Welcome To BUA 235-Intro
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Welcome To BUA 235-Intro Welcome To BUA 235-Intro Presentation Transcript

  • BUA 235: Information Systems & Technology for Business Week 1: Introductions
  • Who am I?
    • Lecturer of Management Information Systems at the University of Maine Business School. Currently working towards the completion of a Ph.D. in Information Systems from Nova Southeastern University in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
    • Research interests include online learning environments (OLE), information security (InfoSec), computer privacy, and telecommunication technology.
  • What’s IS?
    • Some terms thrown around
      • IS = Information Systems?
      • IT = Information technology
      • EC = Ecommerce
      • MIS = Management of IS
      • CIS = Computer Information Systems
      • Etc.
  • An OLD definition of IS
    • Mason & Mitrof (1973), Mgmt.Science
      • “ An information system consists of at least one person of a certain psychological type who faces a problem within some organizational context for which he needs evidence to arrive at a solution (i.e., to select some course of action) and that the evidence is made available to him through some mode of presentation.”
  • Another, more recent definition
    • Zmud (1995), MIS Quarterly
      • IS is the “…development and communication of knowledge concerning both the management of information technology and the use of information technology for managerial and organizational purposes.”
  • A “point of view” about IS
    • Lee (2001), MIS Quarterly editorial
      • “ Research in the information systems field examines more than just the technological system, or just the social system, or even the two side-by-side; in addition, it investigates the phenomenon that emerge when the two interact . This embodies both a research perspective and a subject matter that differentiate the academic field of the Information Systems from other disciplines. In this regard, the so-called reference disciplines are actually poor models for our own field. They focus on the behavioral or the technological, but not on the emergent socio-technical phenomenon that set our field apart.”
  • Socio-Technical Phenomena
  • Intro to Course
    • This is a Survey course: in it we will introduce topics to you related to;
        • IT /IS in Decision making
        • Hardware & Software
        • Network and Telecommunications
        • Wireless Computing
        • Database design, development, & deployment
        • Information and Network Security
  • More….
    • Enterprise Systems;
      • Supply Chain Management (SCM)
      • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
      • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
  • What Information Systems (IS) is not?
    • IS is not computer science
    • IS is not computer engineering
    • So what is it?
  • Information Systems
  • Five-Component Framework for IS
    • Source:
    • Kroenke, D. M. (2007). Using MIS . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
    Software Bridge Instructions Actors Computer Side Human Side Automation moves work from human side to computer side Increased degree of difficulty of change Hardware Data Procedures People
  • Information Systems used in Business
    • Information technology is everywhere in business.
    • If you are learning about business you need to learn about Information technology
  • Information Systems
    • Information technology creates efficiency and enhances organizational effectiveness
    • Many organizational systems are interrelated:
    • “ Sales are dependant upon inventory, inventory are dependant upon production etc…”
    • Accounting systems
    • Finance systems
    • HR systems
    • Sales systems
    • Marketing systems
    • Operations Management systems
    • Management Information systems
    • Executive Information Systems
    • Etc…
      • Etc…
        • Etc…
  • Knowledge Management Systems
    • All together, these systems provide organizations with information.
      • We use this information to make informed decisions
        • This information over time becomes organizational knowledge
          • The collection of knowledge is a KMS…
  • Information Technology
    • Any computer-based tool that we use to work with information and support the information and information processing needs of an organization.
    • Information technology doesn’t equal success or even represents success
    • IT is most useful when it leverages the talents of the people who use it.
    • Information Technology in and of itself is not even useful unless the right people are involved who know how to use and manage it effectively
  • Management Information Systems
    • MIS: “ Is the function that plans for, develops, implements, and maintains IT hardware, software, and applications that people use to support the goals of an organization”
    • Most organizations (large and Medium sized) have a departments called the IT Dept, IS Dept, or the MIS Dept.
  • What is Information?
    • “ Information is knowledge derived from data”
    • or
    • “ information is data presented in meaningful context” (Kroenke, 2007, p. 10)
    • “ Data is … recorded facts or figures” (Kroenke, 2007, p. 10)
  • Difference between Data & Information Data Information
  • Data, information, and knowledge Data Information Knowledge Wisdom? Knowledge Management Systems
  • Several Parts to IT
    • Information : data converted into meaningful and useful context
    • IT Resources : People, Available IT, and Information: All linked to achieve the goals and objectives of a business
    • IT Culture : Organizational cultures influence how people will use their available information
  • Information is Power!
    • Lets face it: those armed with information have power
      • Organizational culture effects how is used and shared:
      • Four common information-sharing cultures exist in organizations today
    • Information-Functional : Employees (such as a manager) uses information as a means of influence or power over others.
    • Information-Sharing : Employees across departments trust each other to use information to improve performance
    • Information-Inquiring : Employees across depts. Search for information to better understand the future and align themselves with current trends & new directions
    • Info-discovery : employees across depts. are open to new insights about radical changes and seek ways to create competitive advantages
  • IT Impact on Business
    • Several business functions have benefitted greatly from information technology:
    • Reduces costs / Improve Productivity
    • Improve Customer Satisfaction / Loyalty
    • Business majors and those who intend to work in business areas such as;
      • Accounting
      • Finance
      • Human resources
      • Or operations management
    • You will need to be familiar with and understand what roles IT plays in your organization
  • Roles & Responsibility in IT
    • Historically organizations have had positions such as CEOs, CFOs, & COOs.
    • Organizations now recognize the need to put specific IT staff in strategic positions
    • Examples now include:
      • Chief Information Officer (CIO)
      • Chief technology Officer (CTO)
      • Chief Security Officer (CSO)
      • Chief Privacy Officer (CPO)
      • Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO)
  • Gap between Business Personnel & IT Personnel
    • Business personnel have their language and IT personnel have theirs: This gap interferes with businesses ability to make effective and efficient decisions
    • Many of the IT roles we looked at are leaders now in improving communication between the two areas (business and IT)
  • IT Metrics
    • Information systems primary goal is to improve efficiency and effectiveness
    • Metrics (quantifiable measurements) provide businesses with the information they need to improve performance in business processes
    • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): requires input from both business staff and IT staff to develop
  • Digital Dashboards
    • Digital Dashboards provide users with one single interface through which they can view information from a variety of sources that have been chosen specifically for that user. In addition, dashboards allow a user to view the information offline, adding portability to the mix.
  • How does a DD Work?
    • DDs retrieve and store data in a centralized access point:
        • Generally speaking using a combination of web design, relational database design, and a client/server network
    • Uses OLAP files: (Online analytical processing) which allows users to look at data in a way that is meaningful to them.
    • Synchronizes files from a server and makes then available both online and offline to users
  • Examples of a Digital Dashboard
  • Efficiency & Effectiveness Metrics come in many forms
    • Efficiency
    • Throughput: amount of info that can travel through systems at any point
    • Transaction speeds
    • System availability
    • Information accuracy
    • Web traffic
    • Response time
    • Effectiveness
    • Usability
    • Customer satisfaction
    • Conversion rates
    • Financial metrics (I.E, ROIs, Cost-benefit analysis, etc…
  • The 5 Forces Model
    • Buyer Power
    • Supplier Power
    • Threat of Substitute products of services
    • Threat of New Entrants
    • Rivalry among existing competitors
    • Michael Porter’s 5 forces analysis is a tool useful to aid organizations decision’s related to entering a new industry of industry segment
  • Next Week: Chapter 2