance.  “America  at  this  moment,”  said  the  former  BriVsh  Prime  Minister  Winston  Churchill  in  1945,  “stands  at  the  summit  of  the  world.”    During  the  1950s,  it  was  easy  to  see  what  Churchill  meant.  The  United  States  was  the  world’s  strongest  military  power.  Its  economy  was  booming,  and  the  fruits  of  this  prosperity–new  cars,  suburban  houses  and  other  consumer  goods–were  available  to  more  people  than  ever  before.  However,  the  1950s  were  also  an  era  of  great  conflict.  For  example,  the  nascent  civil  rights  movement  and  the  crusade  against  communism  at  home  and  abroad  exposed  the  underlying  divisions  in  American  society.  “The  1950s,”  History.com   USS  Steel  Ad,  Country  Gentleman,  September  1947   Image  source:    hIp://www.flickr.com/photos/incidental-­‐ephemera/3301076481/  
    • America  in  the  1950s  In  1952  President  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  was  elected  with  the  promise  of  “peace  and  prosperity”   President  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  in  the  Oval  Office,  Feb.  29,  1956  
    • America  in  the  1950s  Under  his  administraVon  faith  was  restored  in  American  capitalism   President  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  in  the  Oval  Office,  Feb.  29,  1956  
    • America  in  the  1950s   The  “American  Dream”  made  the   capitalist  pursuit  of  material  wealth  a   patrioVc  ideal  and  an  expression  of   personal  freedom   “American  economic  success  hinged   on  mass  consumerism  .  .  .  .   Americans  were  urged  to  go  on  a   shopping  spree:    buying  new  cars,   suburban  homes,  washing   machines,  refrigerators,  and   television  sets.”   Erika  Doss,  Twen8eth  Century  American  Art,  Oxford   History  of  Art,  Oxford  University  Press,  2002,  p.  125.  1950  refrigerator  ad;  image  source:     Image  source:    hIp://todaysinspiraVon.blogspot.com/2006/11/a_er-­‐war-­‐suburbia.html  hIp://www.marketworks.com/StoreFrontProfiles/DeluxeSFItemDetail.aspx?sid=1&sfid=44192&c=102794&i=231907881  
    • America  in  the  1950s  The  G.I.  Bill  offered  soldiers  substanVal  benefits,  including  free  educaVon,  job  training,  and  mortgage  and  business  loans   Returning  veterans  could  choose  from  school,  job,  business,  and  farm   assistance  from  the  GI  Bill.  (Folder  13,  Box  36,  Defense  Council  Records,  OSA)   Image  source:    hIp://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/exhibits/ww2/a_er/gi.htm  
    • America  in  the  1950s  Returning  vets  married,  seIled  down,  and  had  babies  -­‐-­‐  lots  of  them!   A  veteran  and  his  wife  look  at  plans  and  dream  about  their  future  together  in  their  new  home  financed   by  a  GI  Bill  loan.  (Folder  14,  Box  37,  Defense  Council  Records,  OSA)   Image  source:    hIp://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/a_er/gi1.htm  
    • America  in  the  1950s  Middle  class  expansion  led  to  the  dramaVc  growth  of  suburbs   Image  source:     hIp://www.capitalcentury.com/1951.html   Bernard  Hoffmann,  for  Life  Magazine,  Bernard  Levey  Family   Image  source:    hIp://Vgger.uic.edu/~pbhales/LeviIown.html  
    • America  in  the  1950s  The  family  car  became  a  conspicuous  symbol  of  middle  class  prosperity   Vintage  automobile  ad   Image  source:     hIp://www.graphicmania.net/30-­‐inspiring-­‐vintage-­‐ adverVsements-­‐and-­‐creaVve-­‐direcVons/   Vintage  automobile  ad   Image  source:    hIp://justoldcars.com/?p=2327  
    • America  in  the  1950s  TV  became  the  center  of  family  life,  and  a  prime  purveyor  of  the  “American  Dream”  Image  source:    hIp://www.flickr.com/photos/76438106@N07/ Family  watching  television,  c.  1958  galleries/72157629652639701   NaVonal  Archives  and  Records  AdministraVon  
    • America  in  the  1950s  The  family  home  became  a  site  of  consumpVon  for  new  products  that  promised  a  golden  age  of  suburban  domesVcity   Vintage  appliance  ads   Image  source:    hIp://goldcountrygirls.blogspot.com/2011/08/rhapsody-­‐in-­‐blue-­‐appliances.html  
    • America  in  the  1950s  The  home  itself  became  a  “machine  for  living”  as  efficiency  and  modern  design  replaced  the  cluIer  of  a  bygone  era   Image  source:     hIp://davidbuildsahouse.wordpress.com/2012/04/27/fiIed-­‐kitchens-­‐in-­‐the-­‐1950s-­‐and-­‐1960s/  
    • America  in  the  1950s  Faith  in  progress  was  expressed  through  the  popularity  of  modern  design  in  everything  from  furniture  to  toasters  and  cars   Image  source:    hIp://csales-­‐mylifestory.blogspot.com/2011/12/beIer-­‐homes-­‐and-­‐gardens-­‐1950s.html  
    • America  in  the  1950s  Prosperity  bred  new  forms  of  leisure  and  the  birth  of  the  family  vacaVon   Image  source:     hIp://ranch-­‐wife.blogspot.com/2012/06/road-­‐trip-­‐ homeward-­‐bound-­‐to-­‐california.html   The  First  McDonald’s  franchise  opened  in  Des  Plaines,  Illinois,  1954.    Photograph  by  andy  Felsenthal/ Corbis  .    Image  source:     hIp://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-­‐150940/The-­‐first-­‐McDonalds-­‐restaurant-­‐opened-­‐by-­‐Ray-­‐Kroc-­‐ was-­‐made  
    • America  in  the  1950s  But  the  1950’s  was  also  a  period  of  great  psychological  anxiety   Time  Magazine  April  12  1954   Image  source:    hIp://www.Vme.com/Vme/covers/0,16641,19540412,00.html  
    • America  in  the  1950s  The  Soviet  Union  detonated  its  first  Atomic  bomb  in  1949,  launching  the  Cold  War   Russian  Atomic  Bomb  test,  Kazakhstan,  August  29,  1949   Image  source:    hIp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_atomic_bomb_project  
    • America  in  the  1950s  In  the  same  year  a  communist  government  was  installed  in  China   Mao  Tse  Tung,  Time,  Feb  7,  1949   Image  source:    hIp://www.Vme.com/Vme/covers/0,16641,19490207,00.html  
    • America  in  the  1950s   The  Korean  War  (1950-­‐1953)  was  a   direct  outcome  of  the  Cold  War,  as  U.S.   forces  fought  to  stem  the  expansion  of   communism  Image  source:    hIp://i8.photobucket.com/albums/a49/DougLoudenback/JimKyle/KoreanWar/oklahoman_1950_06_25_arVcle.jpg   Image  source:     hIp://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/2428/2487068/atlas/atl_ah6_m004.html  
    • America  in  the  1950s  Tensions  heated  up  again  in  1957  when  the  Soviets  launched  Sputnik,  the  first  earth  orbiVng  satellite   Sputnik,  the  Soviet  satellite  that  launched  the  the  race  to  the  moon   Image  source:    hIp://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap071004.html  
    • America  in  the  1950s  America  responded  with  Explorer  1,  as  the  Space  Race  took  the  Arms  Race  into  outer  space   Explorer  1,  America’s  first  earth  satellite,  launched   January  31,  1958   Image  source:     hIp://whiIleseaspacerace.wikispaces.com/Cold +War+and+Space+Race   A  model  of  Explorer  1,  held  by  JPLs  Director  William  Pickering,  scienVst  James  Van  Allen  and   rocket  pioneer  Wernher  von  Braun.   Image  source:    hIp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Explorer_1_conference.jpg  
    • America  in  the  1950s  Fear  of  nuclear  Armageddon  was  matched  by  widespread  anxiety  about  the  spread  of  communism   Image  source:     hIp://www.conelrad.com/books/print.php? id=267_0_1_0   Cover  to  the  propaganda  comic  book  "Is  This  Tomorrow"  published  in  1947  by  the   CatecheVcal  Guild   Wikipedia  
    • America  in  the  1950s  This  was  the  era  of  Senator  Joseph  McCarthy  who  led  a  witch  hunt  against  alleged  communist  sympathizers  within  the  US  State  Department   Senator  Joseph  McCarthy,  Time,  March  8,   1954   Hank  Walker,  Sen.  Joseph  McCarthy  swearing  in  author  Dashiell  HammeI  at  Senate  Permanent   InvesVgaVng  CommiIee  hearing  on  Communism,  1953.  HammeI  is  suspected  of  being  a   communist.   LIFE  
    • “During  the  1950s,  a  sense  of  uniformity  pervaded   American  society.  Conformity  was  common,  as  America  in  the  1950s   young  and  old  alike  followed  group  norms  rather  Conformity  was  at  the  heart  of   than  striking  out  on  their  own.  Though  men  and  America’s  so-­‐called  “consensus  culture”   women  had  been  forced  into  new  employment   paIerns  during  World  War  II,  once  the  war  was   “Americans  of  1950s  sought   over,  tradiVonal  roles  were  reaffirmed.  Men   consensus-­‐-­‐everyone  should  fit   expected  to  be  the  breadwinners;  women,  even   into  an  "American"  mold,  those   when  they  worked,  assumed  their  proper  place  was   who  didnt  were  seen  as   at  home.  Sociologist  David  Riesman  observed  the   dangerous.”   hIp://mrfarshtey.net/notes/ importance  of  peer-­‐group  expectaVons  in  his   The_1950s.pdf   influenVal  book,  The  Lonely  Crowd.  He  called  this   new  society  "other-­‐directed,"  and  maintained  that   such  socieVes  lead  to  stability  as  well  as  conformity.   Television  contributed  to  the  homogenizing  trend  by   providing  young  and  old  with  a  shared  experience   reflecVng  accepted  social  paIerns.”   hIp://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/history/ch11.htm  
    • America  in  the  1950s   “Humorously  depicVng  a  suburban   family  going  to  church,  Rockwell’s   slick  commercial  illustraVon  for  the   Saturday  Evening  Post  captured  the   conformism  of  1950s  America.    Yet   it  also  hints  at  postwar  malcontent:     the  male  breadwinner  of  this   middle-­‐class  household  hides  in  his   Eero  Saarinen  chair,  trying  to   escape  from  familial  and  social   obligaVons.”   Erika  Doss,  TwenVeth  Century   American  Art,  p.  141   Norman  Rockwell,  Easter  Morning,  1959  
    • America  in  the  1950s   But  the  1950s  also  witnessed  an   emerging  “counter  culture”  that   rebelled  against  American  conformity.      “The  decade  of  the  1950s  has  a  reputaVon  as  an  age  of  poliVcal,  social,  and  cultural  conformity.  Yet,  as  Professor  Alan  Brinkley  states,  "An  acVvist  naVonal  agenda  emerged  from  a  series  of  criVques  of  and  protests  against  the  self-­‐saVsfied  public  culture  of  middle-­‐class  America  in  the  1950s.  The  acVvist  agenda  that  emerged  helped  lay  the  groundwork  for  a  more  acVvist  poliVcs  and  a  more  turbulent  and  divisive  social  climate  in  the  1960s."    hIp://caho-­‐test.cc.columbia.edu//dbq/11011.html   Norman  Rockwell,  Easter  Morning,  1959  
    • America  in  the  1950s  William  H.  Whyte  criVcized  the  conformism  of  American  corporate  culture  in  The  Organiza8on  Man  –  epitomized  by  the  image  of  the  “man  in  the  flannel  suit”   William  H.  Whyte’s  The  Organiza8on  Man,  1956  
    • America  in  the  1950s  “Regarded  as  one  of  the  most  important  sociological  and  business  commentaries  of  modern  Vmes,  The  Organiza8on  Man  developed  the  first  thorough  descripVon  of  the  impact  of  mass  organizaVon  on  American  society.  During  the  height  of  the  Eisenhower  administraVon,  corporaVons  appeared  to  provide  a  blissful  answer  to  postwar  life  with  the  markeVng  of  new  technologies—television,  affordable  cars,  space  travel,  fast  food—and  lifestyles,  such  as  carefully  planned  suburban  communiVes  centered  around  the  nuclear  family.  William  H.  Whyte  found  this  phenomenon  alarming.”  hIp://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/13785.html   William  H.  Whyte’s  The  Organiza8on  Man,  1956  
    • America  in  the  1950s  “The  Catcher  in  the  Rye  is  a  1951  cult  novel  wriIen  by  J.D.  Salinger.  It  .  .  .  became  a  instant  hit  among  teenage  readers  for  its  themes  which  includes  teenage  confusion,  angst,  alienaVon,  language  and  rebellion.  Holden  Caufield,  the  protagonist  and  anVhero  of  the  novel,  became  an  icon  of  teenage  rebellion  .  .  .  The  novel  was  published  at  a  Vme  when  the  American  industrial  economy  was  burgeoning  making  the  naVon  prosperous  and  entrenched  social  rules  served  as  a  code  of  conformity  for  the  younger  generaVon.  Many  readers  were  offended  because  of  Salinger’s  usage  of  slang  and  profanity  and  also  because  of  the  discussion  of  adolescent  sexuality  in  a  complex  and  open  way  .  .  .  In  the  face  of  cultural  oppression,  Holden  Caulfield,  was  seen  as  a  symbol  of  pure,  unfeIered  individuality  by  many  readers.  Catcher  In  The  Rye  –  J.  D.  Salinger  |  Suite101.com  hIp://suite101.com/arVcle/catcher-­‐in-­‐the-­‐rye-­‐-­‐j-­‐d-­‐salinger-­‐a392569#ixzz1yv5xXe73   J.D.  Salinger,  The  Catcher  in  the  Rye,  1951    
    • America  in  the  1950s  Many  expressed  concern  about  the  growing  power  of  mass  media  Typical  American  family  gathered  around  TV,  which  displays  John  F.  Kennedys  face,  to  watch  debate  between  Kennedy  &  Richard  Nixon  during  presidenVal  elecVon,  1960  LIFE   Image  source:    hIp://www.tvshowsondvd.com/news/Father-­‐Knows-­‐Best-­‐Season-­‐1/8782  
    • America  in  the  1950s   Vance  Packard  aIacked  adverVsing   and  TV  as  agents  of  social  conformism  “In  The  Hidden  Persuaders,  first  published  in  1957,  Packard  explores  the  use  of  consumer  moVvaVonal  research  and  other  psychological  techniques,  including  depth  psychology  and  subliminal  tacVcs,  by  adverVsers  to  manipulate  expectaVons  and  induce  desire  for  products,  parVcularly  in  the  American  postwar  era.  He  idenVfied  eight  "compelling  needs"  that  adverVsers  promise  products  will  fulfill.  According  to  Packard  these  needs  are  so  strong  that  people  are  compelled  to  buy  products  to  saVsfy  them.  The  book  also  explores  the  manipulaVve  techniques  of  promoVng  poliVcians  to  the  electorate.  The  book  quesVons  the  morality  of  using  these  techniques.”  Wikipedia   Vance  Packard,  Hidden  Persuaders,  1957  
    • America  in  the  1950s  The  Civil  Rights  movement  was  also  launched  in  the  1950s  –  challenging  the  the  myth  of  America’s  claim  to  freedom  and  equality  for  all   Rosa  Parks,  defying  segregaVon  laws  by    si~ng  in  the  Front  of  a  Montgomery   Alabama  Bus,  1956   Image  source:    hIp://www.infoimaginaVon.org/ps/marVn/rosa.html  
    • America  in  the  1950s  “One  of  the  most  important  legal  decisions  in  U.S.  history,  the  1954  Supreme  Court  case  Brown  v.  Board  of  EducaVon  of  Topeka,  Kansas  declared  school  segregaVon  unconsVtuVonal  and  paved  the  way  for  the  civil  rights  achievements  of  the  1960s.  By  overturning  the  "separate  but  equal"  doctrine  established  in  Plessey  v.  Ferguson  (1896),  Brown  v.  Board  of  EducaVon  began  the  process  of  unraveling  more  than  half  a  century  of  federally  sancVoned  discriminaVon  against  African  Americans.  As  a  result,  it  also  iniVated  a  struggle  between  a  government  now  obligated  to  integrate  all  public  schools  and  recalcitrant   African  American  students  arriving  at  Central  High  School,  LiIle  Rock,  communiVes  determined  to  maintain   Arkansas,  in  U.S.  Army  car,  1957  the  status  quo.”   Image  source:    hIp://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civilrights/cr-­‐exhibit.html  hIp://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0507/photo_essay.jsp?page=1  
    • America  in  the  1950s  The  emergence  of  “Rock  ‘n  Roll”  was  also  a  rebellion  against  the  normaVve  values  of  middle  class  “consensus  culture”  Drawing  on  African  American  rhythm  and  Blues,  and  trading  on  sexually  charged  lyrics  and  dance  moves  (Presley’s  famous  gyraVng  hips),  the  music  inspired  a  youth  rebellion  against  the  moral  strictures  of  middle  class  society   Elvis  Presley  in  concert,  1956.    Image  source:     hIp://www.britannica.com/blogs/2011/01/taking-­‐care-­‐of-­‐business-­‐elvis-­‐ presley-­‐picture-­‐of-­‐the-­‐day/  
    • America  in  the  1950s  Hollywood  icons  like  James  Dean  similarly  expressed  rebellion  against  the  normaVve  ideal  of  the  flannel-­‐suited  “organizaVon  man”   James  Dean,  Rebel  without  a  Cause,  1955   James  Dean,  in  Rebel  without  a  Cause,  1955   Image  source:    hIp://www.doctormacro.com/movie%20star%20pages/Dean,%20James-­‐Annex.htm  
    • Counter  Culture  The  true  “rock  stars”  of  the  1950’s  counter  culture  were  the  Beat  poets   Image  source:     hIp://pacificastatueproject.org/2011/03/the-­‐1950s-­‐counterculture-­‐is-­‐born-­‐in-­‐san-­‐ francisco/  
    • Counter  Culture  The  Beat  poets  rebelled  against  the  arms  race,  consumerism,  government  censorship,  and  the  conformity  of  American  culture   “As  Life  magazine  put  it,  the  Beats   were  “against  virtually  every  aspect   of  current  American  Society:    Mom,.   Dad,  PoliVcs,  Marriage,  the  Savings   Bank  .  .  .  to  say  nothing  of  the   AutomaVc  Dishwasher,  the   cellophane-­‐wrapped  Soda  Cracker,   the  Split-­‐level  House  and  the  .  .  .  H-­‐ bomb.”   Cited  in  Erika  Doss,  TwenVeth   Century  American  Art,  p.  149   Gregory  Corso,  Allen  Ginsberg,  William  Burroughs,  MareOa  Greer  at  Opening  of  Timothy   Learys  Media8on  Center,  Hudson  Street,  February  15,  1967  Vintage  gela8n  silver  print,   printed  1967   Steven  Kasher  Gallery  
    • America  in  the  1950s  They  explored  alternaVve  lifestyle,  hallucinatory  drugs,  and  sexual  freedom   Richard  Avedon,  Peter  Orlovsky  and  Allen  Ginsberg,  New  York  City,  December  30,  1963.   Image  source:     hIp://www.gagosian.com/exhibiVons/richard-­‐avedon-­‐-­‐may-­‐04-­‐2012/exhibiVon-­‐images  
    • America  in  the  1950s  The  so-­‐called  “Beatniks”  of  the  1950s  were  the  predecessors  of  the  Hippies  of  the  1960s   Image  source:    hIp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatnik  
    • Counter  Culture  One  of  the  landmark’s  of  the  Beat  Poet  movement  was  Alan  Ginsberg’s  Howl  –  a  poem  that  embraced  taboo  topics  such  as  drugs  and  homosexuality   Allan  Ginsburg,  Howl,  1956  
    • Counter  Culture   “In  an  age  plagued  by  intolerance,   "Howl"  (1956)  was  both  a  desperate   plea  for  humanity  and  a  song  of   liberaVon  from  that  intolerant   society.  Ginsberg’s  use  of  a  griIy   vernacular  and  an  improvisaVonal   rhythmical  style  created  a  poetry   which  seemed  haphazard  and   amateur  to  many  of  the  tradiVonal   poets  of  the  Vme.  In  "Howl"  and  his   other  poems,  however,  one  could   hear  a  true  voice  of  the  Vme,   unencumbered  by  what  the  Beats   saw  as  outdated  forms  and   meaningless  grammaVcal  rules.”   hIp://www.pbs.org/wnet/ americanmasters/database/ ginsberg_a.html   Allan  Ginsburg,  Howl,  1956  
    • Counter  Culture  Jack  Kerouac’s  On  The  Road  was  about  a  cross-­‐country  road  trip  that  he  wrote  in  three  weeks   Jack  Kerouac,  On  the  Road,  1951  
    • Counter  Culture   “The  book  was  .  .  .   completed  -­‐-­‐  from  start  to   finish  -­‐-­‐  in  only  three   weeks.  And  he  used  just   one  long,  scrolled  piece  of   paper,  improvising   endlessly,  just  like  a  jazz   musician  caught  up  in  the   excitement  of   spontaneous  creaVon.”   hIp://www.npr.org/programs/ morning/features/patc/ontheroad/ #media  Original  manuscript  of  Jack  Kerouac’s  On  The  Road   Kerouac  with  the  manuscript  to  On  The  Road  Image  source:     Image  source:    hIp://www.amazon.com/Road-­‐50th-­‐Anniversary-­‐Jack-­‐Kerouac/dp/0143142739  hIp://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/dec/02/jack-­‐kerouac-­‐road-­‐birmingham  
    • “This  was  really  an  aIack  on  the   whole  wriVng  process.  No  "pages"   just  wriVng  in  a  pure  and   thoughtless  approach.”   hIp://maIhewlangley.com/blog/archive/ 2007_08_01_index.html  Original  manuscript  of  Jack  Kerouac’s  On  The  Road,  1957  Image  source:    hIp://maIhewlangley.com/blog/archive/2007_08_01_index.html  
    • Counter  Culture  The  photography  of  Robert  Frank  represents  a    pictorial  correlate  to  the    “artlessness”  and  griIy  subject  maIer  of  the  beat  poets   Robert  Frank,  The  Americans,  1958  
    • Counter  Culture  “Jack  Kerouacs  preface  to  the  original  American  ediVon  lauded  Franks  ability  to  suck  "a  sad  poem  right  out  of  America  onto  film,"  and  Kerouac  ranked  Frank  not  among  other  photographers  but  "among  the  tragic  poets  of  the  world.”  Newsweek   Robert  Frank,  Poli8cal  Rally,  Chicago,  1956   From  the  Americans,  1958   Metropolitan  Museum  
    • Counter  Culture  Using  an  “artless”  street  photography  approach,  Frank  presented  an  un-­‐romanVcized  image  of  what  he  considered  to  be  the  “real”  America  of  the  1950’s   Robert  Frank,  Parade  -­‐-­‐  Hoboken,  New  Jersey   From  the  Americans,  1958  
    • “Frank  published  his  book  when  the  cold  war  was  at  its  height,   when  the  civil-­‐rights  movement  was  in  its  infancy  and  when   people  worried  about  things  such  as  juvenile  delinquency  and  the   bomb,  but  for  the  most  part  the  country  was  sunk  in  a  complacent   prosperity.  In  that  atmosphere,  "The  Americans"  looked  like  a  slap   in  the  face.  Its  subjects  did  not  look  happy—there  are  only  a   couple  of  smiling  faces  in  the  whole  book.  More  o_en  than  not,   they  looked  pensive,  distracted,  suspicious—even  angry.”   Newsweek  Robert  Frank,  Hoboken  From  the  Americans,  1958  
    • “The  shot  of  a  New  Orleans  streetcar,  with  white  people  up   front  and  African-­‐Americans  in  the  back,  perfectly  captured   the  naVons  racial  divide.”   Newsweek  Robert  Frank,  New  Orleans  Trolley  From  the  Americans,  1958  
    • Counter  Culture   Artlessness   Embrace  of  the  “commonplace,”  the  “ordinary,”  “vulgarity”   Original  manuscript  of  Jack  Kerouac’s  On  The  Road   Image  source:     hIp://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/dec/02/jack-­‐ kerouac-­‐road-­‐birmingham   Robert  Frank,  New  Orleans  Trolley   From  the  Americans,  1958