APPLICATIONS OF DNA TECHNOLOGY One of the defining features of modern biology is the extensive use of the technology of gene manipulation . It is now possible to manipulate DNA directly to produce recombinant DNA . The manipulated genes can be replaced back into the original, or a different, organism to produce transgenic plants and animals.
Applications of DNA Technology
1) The Human Genome Project: genetic mapping, DNA sequencing, genome analysis/comparison
2) Human Therapeutics: detecting genetic disorders, gene therapy
3) Forensic Uses: DNA profiling
4) Agriculture: transgenic plants, production of BST
The Human Genome Project
The genome of an organism is it’s complete complement of genetic information
Completed in 2003, the international Human Genome Project was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.
Project goals were to …
- identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA,
- determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA
- store this information in databases
- improve tools for data analysis
- address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise from the project.
The human genome project has been achieved using 3 approaches:
a) GENETIC MAPPING
b) PHYSICAL MAPPING
c) DNA SEQUENCING
Firstly however, the desired DNA sequences must be amplified. The process used to do this is the POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)