Supply Chain consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in the procurement of a product or raw material
SCM : involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness & profitability
Take Dell for Example!
Dell assembles nearly 80,000 computers every 24 hours!
Roughly 10 years ago (like many competitors) Had warehouses with 20-25 days worth of inventory
Today, Dell doesn’t have a single warehouse and carries only 2 hours worth of inventory in its factories and a maximum of just 72 hours across its entire operation
How’d they do it?
Dell-like Supply Chain Plan
Supply Chain starts with the customer: by cutting out retailers and selling directly to its customers, Dell is in a far better position to forecast real customer demand
2. Replace Inventory with Information!: to operate with close to zero inventory, Dell communicates constantly with its suppliers. It sends out status updates 3 times per day from its assembly plants; every week it updates its quarterly demand forecasts. By making communication its highest priority, Dell ensures the lowest possible inventory 3. If you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it: Dell knows what works because it measures everything from days in inventory to the time it takes to build a PC. As Dell slashed those numbers it got more efficient 4. Complexity slows you down: Dell cut the # of its core suppliers from several hundred to about 25. It standardizes critical PC components, which streamlined its manufacturing. Dell got faster by making things simpler 5. Create a watershed mind-set: Dell is not content with incremental improvement; it demands massive change. Each year, it wants its Austin-based PC assembly plant—already very fast—to improve production by 30%. “you don’t get big results if you don’t challenge people with big goals”
What has changed in terms of business focus?
In the past, companies focused primarily on manufacturing and quality improvements within their own 4 walls.
Now companies extend their effort to influence the entire SCM to include CUSTOMERS and SUPPLIERS!
BASICS OF SUPPLY CHAIN
The supply chain has three main links :
Materials flow from suppliers and their “upstream” suppliers at all levels
Transformation of materials into semi-finished and finished products through the organization’s own production process
Distribution of products to customers and their “downstream” customers at all levels
BASICS OF SUPPLY CHAIN
Organizations must embrace technologies that can effectively manage supply chains
Think of a business that you recently had a problem with, placing an order, receiving an order; Identify 1 or 2 areas where the business could improve its SCM with technology / information systems
Information technology’s role in the Supply Chain
At this point, the notion of virtually seamless information links within and between organizations is an essential element of integrated supply chains
Despite this however, remember: Privacy and security of customer information and intellectual capital remain a major concern and should be built into the system
5 basic SCM components Use metrics to meet demand Find reliable suppliers—deal with pricing, delivery, and payments with suppliers Manufacture product or service—Metric intensive! Logistics: deals with the processes & controls for efficient and effective transport and storage of supplies from supplier to customer Process for allowing customers to return defective and excess products
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY’S ROLE IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN
IT’s primary role is to create integrations or tight process and information linkages between functions within a firm
Factors Driving SCM
Although people have talked about it for a very long time, integrated SCM as only been made possible recently due to development of advances in technology
Supply chain visibility – the ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain
Companies can respond faster and more effectively to consumer demands through supply chain enhances
Demand planning software – generates demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques
Consumers are demanding more today
Supply chain planning (SCP) software – uses advanced mathematical algorithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chain
Supply chain execution (SCE) software – automates the different steps and stages of the supply chain
Having a efficient & effective SCM means having a competitive advantage over competitors
Benefits of SCM
Many are obvious;
Cost control/ savings
Inventory reductions / improvements
Improved visibility into demand/supply
Maintain/gain competitive advantage
NEC & Epson Deliver Global SCM Reform for Printer Supplies;
Drivers of SCM
SCM like we have said provides metrics by which we can measure efficiency IT metrics and effectiveness IT metric
These metrics are driven by the 4 drivers;
Facilities : addresses the process or transformation of inventory into another products or stores inventory before it moves to the next facility
Factors to consider are
Inventory : addresses the strategy employed to maintain low inventories but also maintain a rapid turnover time to meet demand!
Management & Control software helps address this
Transportation: a major cost in the SCM strategy
Software again is providing solutions for organizations through
Global inventory management systems
Transportation planning software &
Distribution management software
An organization must decide what information is most valuable in efficiently reducing costs or improving effectiveness
SCM strategies then consider;
Push vs . Pull information strategy
In a push technology environment, organizations send information. In a pull technology environment, organizations receive or request information
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Basics & Business Benefits of CRM
Most Valuable Customers
Organizations can use the RFM formula to determine who is its MVC’s!
Recency : how recently a customer purchased items
Frequency : how frequently a customer purchases items
Monetary value : how much a customer spends on each purchase
Customer Relationship Management
CRM: involves managing all aspects of a customers relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty, retention, and an organization’s profitability.
CRM acknowledges industries that they are migrating from the traditional product-focused organization toward customer-driven organizations.
Brief History: the 80’s
1980 Business Processes - In the case of larger, key clients it was a valuable tool for keeping the lines of communication open and tailoring service to the client’s needs. In the case of smaller clients, however, it tended to provide repetitive, survey-like information that cluttered databases and didn’t provide much insight.
1990 Resource Planning - In the 1990’s companies began to improve on Customer Relationship Management by making it more of a two-way street.
Instead of simply gathering data for their own use, they began giving back to their customers not only in terms of the obvious goal of improved customer service, but in incentives, gifts and other perks for customer loyalty.
2000 Customer Relationship Management - Life blood of most sales and service based business.
AVR’s (automated voice response phone systems)
Password Resets Via Email
Web Based Applets
Intra/Extranet Share Point Office Online
Business Contact Manager
Shared Calendars Open Source
Intuit (QuickBooks, Peachtree)
Because businesses recognize that customers have more choices and often already come with a considerable amount of product knowledge
Businesses need to do everything they can to acknowledge customer demand, preferences, demographic info, etc.. To ensure that customers are satisfied!
BUSINESS BENEFITS OF CRM
CRM enables an organization to :
Provide better customer service
Make call centers more efficient
Cross sell products more effectively
Help sales staff close deals faster
Simplify marketing and sales processes
Discover new customers
Increase customer revenues
CRM is a business philosophy based on the premise that those organizations that understand the needs of the individual customers are best positioned to achieve sustainable competitive advantage in the future
CRM in many cases is about sifting through information
to reveal trends,
and predict results so that businesses can increase response rates& identify profitable customers
Operational and Analytical CRM
Operational CRM – supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers
Analytical CRM – supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers
Operational and Analytical CRM
Using IT to Drive Operational CRM
Sales and Operational CRM
The sales department was the first to begin developing CRM systems with sales force automation – a system that automatically tracks all of the steps in the sales process
Sales and Operational CRM technologies
Sales management CRM system – automates each phase of the sales process, helping individual sales representatives coordinate and organize all of their accounts
Contact management CRM system – maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for future sales
Opportunity management CRM system – targets sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales
Sales and Operational CRM
CRM Pointers for Gaining Prospective Customer
Get their attention
Value their time
Generate a trustworthy mailing list
USING IT TO DRIVE ANALYTICAL CRM
Personalization – when a Web site knows enough about a persons likes and dislikes that it can fashion offers that are more likely to appeal to that person
Analytical CRM relies heavily on data warehousing technologies and business intelligence to glean insights into customer behavior
These systems quickly aggregate, analyze, and disseminate customer information throughout an organization
Analytical CRM has the ability to provide an organization with information about their customers that was previously impossible to locate, and the resulting payback can be tremendous.
Supplier relationship management (SRM) – focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects, which optimizes supplier selection
Partner relationship management (PRM) – focuses on keeping vendors satisfied by managing alliance partner and reseller relationship that provide customers with the optimal sales channel
Employee relationship management (ERM) – provides employees with a subset of CRM applications available through a Web browser
The End of the line: ERP Enterprise Resource Planning & Collaboration Systems
Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (or integrated set of IT systems so that employees can make decisions by viewing enterprise wide information on all business operations
Really? What about access control & authentication? Remember Information Security!!!
Powerful Organizational Tools Reasons ERP Systems are Powerful Organizational Tools ERP is a logical solution to the mess of incompatible applications that had sprung up in most businesses ERP addresses the need for global information sharing and reporting ERP is used to avoid the pain and expense of fixing legacy systems
Core & Extended Components
Core : traditional components included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus of internal operations
Extended : extra components that meet organizational needs that focus primarily on external operations
ERP: Key to e-business success
Applications such as SCM, CRM, and ERP are the backbone of e-business
Integration of these applications allows the unlocking of information to make it available to any user, anywhere, anytime
PeopleSoft: MainStreet Component PeopleSoft CRM X SCM X Financial management X HRM X Service Automation X Supplier relationship Management X Enterprise Performance management X Business Intelligence Learning Management Order management Manufacturing Marketing Sales
THE CONNECTED CORPORATION
Many companies purchase modules from an ERP vendor, an SCM vendor, and a CRM vendor and must integrate the different modules together
Middleware – several different types of software which sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software applications
Enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware – packages together commonly used functionality which reduced the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors
EAI example, if a company is looking at purchasing Siebel CRM and they find out the Siebel has already built many integrations to PeopleSoft financials, it would be more inclined to purchase the product
Risk and ERP
Costs : is a major risk to implementing ERP.
Can easily start in the millions of dollars, which includes hardware, software, professional services, and internal staff costs
Implementation : can take an average of 23 months…..
Lie in the integration layer of joining different types of application systems.
Integration at the Enterprise level is generally achieved through Web-Services
Web Services: is defined by the W3C as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network
Establishes communication with HTTP and uses XML solutions
Again, how do we establish security when joining disparate systems? Integration needs to also address access control, authentication, and use encryption