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Frog virus 3 in eastern box turtles: agents seen with coinfections
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Frog virus 3 in eastern box turtles: agents seen with coinfections

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2013 International Symposium on Ranaviruses …

2013 International Symposium on Ranaviruses
by James Wellehan


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  • 1. Frog Virus 3 in Eastern Box Turtles: Agents seen with Coinfections James F.X. Wellehan Jr., DVM, PhD, DACZM, DACVM (Virology, Bacteriology/Mycology), Natalie H. Hall, DVM, DACZM, Gregory J Fleming, DVM, DACZM, April L. Childress, Scott P. Terrell, DVM, DACVP
  • 2. North American Box Turtles Terrapene sp. • Low Fecundity • Low Juvenile Survival Rate • Long Lifespan • Cryptic • Frog Virus 3 Mortality Events Well Documented
  • 3. Coinfections • Koch’s Postulates easily misinterpreted as dichotomous pathogen/nonpathogen Host Pathogen Environment
  • 4. Coinfections • Coinfections with Rotavirus and other enteric pathogens are synergistic (Bhavnani et al, 2012) • Coinfections with Marek’s disease and Cryptosporidium baileyi in chickens synergistic (Abbassi et al, 2000)
  • 5. Iridoviruses • Enveloped, but infective without envelope – Stable in environment • Cytoplasmic • Less host specific than herpes/adeno
  • 6. Iridoviruses • Genus Ranavirus – Signs: • Stomatitis,Hepatitis, Splenitis,Enterocolitis – Frog Virus 3 is the best studied pathogen of box turtles • Also found in amphibians,sturgeon, other turtles.
  • 7. Eastern Box Turtles • Confiscated • Placed at quarantine of large well-run zoo • High mortality rate • 8 turtles submitted for testing
  • 8. Herpesviruses • Enveloped virus, not stable in environment • Diverse, coevolved with hosts – Often high infection rates in endemic hosts – 8 species endemic in one primate species • Intranuclear • Latency – Typically infected for life • One genus reported in turtles- Scutavirus
  • 9. Box Turtle Scutaviruses • Terrapene HV1 – Seen in Eastern Box Turtles – Commonly seen in coinfections with Frog Virus 3 – Role in disease under investigation • Terrapene HV2 – Seen in Eastern Box Turtle – Identified in fibropapillomatous lesion
  • 10. Scutavirus Iltovirus Simplexvirus Varicellovirus Proboscivirus Cytomegalovirus Muromegalovirus Roseolovirus Lymphocryptovirus Rhadinovirus Percavirus Macavirus Mardivirus
  • 11. Adenoviruses • Non-enveloped – Very stable in environment • Intranuclear • Diverse, coevolved with hosts – 6 species endemic in one primate species – Generally host specific, may jump to close relatives • Eublepharid AdV1 - leopard & fat tailed geckos, Helodermatid AdV2 – Gila monsters &Pogona
  • 12. Adenoviruses • Novel chelonian genus – Box turtles, Red eared sliders, Pancake tortoises – Signs: • Depression, weight loss
  • 13. Siadenovirus Aviadenovirus Mastadenovirus Atadenovirus Novel Turtle Genus Ichtadenovirus
  • 14. Tenericutes • Important bacterial phylum • Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Acholeplasma – Have lost cell wall – More difficult to grow – Dependent on host cells – Range from relatively benign to significant pathogens • Not beneficial
  • 15. Mycoplasma • Mycoplasma sp. – Associated with upper respiratory disease in box turtles – First reported by Feldman et al, 2006 – Distinct from M. agassizii seen in Gopherus sp. – Additional species recently discovered, clinical significance still under investigation
  • 16. Confiscated turtles Turtle Ranavirus Herpes Adeno Mycoplasma 1 - TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 2 - TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 3 - TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 4 FV3 TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 5 - - Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 6 FV3 - Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 7 FV3 - Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 8 - - Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT
  • 17. Future Directions • Quantitative assays for measurement of agent loads • Surveillance of wider populations
  • 18. Thanks