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How people learn

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  • 1. Zone of Proximal Development, Scaffolding and Cognitive of Multimedia Learning
    How people learn
  • 2. What is Zone of Proximal Development?
    From the work of Vygotsky the Zone of Proximal Development is the difference between:
    The tasks that a child can complete working independently.
    The tasks that the same child can complete with the help of an instructor.
    The difference of child’s cognitive skills without or with the help of a more experimented person
  • 3. About Vygotsky
    “Talk and action work together with the sociocultural fabric of the writing event to shape a child’s construction of awareness and performance” (Dorn, 1996)
    Vygotsky
  • 4. Scaffolding
    After Vygotsky ideas Jerome Bruner has introduced the Scaffolding Theory.
    These theory has its origins in the young children's oral language acquisition
    In the Wikipedia we can find that “Scaffolding represents the helpful interactions between adult and child that enable the child to do something beyond his or her independent efforts” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_scaffolding
    Jerome Bruner
  • 5. Baddeley's model of working memory
    Memory uses two independent ways
    Images through Visual-Spatial Sketch Pad
    Words through Phonological Loop
    Baddeley
  • 6. Dual-coding theory of Paivio
    “Both visual and verbal information are processed differently and along two distinct channels with the human mind creating separate representations for information processed in each channel”
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual-coding_theory
    Allan Paivio
  • 7. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer)
    “People learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone”
    The goal is to instructional media in the light of how human mind works.
    There are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information (sometimes referred to as Dual-Coding theory);
    Each channel has a limited (finite) capacity (similar to Sweller’s notion of Cognitive Load);
    Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information based upon prior knowledge.
    Richard E. Mayer
    From: http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitive-theory-of-multimedia-learning-mayer.html
  • 8. References
    Dorn, L. (1996). A Vygotskian perspective on literacy acquisition: talk and action in children’s construction of literacy awareness. An International Journal of Early Literacy, Volume 2. Number 2, 15-40.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baddeley's_model_of_working_memory
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual-coding_theory
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_scaffolding
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lev_Vygotsky
    http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitive-theory-of-multimedia-learning-mayer.html