Hardware & Software Basics Chapter 5: IT Architecture
Information Technology <ul><li>Is any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the informa...
Input, Process, Output, and Storage Hardware
Major hardware Components <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU):  hardware that interprets & executes program software (In...
<ul><li>The number of CPU cycles per second determines how fast a CPU carries out software instructions </li></ul><ul><li>...
What do I need to know when purchasing a computer? <ul><li>Depends on the job functions of your employees. </li></ul><ul><...
Virtualization <ul><li>Virtualization is a protected memory space created by the CPU that allows the computer to create vi...
Why Virtualize? <ul><li>Virtualization is a good idea because it helps manage computer complexity.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rath...
Primary Storage: RAM <ul><li>Primary storage is the computers main memory </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of  random access memo...
RAM: Volatile <ul><li>Often referred to as Read/Write memory </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to work with programs (excel for...
RAM… So what? How does it effect me? <ul><li>Little swapping occurs when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your computer has a very l...
What can businesses do? <ul><li>Optimize applications to utilize memory more efficiently Or; </li></ul><ul><li>Add more RA...
<ul><li>Its important again then from a business perspective to understand your system requirements…… for example; </li></...
<ul><li>System Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>QuickBooks Enterprise requires at least 1.8 GHz processor and 512 MB RAM for...
Cache Memory & ROM <ul><li>Cache Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Is a small unit of ultra-fast memory that is used to store recen...
Secondary Storage Devices <ul><li>Flash Memory & Memory Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB Drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul...
Input & Output Devices already covered…. <ul><li>Input Devices & Output Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboards </li></ul><ul>...
Opening Questions <ul><li>What is the relationship between memory sticks and laptops?  </li></ul><ul><li>How can a user em...
Computer Categories and Software Basics <ul><li>Supercomputers today are advancing some of the countries most dynamic indu...
Supercomputing <ul><li>Clustering : companies chaining together thousands of PCs to build mass-market systems  </li></ul><...
Software Basics <ul><li>Hardware is only as good as the software that runs it. </li></ul><ul><li>System software:  control...
Operating System  & Utility Software <ul><li>Operating system software control the activities of managing a software appli...
Application Software <ul><li>Used for specific information processing needs, including payroll, CRM, project management, e...
Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>Includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, pr...
Enterprise Architecture
Information Architecture  <ul><li>Identifies where and how important information like customer records is maintained and s...
Three Primary Areas of Information Architecture <ul><li>Backup and Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Recovery </li></ul>...
Network Administration <ul><li>From a network admin perspective;  backup & restoration of data  is the backing up of criti...
Redundant Array of Independent or Inexpensive Disks (RAID) <ul><li>Is a collection of disks that provide fault tolerance s...
Fault tolerance and Failover <ul><li>Fault tolerance  is a computer system that is designed to ensure business continuity ...
Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disasters occur!  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power outages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods </li></u...
Implement & Enforce security & disaster recovery plans <ul><li>Having plans in place is not enough </li></ul><ul><li>They ...
Disaster Planning: Offsite storage  <ul><li>A comprehensive disaster plan includes ensuring that information is back-upped...
Information Security <ul><li>Demands of Information Security is growing! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers want remote access ...
Infrastructure Architecture <ul><li>Solid infrastructure include these five primary characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Scalability : refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands </li></ul><ul><li>If disk space is not su...
System Downtime <ul><li>Availability : addresses when systems can be accessed by users  </li></ul><ul><li>Systems have to ...
IT Strategies for Ensuring Availability <ul><li>Allow only network admins to create or modify NOS and application system f...
Application Architecture <ul><li>Determines how applications integrate and relate to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Advances...
<ul><li>Web Services :  contains a repertoire of web-based data and procedural resources that use shared protocols and sta...
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Chapter 5 It Architecture

  1. 1. Hardware & Software Basics Chapter 5: IT Architecture
  2. 2. Information Technology <ul><li>Is any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware : consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Software : is a set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks </li></ul>Two basic categories of IT
  3. 3. Input, Process, Output, and Storage Hardware
  4. 4. Major hardware Components <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU): hardware that interprets & executes program software (Instructions) and coordinates how all the other hardware works together </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of two parts; </li></ul><ul><li>Control Unit: interprets software instructions & tells hardware devices what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Logic Unit: performs all arithmetic and logical operations </li></ul>Essentially acts as the Brains of the Computer
  5. 5. <ul><li>The number of CPU cycles per second determines how fast a CPU carries out software instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Speed is measured in in Megahertz & Gigahertz </li></ul><ul><li>MHz: millions of CPU cycles per second </li></ul><ul><li>GHz: billions of CPU cycles per second </li></ul><ul><li>Clock Speed : speed of internal clock of a CPU that sets the pace of operations </li></ul><ul><li>Word Length : number of bits that can be processed by the CPU at any giving time </li></ul><ul><li>Bus Width : Size of internal electrical pathway along which signals are send from one part of the computer to another. Wider bus moves more data </li></ul><ul><li>Chip line width : the distance between transistors on a chip </li></ul>Computer Performance: Megahertz and Gigahertz
  6. 6. What do I need to know when purchasing a computer? <ul><li>Depends on the job functions of your employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees engaging in word-processing or spreadsheet management activities generally require no more than </li></ul><ul><li>Functions demanding like AutoCAD require more and faster processing power; </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Office Basic 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Component Requirement Computer and processor </li></ul><ul><li>500 megahertz (MHz) processor or higher Memory </li></ul><ul><li>AutoCAD System Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>For AutoCAD 2009: </li></ul><ul><li>Intel® Pentium® 4 processor or AMD Athlon®, 2.2 GHz or greater or Intel or AMD Dual Core processor, 1.6 GHz or greater </li></ul>Faster processing means higher costs for Computer systems
  7. 7. Virtualization <ul><li>Virtualization is a protected memory space created by the CPU that allows the computer to create virtual machines </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially it is a computer within a computer! </li></ul><ul><li>lets a single desktop computer simultaneously run several copies of operating systems like Microsoft's XP as processes on the desktop machine. </li></ul><ul><li>This turns a single physical machine into a number of different computers, increasing hardware utilization and system flexibility. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why Virtualize? <ul><li>Virtualization is a good idea because it helps manage computer complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than try to juggle multiple installations of subtly different software, a computer user can now experiment with beta software within the safe confines of a virtual machine. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Primary Storage: RAM <ul><li>Primary storage is the computers main memory </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of random access memory and read-only memory </li></ul><ul><li>Random Access Memory: acts as the computers primary working memory </li></ul><ul><li>Program instructions and data are stored in RAM so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processors data bus </li></ul>The term random is used to indicate that the computer does not need to access memory cells in sequence; rather, they can be referenced in any order.
  10. 10. RAM: Volatile <ul><li>Often referred to as Read/Write memory </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to work with programs (excel for example) and modify it (rewrite) as needed until the data is ready for printing or storage on secondary storage media </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Swapping: Memory swapping occurs when there is a request to the operating system to store data in memory and the data will not fit because there is not enough free memory to store the requested data. </li></ul>In this case, the operating system will have to remove something to make space.
  11. 11. RAM… So what? How does it effect me? <ul><li>Little swapping occurs when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your computer has a very large main memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You use only one or a few programs at a time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You use small files. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You may have a serious problem if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to use many programs or process many large data files. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your computer has a small memory capacity. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What can businesses do? <ul><li>Optimize applications to utilize memory more efficiently Or; </li></ul><ul><li>Add more RAM </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Its important again then from a business perspective to understand your system requirements…… for example; </li></ul><ul><li>Users need computers that will allow then to work with word processing, accounting software, and have constant access to a customer database…. </li></ul><ul><li>They will also be communicating via MS Outlook with co-workers and business partners….. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>System Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>QuickBooks Enterprise requires at least 1.8 GHz processor and 512 MB RAM for a multiuser environment </li></ul><ul><li>MS Office requires at least 500 megahertz (MHz) processor or higher Memory 512 MB RAM </li></ul><ul><li>CRM is handled by the QuickBooks software….. </li></ul><ul><li>Outlook part of MS Office Suite…. </li></ul><ul><li>IS Dept offers these PC’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 2.8 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 512K cache, 256MB RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 2.8 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 512K cache, 512 MB RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 3.6 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 1MB cache, 512 MB RAM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cache Memory & ROM <ul><li>Cache Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Is a small unit of ultra-fast memory that is used to store recently accessed or frequently accessed data so that the CPU does not have to retrieve this data from slower memory circuits as RAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache resides on or is close to the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>ROM: Read-Only Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Is the portion of primary storage that does not lose its contents when the power goes off. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains essential system programs that neither the user nor the computer can erase </li></ul><ul><li>Start-up instructions are stored in ROM </li></ul>
  16. 16. Secondary Storage Devices <ul><li>Flash Memory & Memory Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB Drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like ROM it is not volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Medium: Your hard drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses several rigid disks coated with a magnetic material housed together with a recording heads in a sealed mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optical Drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD, DVD-RW </li></ul></ul>CD-ROMs & DVDs are an economical solution for storing data and programs. Provides increased capacity and portability
  17. 17. Input & Output Devices already covered…. <ul><li>Input Devices & Output Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboards </li></ul><ul><li>Joysticks </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Touch screen </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors </li></ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware also includes Communication Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Modems and routers are a few examples…. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll cover these in more detail in later chapters….. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Opening Questions <ul><li>What is the relationship between memory sticks and laptops? </li></ul><ul><li>How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other? </li></ul><ul><li>How can an organization use technologies discussed to protect intellectual capital? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Computer Categories and Software Basics <ul><li>Supercomputers today are advancing some of the countries most dynamic industries including; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advanced manufacturing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gene research in life sciences and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real-time financial marketing modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How ? Because supercomputers are hitting processing power of well over 200 teraflops—the equivalent of everyone on earth performing 35,000 calculations per second! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Supercomputing <ul><li>Clustering : companies chaining together thousands of PCs to build mass-market systems </li></ul><ul><li>See the Super Computing example in YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel processing: provides the ability to run two or more tasks simultaneously and is viewed as the chip industries future </li></ul>
  21. 21. Software Basics <ul><li>Hardware is only as good as the software that runs it. </li></ul><ul><li>System software: controls how various technology tools work together along with the application software </li></ul><ul><li>Firmware falls in between! </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS of a PCs system software falls into this category but is more commonly understood as the application software that runs mobile device technology </li></ul>System software includes both operating system software and utility software
  22. 22. Operating System & Utility Software <ul><li>Operating system software control the activities of managing a software application like Excel and ensuring that a graph is sent to the printer </li></ul><ul><li>Utility software provides additional functionality to the operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>examples include; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antivirus software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen savers </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Application Software <ul><li>Used for specific information processing needs, including payroll, CRM, project management, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Application software is used to solve specific problems or to perform specific tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>MS Office </li></ul><ul><li>QuickBooks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>Includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unified and solid enterprise architecture standardizes hardware and software systems that adds these benefits to the organization; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes the reuse of IT assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds up the development and delivery of new systems </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Enterprise Architecture
  26. 26. Information Architecture <ul><li>Identifies where and how important information like customer records is maintained and secured. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you suppose a data backup schedule is important to an organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Some data cannot be recreated! </li></ul><ul><li>BI lost from that data could be tremendous </li></ul><ul><li>Securing against this type of loss is a major component! </li></ul>
  27. 27. Three Primary Areas of Information Architecture <ul><li>Backup and Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Information Security </li></ul><ul><li>Money is lost anytime an organization experiences down time. </li></ul><ul><li>A backup is an exact copy of a system’s information </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery is the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure </li></ul>
  28. 28. Network Administration <ul><li>From a network admin perspective; backup & restoration of data is the backing up of critical data files to a secure storage area & then restoring /retrieving data if original files are lost or deleted </li></ul><ul><li>Several techniques exist to backup and recover data; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundant storage servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even CD’s and DVD’s </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Redundant Array of Independent or Inexpensive Disks (RAID) <ul><li>Is a collection of disks that provide fault tolerance shared and applications </li></ul><ul><li>A group of hard disks is called a disk array or Drive </li></ul><ul><li>The group of RAID disks is recognized as a single logical drive to the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this, if a single disk failure occurs it will not cause a catastrophic loss of data </li></ul><ul><li>Provides fault tolerance! </li></ul><ul><li>Another benefit of RAID is increased storage capacity and potentially better disk performance </li></ul>
  30. 30. Fault tolerance and Failover <ul><li>Fault tolerance is a computer system that is designed to ensure business continuity and backup should a component fail. </li></ul><ul><li>Failover : is a backup operational mode in which the functions of a computer component are assumed by secondary system components when primary components go off line </li></ul>
  31. 31. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disasters occur! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power outages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The question is what do we do to prepare for such occurrences? </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Recovery Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire or flood </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Implement & Enforce security & disaster recovery plans <ul><li>Having plans in place is not enough </li></ul><ul><li>They have to be enforced! </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone in the organization should know what he or she is allowed to do on the network! </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcing policy also means controlling how the system is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict users ability to create or change files (such as executable files) </li></ul><ul><li>Limit users ability to download files </li></ul>
  33. 33. Disaster Planning: Offsite storage <ul><li>A comprehensive disaster plan includes ensuring that information is back-upped at a remote location </li></ul><ul><li>Employees also need to be considered when protecting company assets! </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Site: a separate and fully equipped facility where a company can move to and resume business </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Site: no computer resources but is a place employees can move to after a disaster </li></ul>
  34. 34. Information Security <ul><li>Demands of Information Security is growing! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers want remote access to the network, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers want remote access to authorized info, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are using increasingly available mobile devices and still want access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managing user Access is a critical piece of information architecture! </li></ul><ul><li>Creating password policy that secures workstations and meets the requirements of legislation is part of this </li></ul>
  35. 35. Infrastructure Architecture <ul><li>Solid infrastructure include these five primary characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Areas to focus on relate to integrity and availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Scalability : refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands </li></ul><ul><li>If disk space is not sufficient it can limit growth of information (customers) and can slow down transaction speed </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability : ensures that all systems are functioning and providing accurate information </li></ul>
  37. 37. System Downtime <ul><li>Availability : addresses when systems can be accessed by users </li></ul><ul><li>Systems have to go down occasionally </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrades </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Scheduled downtime then should be coordinated to not interfere with business activities </li></ul>
  38. 38. IT Strategies for Ensuring Availability <ul><li>Allow only network admins to create or modify NOS and application system files </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor network for unauthorized access or changes </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize a change management system </li></ul><ul><li>Install redundant components </li></ul><ul><li>Perform regular health checks on system </li></ul><ul><li>Check system performance, error logs, and system logs regularly </li></ul>These steps used as part of a plan can help ensure network integrity & availability
  39. 39. Application Architecture <ul><li>Determines how applications integrate and relate to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in integration technology –web services and open systems are providing organizations with more responsive enterprise architecture </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Web Services : contains a repertoire of web-based data and procedural resources that use shared protocols and standards permitting different applications to share data and services </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a SCM system or Intranet </li></ul><ul><li>Open systems : a term we will continue to heart a lot about! </li></ul><ul><li>A broad general term that describes nonproprietary IT hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Linux operating systems is an example… </li></ul>
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