cloud computing, Principle and Paradigms: 1 introdution
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cloud computing: Principle and Paradigms, Buyya

cloud computing: Principle and Paradigms, Buyya

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  • Technologies such as cluster, grid, and now, cloud computing, have all aimed at allowing access to large amounts of computing power in a fully virtualized manner, by aggregating resources and offering a single system view.
  • Buyya : “Cloud is a parallel and distributed computing system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualised computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements (SLA) established through negotiation between the service provider and consumers.”Vaquero :“clouds are a large pool of easily usable and accessible virtualized resources (such as hardware, development platforms and/or services). These resources can be dynamically reconfigured to adjust to a variable load (scale), allowing also for an optimum resource utilization.
  • McKinsey : “Clouds are hardware based services offering compute, network, and storage capacity where: Hardware management is highly abstracted from the buyer, buyers incur infrastructure costs as variable OPEX, and infrastructure capacity is highly elastic.”Berkeley : summarized the key characteristics of cloud computing as: “(1) the illusion of infinite computing resources; (2) the elimination of an up-front commitment by cloud users; and (3) the ability to pay for use . . . as needed . . .”
  • (NIST) characterizes cloud computing as “. . . a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.”In a more generic definition, Armbrust define cloud as the “data center hardware and software that provide services.” Similarly, Sotomayoret al. [7] point out that “cloud” is more often used to refer to the IT infrastructure deployed on an Infrastructure as a Service provider data center.
  • While there are countless other definitions, there seems to be common characteristics between the most notable ones listed above, which a cloudshould have: (i) pay-per-use (no ongoing commitment, utility prices); (ii) elastic capacity and the illusion of infinite resources; (iii) self-service interface; and(iv) resources that are abstracted or virtualised.The ultimate goal is allowing customers to run their everyday IT infrastructure “in the cloud.”
  • We can track the roots of clouds computing by observing the advancement of several technologies, especially in hardware (virtualization, multi-core chips),Internet technologies (Web services, service-oriented architectures, Web 2.0), distributed computing (clusters, grids), and systems management (autonomiccomputing, data center automation).
  • Web services can glue together applications running on different messaging product platforms enabling information from one application to be made available to others, and enabling internal applications to be made available over the Internet.WS standards have been created on top of existing ubiquitous technologies such as HTTP and XML, thus providing a common mechanism for deliveringservices, making them ideal for implementing a service-oriented architecture (SOA). The purpose of a SOA is to address requirements of loosely coupled,standards-based, and protocol-independent distributed computing. In a SOA, software resources are packaged as “services,” whichAn enterprise application that follows the SOA paradigm is a collection of services that together perform complex business logic
  • Grid computing enables aggregation of distributed resources and transparently access to them.ensuring QoS in grids has been perceived as a difficult endeavor [19]. Lack of performance isolation has prevented grids adoption in a variety of scenarios, especially on environments where resources are oversubscribed or users are uncooperative.Another issue that has lead to frustration when using grids is the availability of resources with diverse software configurationsIn utility computing environments, users assign a “utility” value to their jobs, where utility is a fixed or time-varying valuation that captures variousQoS constraints (deadline, importance, satisfaction).
  • hardware virtualization can be considered as a perfect fit to overcome most operational issues of data center building and maintenance.As depicted in Figure 1.2, a software layer, the virtual machine monitor (VMM), also called a hypervisor, mediates access to the physical hardware presenting to each guest operating system a virtual machine (VM), which is a set of virtual platform interfaces [22].
  • Workload isolation is achieved since all program instructions are fully confined inside a VM, which leads to improvements in security. Betterreliability is also achieved because software failures inside one VM do not affect others [22]. Moreover, better performance control is attained sinceexecution of one VM should not affect the performance of another VM [23]. The consolidation of several individual and heterogeneous workloads onto asingle physical platform leads to better system utilization.
  • The increasing complexity of computing systems has motivated research on autonomic computing, which seeks to improve systems by decreasing humaninvolvement in their operation. In other words, systems should manage themselves, with high-level guidance from humans [34].
  • offering VMs with a software stack that can be customized similar to how an ordinary physical server would be customized.
  • make a cloud easily programmable, known as Platform as a Service (PaaS). A cloud platform offers an environment on which developers create and deployapplications and do not necessarily need to know how many processors or how much memory that applications will be using. In addition, multiple programming models and specialized services (e.g., data access, authentication, and payments) are offered as building blocks to new applications [40].Google AppEngine
  • Applications reside on the top of the cloud stack. Services provided by this layer can be accessed by end users through Web portals. Therefore, consumersare increasingly shifting from locally installed computer programs to on-line software services that offer the same functionally.
  • The oldest and the simplest form of service in the cloud is a Collocation. It requires renting a server space, electricity, air conditioning and access to the Internet
  • In this sense, regardless of its service class, a cloud can be classified as public, private, community, or hybrid [6]
  • propose definitions for public cloud as a “cloud made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the general public” and private cloud as“internal data center of a business or other organization, not made available to the general public.”In most cases, establishing a private cloud means restructuring an existing infrastructure by adding virtualization and cloud-like interfacesA community cloud is “shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements,policy, and compliance considerations) [6].”A hybrid cloud takes shape when a private cloud is supplemented with computing capacity from public clouds [7].
  • must be (i) self-service, (ii) per-usage metered and billed, (iii) elastic, and (iv) customizable.To support this expectation, clouds must allow self-service access so that customers can request, customize, pay, and use services without intervention of human operators [6].Cloud computing eliminates up-front commitment by users, allowing them to request and use only the necessary amount. Services must be priced on a short term basis (e.g., by the hour), allowing users to release (and not pay for) resources as soon as they are not needed [5]. For these reasons, clouds must implement features to allow efficient trading of service such as pricing, accounting, and billing [2]. Metering should be done accordingly for differenttypes of service (e.g., storage, processing, and bandwidth) and usage promptly reported, thus providing greater transparency [6].Therefore users expect clouds to rapidly provide resources in any quantity at any time. In particular, it is expected that the additional resources can be (a) provisioned, possibly automatically, when an application load increases and (b) released when load decreases (scale up and down) [6]
  • The term “cloud operating system” is also used to refer to it [43]. Other terms include “infrastructure sharing software [44]” and “virtual infrastructureengine [45].
  • Virtualizing storage means abstracting logical storage from physical storage.Storage devices are commonly organized in a storage area network (SAN) and attached to servers via protocols such as Fibre Channel, iSCSI, andNFS; a storage controller provides the layer of abstraction between virtual and physical storage [48].A few VI managers accomplish this by providing a failover mechanism, which detects failure of both physical and virtual servers and restarts VMs on healthy physical servers. This style of HA protects from host, but not VM, failures [57, 58].
  • Service-level agreements (SLAs) are offered by IaaS providers to express their commitment to delivery of a certain QoS.
  • In the cloud computing domain, the most common activities that require specialized models are: processing of large dataset in clusters of computers(MapReduce model), development of request-based Web services and applications; definition and orchestration of business processes in the form of workflows (Workflow model); and high-performance distributed execution of various computational tasks.
  • Security and privacy affect the entire cloud computing stack, since there is a massive use of third-party services and infrastructures that are used to hostimportant data or to perform critical operations.Legal and regulatory issues also need attention

cloud computing, Principle and Paradigms: 1 introdution cloud computing, Principle and Paradigms: 1 introdution Presentation Transcript

  • 31 January 2013 Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Principle and Paradigms Presented by Majid Hajibaba 1
  • 31 January 2013 • information processing can be done more efficiently centrally, on large farms of computing and storage systems accessible via the Internet. • “clouds” are the natural evolution of traditional data centers • Offer subscription-based access to infrastructure(IaaS), platforms(PaaS), and applications(SaaS) • many open research problems Cloud Computing Preface 2 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • Introduction to cloud computing • • • • • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS ) Platform and Software as a Service (PaaS/SaaS) Monitoring and Management Applications Governance and Case Studies 31 January 2013 • Foundations Cloud Computing Book Content 3 Presented by Majid Hajibaba View slide
  • 31 January 2013 Cloud Computing Cloud Computing: In a Glance 4 Presented by Majid Hajibaba View slide
  • • Virtualize • means delivering useful functions while hiding how their internals work • Cluster, grid, cloud • access to large amounts of computing power in a fully virtualized manner, by aggregating resources and offering a single system view • Delivering Computing as a utility • On-demand • Pay-as-you-go 31 January 2013 • Electric Power Cloud Computing 1.Introduction To Cloud computing • Service provider (Amazon, Google) • Computing infrastructure (Cloud) • Access from anywhere • As a service Presented by Majid Hajibaba 5
  • • Cloud is a parallel and distributed computing system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements (SLA) • Vanquero • clouds are a large pool of easily usable and accessible virtualized resources (such as hardware, development platforms and/or services). These resources can be dynamically reconfigured to adjust to a variable load (scale), allowing also for an optimum resource utilization. 31 January 2013 • Buyya Cloud Computing Defining 6 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • Clouds are hardware based services offering compute, network, and storage capacity where: Hardware management is highly abstracted from the buyer, buyers incur infrastructure costs, and infrastructure capacity is highly elastic • Berkeley • characteristics of cloud computing as • (1) the illusion of infinite computing resources • (2) the elimination of an up-front commitment by cloud users • (3) the ability to pay for use . . . as needed . . . Presented by Majid Hajibaba 31 January 2013 • McKinsey Cloud Computing Defining 7
  • • a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, ondemand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction • Armbrust • Data center hardware and software that provide services. 31 January 2013 • NIST Cloud Computing Defining • Sotomayor • IT infrastructure deployed on an Infrastructure as a Service provider data center Presented by Majid Hajibaba 8
  • • • • • (i) pay-per-use (no ongoing commitment, utility prices) (ii) elastic capacity and the illusion of infinite resources (iii) self-service interface (iv) virtualized (abstracted) resources • The ultimate goal is allowing customers to run their everyday IT infrastructure “in the cloud.” 31 January 2013 • Cloud should have Cloud Computing Common Characteristic 9 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • Cloud Computing 31 January 2013 Roots of Cloud Computing 10 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • applications running on different messaging product platforms • enabling information from one application to be made available to others • enabling internal applications to be made available over the Internet • SOA • address requirements of loosely coupled, standards-based, and protocol-independent distributed computing • WS ,HTTP, XML 31 January 2013 • Web Service Cloud Computing Internet Technologies • Common mechanism for delivering service • applications is a collection of services that together perform complex business logic • Building block in IaaS • User authentication, payroll management, calender Presented by Majid Hajibaba 11
  • • aggregation of distributed resources • transparently access • Problems • QoS, Lack of performance • Availability, Virtualization • Utility Computing • assign a “utility” value to users • QoS constraints (deadline, importance, satisfaction) 31 January 2013 • Grid Computing Cloud Computing Distributed Computing 12 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • overcome most operational issues of data center building and maintenance • improving sharing and utilization of computer systems • running multiple operating systems and software stacks on a single physical platform • virtual machine monitor (VMM) • mediates access to the physical hardware • presenting to guest operating system a virtual machine (VM) 31 January 2013 • Hardware Virtualization Cloud Computing Hardware • is a set of virtual platform interfaces 13 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • 31 January 2013 Cloud Computing Virtualization 14 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • security • • • • Reliability Performance ?? Utilization Workload migration • Load balancing • Disaster recovery • … • WMM example • VMWare ESXi, KVM, Xen Presented by Majid Hajibaba 31 January 2013 • Capabilities • Workload isolation Cloud Computing Virtualization 15
  • Cloud Computing • improve systems by decreasing human involvement in their operation. • manage themselves, with high-level guidance from humans • Properties • • • • 31 January 2013 Autonomic Computing Self-configuration Self-optimization Self-healing Self-protection • IBM reference Model • MAPE-K 16 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • Three abstraction level of the capability Cloud Computing • (1) Infrastructure as a Service • (2) Platform as a Service • (3) Software as a Service 31 January 2013 Layers and Types of cloud 17 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • Offering VM • Software stack 31 January 2013 • Offering virtualized resources on demand • computation, storage, communication • Bottom layer of cloud systems • Example • Amazon EC2 Cloud Computing IaaS 18 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • make a cloud easily programmable offers an environment developers create and deploy applications do not necessarily need to know how many processors or how much memory that applications will be using • offered building blocks • Google AppEngine 31 January 2013 • • • • Cloud Computing PaaS • Python, java • Building block • Mail service, instance messaging service, image manipulation service 19 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • Applications reside on the top of the cloud stack 31 January 2013 SaaS • From locale to on-line software with same functionally • Example • Salseforce.com • CRM Cloud Computing • accessed by end users through Web portal 20 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • 31 January 2013 Cloud Computing Delivery Models 21 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • Cloud Computing • Public, Private , Community (hybrid) 31 January 2013 Deployment Models 22 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • Public cloud • cloud made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the general public 31 January 2013 Deployment Models • internal data center of a business or other organization, not made available to the general public • restructuring an existing infrastructure • adding virtualization and cloud-like interfaces • Community cloud Cloud Computing • Private cloud • shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns • hybrid cloud • takes shape when a private cloud is supplemented with computing capacity from public clouds Presented by Majid Hajibaba 23
  • (i) self-service (ii) per-usage metered and billed (iii) elastic (iv) customizable. 31 January 2013 • • • • Features of cloud Cloud Computing Desired 24 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • VIM • The software toolkit responsible for rapidly and dynamically provision resources to applications • Cloud operation system • Cloud toolkit vs. virtual infrastructure manager • Availability and management users • Features • basic and advanced features that are usually available in VIMs 31 January 2013 • Management is a challenge Cloud Computing CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT • Case Studies • The most popular VI managers available 25 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • Virtualization Support Self-Service, On-Demand Resource Provisioning Multiple Backend Hypervisors Storage Virtualization • SAN • Interface to Public Clouds • Virtual Networking • Dynamic Resource Allocation • Green computing 31 January 2013 • • • • Cloud Computing Features • Virtual Clusters • Reservation and Negotiation Mechanism • Advance reservation and best-effort request • High Availability and Data Recovery • FailOver Mechanism, redundancy, backup Presented by Majid Hajibaba 26
  • • Apache VCL • AppLogic 31 January 2013 Case studies • • • • • • • • Citrix Essentials Enomaly ECP .. OpenPEX .. .. .. VMWare vSphere and vCloud Presented by Majid Hajibaba Cloud Computing • Grid Operating System 27
  • • Features geographic presence • To improve availability and responsiveness, Availability Zones ii. user interfaces and access the system • GUI, CLI, WS iii. Advance reservation of capacity • Amazon, long period iv. v. Automatic scaling and load balancing Service Level Agreement Cloud Computing i. 31 January 2013 IaaS PROVIDERS • Availability and performance guarantee, QoS vi. Hypervisor and operation system choice 28 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • Case studies • Amazon Web Services • S3, EC2, RDS, … 31 January 2013 IaaS PROVIDERS • 100% SLA • Joyent • Automatic scaling of cpu cores • GoGrid • Pre-made windows and linux images Cloud Computing • Flexiscale • Rackspace Cloud Servers • Fixed size instance 29 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • • Features • Programming Models, Languages, and Frameworks • MapReduce, WebService, Workflow, computational task 31 January 2013 PaaS Providers • Persistence Options • Case studies • Aneka • .NET, amazon EC2, threads • AppEngine • python-java, Google • Microsoft Azure Cloud Computing • Record state and recover, relational DB, distributed storage • .NET, Microsoft • Force.com • Apex, own dc • Heroku • Ruby, automatic scaling Presented by Majid Hajibaba 30
  • • Security, privacy and trust • Third party services • Countries laws 31 January 2013 Challenges and Risks • Portable user data • CCIF • Availability, Fault tolerance, disaster Recovery • SLA Cloud Computing • Data lock-in and standardization • Resource Management and Energy efficiency • Migration • Performance • Green 31 Presented by Majid Hajibaba
  • END INTRODUCTION 32 Cloud Computing 31 January 2013