Ranavirus associatedRanavirus associatedRanavirus associatedRanavirus associated
dermatitis in lizardsdermatitis in lizard...
Ranaviruses in lizards
Lit t
Ranaviruses in lizards
• Literature:
• Leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus):
l ti ti i l ...
First case:First case:
J l l didJ l l didJapalura splendidaJapalura splendida
•• GreenGreen stripedstriped treetree dragon...
First case:First case:
J l l didJ l l didJapalura splendidaJapalura splendida
•• ParasitologicalParasitological examinatio...
First case:First case:
J l l didJ l l didJapalura splendidaJapalura splendida
•• Virological examination (5 animals):Virol...
Second case:Second case:
D i iliD i iliDopasia gracilisDopasia gracilis
•• 2012: Asian glass lizards illegally imported in...
Third case:Third case:
A li li iA li li iAnolis carolinensisAnolis carolinensis
•• Green anoles from a population in Miami...
Third case:Third case:
A li li iA li li iAnolis carolinensisAnolis carolinensis
•• Virological examination (1 animal):Viro...
Fourth case:Fourth case:
I iI iIguana iguanaIguana iguana
•• Adult male and female green iguanas from different originsAdu...
Fifth case:Fifth case:
P ittiP ittiPogona vitticepsPogona vitticeps
•• July 2011: 5 year old male bearded dragonJuly 2011:...
Fifth case:Fifth case:
P ittiP ittiPogona vitticepsPogona vitticeps
•• October 2012:October 2012:
- inflammation and necro...
Fifth case:Fifth case:
P ittiP ittiPogona vitticepsPogona vitticeps
• Pathohistology:
increased growth of
ti ti (5)connect...
Fifth case:Fifth case:
P ittiP ittiPogona vitticepsPogona vitticeps
•• Virological examination:Virological examination:
RV...
Characterization and
comparison
•• Partial sequencing of MCP gene (500bp)Partial sequencing of MCP gene (500bp)
Japalura
D...
DiscussionDiscussion
•• First detection of ranaviruses in 5 lizard speciesFirst detection of ranaviruses in 5 lizard speci...
DiscussionDiscussion
•• Origin: Asia, USA, GermanyOrigin: Asia, USA, Germany
--> global distribution> global distributiong...
DiscussionDiscussion
•• Contact with other reptiles/amphibiansContact with other reptiles/amphibians
--> Role of reptiles ...
AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements
Christa Schäfer and Silvia Speck:
F h bi U l d Ti h iFachgebiet Umwelt und Tierhygiene
Un...
ThankThank youyou forfor youryouryy yy
attentionattention!!
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Ranavirus associated dermatitus in lizards

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2013 International Symposium on Ranaviruses
by Anke Stohr

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Ranavirus associated dermatitus in lizards

  1. 1. Ranavirus associatedRanavirus associatedRanavirus associatedRanavirus associated dermatitis in lizardsdermatitis in lizards Anke C StöhrAnke C Stöhr11 Kim O HeckersKim O Heckers22 Jutta WiechertJutta Wiechert3†3† Helge BehnckeHelge Behncke44Anke C. StöhrAnke C. Stöhr11, Kim O. Heckers, Kim O. Heckers22, Jutta Wiechert, Jutta Wiechert3†3†, Helge Behncke, Helge Behncke44,, Karina MathesKarina Mathes55, Pascale Günther, Pascale Günther55, Inna Ball, Inna Ball11, Rachel E. Marschang, Rachel E. Marschang11 11Fachgebiet für UmweltFachgebiet für Umwelt-- und Tierhygiene, University of Hohenheim, Germanyund Tierhygiene, University of Hohenheim, Germany 22Laboklin GmbH & Co. KG, Laboratory for Clinical Diagnostics, Bad Kissingen, GermanyLaboklin GmbH & Co. KG, Laboratory for Clinical Diagnostics, Bad Kissingen, Germany 33Reptilium TerrarienReptilium Terrarien-- und Wüstenzoo, Landau, Germanyund Wüstenzoo, Landau, Germany 44ImportImport--Export Peter Hoch GmbH, Waldkirch, GermanyExport Peter Hoch GmbH, Waldkirch, Germany 55Clinic for Pets Reptiles Pet and Feral Birds University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover GermanyClinic for Pets Reptiles Pet and Feral Birds University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Germany55Clinic for Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, GermanyClinic for Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
  2. 2. Ranaviruses in lizards Lit t Ranaviruses in lizards • Literature: • Leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus): l ti ti i l iti- ulcerative-necrotizing glossitis - granulomatous lesions on the tail - focal necrosis in the liver (Marschang et al 2005)focal necrosis in the liver (Marschang et al., 2005) • Iberian mountain lizard (Lacerta monticola): - no overt disease (Alves de Matos et al., 2011) -> Screening of lizards for the presence of ranaviruses - 2010: n=141 -> all negative2010: n 141 > all negative - 2011: n =190 -> 1 positive (0.53%) - 2012: n =60 -> 6 positive (10%)
  3. 3. First case:First case: J l l didJ l l didJapalura splendidaJapalura splendida •• GreenGreen stripedstriped treetree dragonsdragons importedimported fromfrom southwesternsouthwestern China via FloridaChina via Florida toto Germany inGermany in spring 2011spring 2011spring 2011spring 2011 •• ClinicalClinical signssigns:: dehydratationdehydratation,, apathyapathy,, skinskin lesionslesions,, centralcentral nervousnervous disordersdisorders highhigh mortalitymortalitycentralcentral nervousnervous disordersdisorders,, highhigh mortalitymortality 200 50 100 150 alive animals 0 50 15-Feb 2-M ar 17-M ar 1-Apr 16-Apr 01-M ay 16-M ay
  4. 4. First case:First case: J l l didJ l l didJapalura splendidaJapalura splendida •• ParasitologicalParasitological examinationexamination::•• ParasitologicalParasitological examinationexamination:: FlagellataFlagellata sppspp.,., nematodesnematodes ((HeterakisHeterakis sppspp.,., SpiruridaSpirurida sppspp.),.), coccidiacoccidia ((CholeoeimeriaCholeoeimeria sppspp.), larval.), larval ascaridsascarids inin thethe pharynxpharynx •• PathologicalPathological examinationexamination:: FibrinousFibrinous granulomatousgranulomatous necroticnecrotic dermatitisdermatitis,, catarrhal purulent to granulomatous sinusitiscatarrhal purulent to granulomatous sinusitis hyperemic oedematouscatarrhal purulent to granulomatous sinusitiscatarrhal purulent to granulomatous sinusitis, hyperemic oedematous GIT, vacuolar tubulonephrosis of the distal renal tubules, hyperemia and necrosis in the liver, basophilic intracytoplasmatic inclusion bodies
  5. 5. First case:First case: J l l didJ l l didJapalura splendidaJapalura splendida •• Virological examination (5 animals):Virological examination (5 animals): –– Detection ofDetection of ranavirus (RV), adenovirus (AdV), invertebrateranavirus (RV), adenovirus (AdV), invertebrate i id ii id i (IIV) i PCRi PCRiridovirusiridovirus (IIV) via PCRvia PCR –– Isolation of RV and IIV on IgHIsolation of RV and IIV on IgH--2 cells2 cells RV AdV IIV Virus isolationRV AdV IIV Virus isolation Animal 1 - intestine skin, lung - Animal 2 - intestine skin, lung, liver/kidney, i t ti IIV (skin, lung, liver/kidney, i t ti ) Animal 2 intestine intestine intestine) Animal 3 lung, intestine - skin, lung, liver/kidney, intestine RV + IIV (skin, lung, liver/kidney, intestine) Animal 4 skin lung liver/kidneyAnimal 4 - - skin, lung, liver/kidney - Animal 5 - intestine skin, lung, intestine IIV (lung, liver/kidney, intestine)
  6. 6. Second case:Second case: D i iliD i iliDopasia gracilisDopasia gracilis •• 2012: Asian glass lizards illegally imported into2012: Asian glass lizards illegally imported into Germany from Asia and confiscatedGermany from Asia and confiscated •• Clinical signs:Clinical signs:•• Clinical signs:Clinical signs: –– Increasing mortalityIncreasing mortality –– Skin lesionsSkin lesions •• Detection of RV via PCR (skin + mixed organs) and virusDetection of RV via PCR (skin + mixed organs) and virus isolation (skin, IgHisolation (skin, IgH--2)2) Reptilia
  7. 7. Third case:Third case: A li li iA li li iAnolis carolinensisAnolis carolinensis •• Green anoles from a population in Miami repeatedlyGreen anoles from a population in Miami repeatedly•• Green anoles from a population in Miami repeatedlyGreen anoles from a population in Miami repeatedly imported into Germanyimported into Germany •• winter/spring 2012:winter/spring 2012:•• winter/spring 2012:winter/spring 2012: –– Increasing mortalityIncreasing mortality –– Moderate parasite loadModerate parasite loadModerate parasite loadModerate parasite load –– Catarrhal enteritis, skin lesionsCatarrhal enteritis, skin lesions
  8. 8. Third case:Third case: A li li iA li li iAnolis carolinensisAnolis carolinensis •• Virological examination (1 animal):Virological examination (1 animal): RV AdV IIV Virus isolation ki (RV)skin + - + + (RV) liver + - - + (RV) S llSmall intestine + + - + (RV)
  9. 9. Fourth case:Fourth case: I iI iIguana iguanaIguana iguana •• Adult male and female green iguanas from different originsAdult male and female green iguanas from different origins collected to a single group in a private zoo in Germanycollected to a single group in a private zoo in Germany O 5 i di id l i l t dl d l dO 5 i di id l i l t dl d l d•• Over 5 years, individual animals repeatedly developedOver 5 years, individual animals repeatedly developed hyperkeratotic skin lesionshyperkeratotic skin lesions interrupted by asymptomaticinterrupted by asymptomatic periodsperiodspp • Further examination: bacterial infection, dermatomycosis • No treatment effective • May 2012: last iguana developed disease -> skin biopsy for virological testing RV iti (PCR)-> RV positive (PCR)
  10. 10. Fifth case:Fifth case: P ittiP ittiPogona vitticepsPogona vitticeps •• July 2011: 5 year old male bearded dragonJuly 2011: 5 year old male bearded dragon --> sudden appearance of pustules on the skin in the region of> sudden appearance of pustules on the skin in the region of th k d th h dth k d th h dthe neck and the headthe neck and the head > purulent dermatitis-> purulent dermatitis (Micrococcus spp.) -> antimicrobal therapy -> 
  11. 11. Fifth case:Fifth case: P ittiP ittiPogona vitticepsPogona vitticeps •• October 2012:October 2012: - inflammation and necrosis in one leg - dark skin lesions on the head,, neck and back
  12. 12. Fifth case:Fifth case: P ittiP ittiPogona vitticepsPogona vitticeps • Pathohistology: increased growth of ti ti (5)connective tissues (5); Iridophores (4) irregularly distributed, large melanocytes (1) Horny layer (2) Epidermis (3) Picture: P. Zwart, 400 x Van Gieson stain, polarised light
  13. 13. Fifth case:Fifth case: P ittiP ittiPogona vitticepsPogona vitticeps •• Virological examination:Virological examination: RV AdV Virus isolation skin + - - muscle + - - heart + - Oral / cloacal swab - + - Organs (intestine, liver, kidney, lung) - - -
  14. 14. Characterization and comparison •• Partial sequencing of MCP gene (500bp)Partial sequencing of MCP gene (500bp) Japalura Dopasia Iguana Pogona FV3 RTV ESV/ECV Tortoises = Anolis Dopasia Iguana Pogona FV3 RTV ESV/ECV Tortoises Japalura = Anolis 98.4 96.8 98.4 100 98.6 96.8 98.4 Dopasia 98.8 96.0 97.6 98.4 99 96 97.6Dopasia 98.8 96.0 97.6 98.4 99 96 97.6 Iguana 95.8 96.6 96.8 96.8 96.2 100 96.8 Pogona 98.2 98.2 95.2 98.4 97.8 96.8 100 FV3 100 98.8 95.8 98.2 98.6 96.8 98.4 RTV 98.8 100 96.4 98.2 98.8 96.2 97.8 ECV/ESV 95 8 96 4 100 95 2 95 8 96 4 96 8ECV/ESV 95.8 96.4 100 95.2 95.8 96.4 96.8 Tortoises 98.2 98.2 95.2 100 98.2 98.2 95.2 Upper diagonal=nt, lower diagonal=aa
  15. 15. DiscussionDiscussion •• First detection of ranaviruses in 5 lizard speciesFirst detection of ranaviruses in 5 lizard species –– Green striped tree dragonGreen striped tree dragon (Japalura splendida)(Japalura splendida)Green striped tree dragonGreen striped tree dragon (Japalura splendida)(Japalura splendida) –– Asian glass lizardAsian glass lizard (Dopasia gracilis)(Dopasia gracilis) –– Green anoleGreen anole (Anolis carolinensis)(Anolis carolinensis) –– Green iguanaGreen iguana (Iguana iguana)(Iguana iguana)–– Green iguanaGreen iguana (Iguana iguana)(Iguana iguana) –– Bearded dragonBearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)(Pogona vitticeps) •• Most RV distinct from each otherMost RV distinct from each other•• Most RV distinct from each otherMost RV distinct from each other --> RV can infect a wide range of hosts> RV can infect a wide range of hosts --> increasing importance of RV in lizards?> increasing importance of RV in lizards?
  16. 16. DiscussionDiscussion •• Origin: Asia, USA, GermanyOrigin: Asia, USA, Germany --> global distribution> global distributionglobal distributionglobal distribution •• large groups of animals vs. single animalslarge groups of animals vs. single animals •• high to low morbidity and mortalityhigh to low morbidity and mortalityg y yg y y •• Coinfections with otherCoinfections with other viruses/parasites/bacteria/fungiviruses/parasites/bacteria/fungi •• disease after transportdisease after transport --> clinical outcome of disease multifactorial> clinical outcome of disease multifactorial ( i f ti t i i )?( i f ti t i i )?(coinfections, stress, immunosuppression…)?(coinfections, stress, immunosuppression…)?
  17. 17. DiscussionDiscussion •• Contact with other reptiles/amphibiansContact with other reptiles/amphibians --> Role of reptiles in the epidemiology?> Role of reptiles in the epidemiology?Role of reptiles in the epidemiology?Role of reptiles in the epidemiology? •• Skin lesions (Skin lesions (ppurulent to granulomatous ulcerativeurulent to granulomatous ulcerative--Skin lesions (Skin lesions (ppurulent to granulomatous ulcerativeurulent to granulomatous ulcerative necrotic dermatitis and hyperkeratosis)necrotic dermatitis and hyperkeratosis) in all lizardsin all lizards --> DD mortality + skin lesions> DD mortality + skin lesionsDD mortality skin lesionsDD mortality skin lesions
  18. 18. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements Christa Schäfer and Silvia Speck: F h bi U l d Ti h iFachgebiet Umwelt und Tierhygiene University of Hohenheim Stuttgart, Germany
  19. 19. ThankThank youyou forfor youryouryy yy attentionattention!!
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