Old Testament Introduction Notes

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By Mike Smith …

By Mike Smith
This is compiled from many sources, impossible to give everyone credit. Use to the glory of God and furtherance of the truth.

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  • 1. The Bible: A Library of Books
    • Our English word Bible is from the Greek neuter plural, biblia which derived in turn from byblos , the Greek word which designated the papyrus reed strips of which “books” were made in ancient times.
    • Our Bible is divided into 2 main parts the Old Testament and the New Testament.
    • Sixty-six books in all - 39 O.T. & 27 N.T.
  • 2. The Bible: A Library of Books
    • The Old Testament was written in Hebrew with the exception of a few passages written in Aramaic
    • (Jer. 10:11; Ezra 4:8 to 6:18 also 7:12-26; and Dan. 2:4 to 7:28)
    • The New Testament was written in Koine (common, “Vulgar”) Greek.
  • 3. The Bible: A Library of Related Books
    • Mostly written from between around
    • 1500 B.C. to 100 A.D.
    • Written by many different penmen most of whom did not know each other.
    • Amazingly, the completed whole is a single story with a single theme, namely, Redemption through Christ Jesus !
    • Purports itself to be a record of progressive Revelation. Isa. 48:10-ff; Heb. 1:1-2;
    • Lk. 24:27; Acts 3:24-ff; 10:43;
    • Ps. 119:160; Ps. 139:17
  • 4.
    • It’s part of God’s inspired Word!
    • 2 Tim. 3:15-17; 2 Peter 1:16-21
    • It’s Understandable
    • Prov. 2:1-6; 23:23; Ps. 119:130
    • To more clearly understand God’s whole message to man - Gal. 3:19-25; Mt. 5:17
    • There are types and shadows in the Old Law.
    • Col. 2:14, 16, 17; Heb. 8:5; 10:1, 4
      • What if, never knew of Adam
      • 1 Cor. 15:22; 45-47 Found in 7 N.T. verses
    Why Should We Study the Old Testament?
  • 5. Why Should We Study the Old Testament?
    • In it God teaches principle’s of
    • “ what to do” positive teaching
    • and “what not to do”
    • negative teaching. 1 Cor. 10:5-11
    • God wants us to learn it. Romans 15:4
      • What three important things can it give us?
    • More reasons to study Old Testament?
  • 6.
    • 1) The First 17 books of the O.T. (Genesis – Esther)
    • A. The first 5 books of Moses (Gen. - Deut.)
    • are historical in nature. Knowledge of them is critical, for they serve as the foundation for the rest of the Bible.
    • B. The next 12 books (Joshua - Esther) are also historical.
    • 1. The first 9 (Joshua - 2 Chron.) are records of Israel’s living in the land of Canaan (Pre-Exile history).
    • 2. The last 3 (Ezra-Esther) concern Israel’s return to the Land after the Babylonian Captivity (Post-Exile).
    • C. Thus, 5 of the books are Pre-Canaan ; 9 are In-
    • Canaan and 3 are Post-Exile (in Canaan again).
    Overview of the Old Testament
  • 7. Overview of the Old Testament
    • 2) The Middle FIVE Books of the O.T.
    • (Job – Song of Solomon)
    • A. The preceding 17 books are National and Historical; these 5 books deal with problems of the heart – They are individual and personal in nature.
    • B. Those 17 were written in prose;
    • These 5 in Hebrew poetry .
    Overview of the Old Testament
  • 8. Overview of the Old Testament
    • 3) The Last 17 books of the O.T. (Isa-Mal).
    • A. The first 5 are “Major Prophets,” setting the tone of Prophesy.
    • B. The last 12 are “Minor Prophets,” similar in tone to the first 5.
    • 1. The first 9 (Hosea – Zephaniah)
    • are all Pre-Exilic .
    • 2. The last 3 (Haggai – Malachi)
    • are all Post-Exilic .
    Overview of the Old Testament
  • 9. Overview of the Old Testament
    • 4) Consider the obvious design of this order.
    • A. The first and last groups of 17 books are both divided into smaller groups of 5-9-3 books.
    • B. Between them (at the heart of the O.T.) are the 5 books which deal with the emotions of the human heart.
    • C. There were about 40 writers, covering more than 1500 years, writing for different purposes, with no idea about the collection of books (The “Canon”) which we now have.
    • D. Surely a Divine Hand was controlling – This is Revelation . (An “uncovering,” “opening up,” of the Mind of God.
  • 10. PERIOD BOOKS DATE IMPT. MAN Beginning Gen.1-5 4004 B.C Adam Flood Gen. 6-11 2348 B.C Noah Patriarchal Gen. 12-50 1921 B.C. Abraham E. Bondage Ex. 1-15 1706 B.C. Joseph Wanderings Ex.16 – Deut.34 1491 B.C. Moses C. Canaan Joshua 1-24 1451 B.C. Joshua Judges Jud 1-1 Sam 8 1400 B.C. Samuel U.K. 1Sa.9 -1Ki.11 1095B.C. David Div. K. 1 Ki.12-2Ki.20 975 B.C. Elijah K. of Judah 2Ki. 21-25:7 722 B.C. Josiah Cap. Babylon 2Ki. 25:8 -21 607,587B.C. Daniel Rest. Jews Ez. Neh. Est. 537,517B.C. Zerubbabel Ez Neh
  • 11.
    • Include Genesis-Deuteronomy
    • Are known as a unit in the Hebrew scriptures as the Torah (Law or Teaching)
    • In the Greek Septuagint known as the Pentateuch, penta meaning five and teuchos with its secondary meaning of fabric or a case for holding papyrus rolls, hence used for the roll or book itself. Thus meaning “fivefold volume,” this term being used since the 3 rd century A.D.
    The Pentateuch or Torah
  • 12.
    • Traditionally conservative Jews and Christians have held that Moses was in large part responsible for the Pentateuch.
    • Both the Old and New Testaments ascribe to Moses the “authorship,” of this body of literature. (Josh.1:7; Dan. 9:11-13;
    • Lk. 16:29; Jn. 7:19; Ac. 26:22; Rom. 10:19)
    • While each book of the Torah deals with God’s covenantal relationship with His people, each book is nevertheless, distinct and has its own subject matter.
    The Pentateuch or Torah
  • 13. In the beginning ray-sheeth' God el-o-heem' created baw-raw' the ayth heavens shaw-mah'-yim, shaw-meh' and the ayth earth eh'-rets Gen. 1:1 pronunciation of Hebrew words Genesis
  • 14. The Book of Beginnings
    • All that is to be developed later in scripture is planted in Genesis. It serves as the introduction to the Pentateuch and all other scripture.
    • Genesis importance may be seen in that it is quoted or alluded to more than 200 times in the N.T.
    • Genesis means, Origin; Source; Generation; Birth.
  • 15.
    • Moses is believed to be the one who compiled this book, even though in scripture he is never mentioned to have written it.
    • He is listed as the writer of the other 4 books at least 40 times
    • Divisions of the different writers may be recognized by the recurring phrase, “These are the generations of…”
    Genesis
  • 16.
    • Genesis can clearly be divided into two main parts – Chap. 1-11 & 12-50.
    • First section (Chap. 1-11) is arranged around four outstanding events.
    • Second part (12-50) is arranged around four outstanding persons.
    • Tying them all together is the idea of the Sovereignty of God.
    Genesis
  • 17. Genesis
    • The Book of Genesis is not a Complete or universal history of the world or mankind
    • It is rather the first chapter in the history of the saving of mankind from sin and eternal loss.
    • Genesis in 12 Words :
    • 4 Events: Creation, Sin, Flood, Nations
    • 4 People: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph
  • 18. Contribution of the Book of Genesis to the Bible:
    • It is the Foundation of ALL Bible history and doctrine.
    • This sweeping panorama from Eden to Ur to Haran to Canaan to Egypt covers more time than the rest of the Bible; and it introduces all that is to follow.
    • It helps us in the study of the Book of Revelation because the first 3 chapters of the Bible are so closely related to the last 3 chapters of the Bible.
  • 19. GENESIS REVELATION In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth 1:1 I saw a new heaven and a new earth 21:1 The darkness he called night 1:5 There shall be no night there 21:25 God made the two great lights (sun and moon) 1:16 The city has no need of the sun or the moon 21:23 In the day you eat of it you shall surely die 2:17 And there shall no longer be any death 21:4 Satan appears as the deceiver of mankind 3:1 Satan disappears from the scene forever 20:10 A garden into which defilement entered 3:6-7 A city into which defilement will never enter 21:27 I will greatly multiply your pain 3:16 No longer any mourning, or crying, or pain 21:4 Cursed is the ground because of you 3:17 There shall no longer be any curse 22:3 They were driven from God’s presence 3:24 They shall see the face of Deity 22:4 Access to the tree of life disinherited in Adam 3:24 Access to the tree of life reinstated in Christ 22:14
  • 20. Christ In the Book of Genesis
    • He is the Creator of All Things… Gen. 1:1 ; Jn. 1:1-4; Col. 1:15-17; Heb. 1:2; 11:3
    • He is the Seed of Woman… Gen. 3:15 ; Isa.7:14; 9:6-7; Gal. 4:4
    • He is the Seed of Abraham… Gen. 22:18 ;
    • Gal. 3:8; 16, 26-29
    • He is seen in many Types (A type is a historical fact which is a picture of a spiritual truth); especially is this true in the case of Joseph.