BUA 235: Team Project
And Chap 10’s
Information Systems Development- SDLC
• Goal 4: Teamwork
• Students will understand the fundamental
concepts of teamwork, and demonstrate the
ability to work in teams.
• Students will identify the elements in building
effective teams; students will articulate the
team goal and their individual contributions to
the team goal and students will describe the
significant roles and contributions of team
• Because of synergy in groups is remarkable
• We are assessing group effectiveness in order
to place individual personalities in
perspective, value differences that arise, and
meld diverse approaches into effective
• The most effective teams are the ones where
everyone understands their unique jobs and
then (of course) does them
What is measured when determining
• Do all members know what specific goals the team is
trying to accomplish?
• Do team members agree on that the specific goals
• What activities does the team choose to undertake or
assign in order to achieve its goals?
– Did any particular activity work particularly well in getting
Team effectiveness continued
• Did each team member
have a specific –even
that helped the team
achieve its goal?
• Is the work stimulating
and worth your time?
• Does your team have the
resources to achieve its
• Resources include;
– Talents /skills
Your Team Project
• The team project consists of developing an inventory information
system using MS Access 2007. Specific deliverables of the team
project will include;
• A list of three to five business requirements that state how the
information system should work
• An Entity Relationship (ER) Model that graphically represents
specific information system entities. These entities include; tables,
relationship types, fields, and field data types
• The completed information system itself. This information system
will include; tables, forms, queries, macros, relationships, various
reports, and a main menu for accessing information system
To start the project
• Teams will be setup first. Next
• Information Systems Cases
will be assigned to each team:
• Team leaders will have to
choose a electronic platform,
Google Docs, Wiggio, etc… to
workflow, and Content
• Business Requirements and ER
• The Information system itself
built using MS Access 2007
• DUE: Report and Info system
due on 12/2/2010
• Team Presentations: Dec 7-9
What is Systems Development?
• Systems development, or systems analysis and design
• Process of creating and maintaining information
System development not just for
• Establishing the system’s goals, setting up the
project, and determining requirements require
business knowledge and management skill.
• Tasks such as building computer networks and
writing computer programs require technical
• Developing the other components requires
nontechnical, human relations skills.
Non-technical, human relations skills
• Creating data models requires the ability to interview users
and understand their view of the business activities.
• Designing procedures, especially those involving group action,
requires business knowledge and an understanding of group
• Developing job descriptions, staffing, and training all require
human resource and related expertise.
• Coordinated teamwork of both specialists and non-specialists
with business knowledge.
IS systems never “off the shelf”
• Information systems involve people and procedures, therefore
procedures must be constructed or adapted to fit business and
people, regardless of how computer programs are obtained.
• You will have a key role in information systems development.
• Ensuring that effective procedures exist for using the information
• Ensuring that personnel are properly trained and are able to use the
• Single most important criterion for information systems success is
for users to take ownership of their systems.
Difficulties Associated with Systems
• Systems development is difficult
• Many projects are never finished.
• Some finish 200 to 300 percent
• Others finish within budget and
schedule, but never satisfactorily
accomplish their goals.
• What features do you want?
• Do you really need them?
• What kind of controls do you want?
• What functions should it have?
• What data do you have?
• What information do you want provided?
• Must create environment where difficult questions are
asked and answered
Challenges associated with Virtual
• Remember chap 2?
• Content management
requires a means to
manage multiple users
that are contributing and
schedules, task lists,
assignments, and so on….
• Factors that will effect
• unique dimensions of
• geographic dispersion,
• electronic dependence,
• cultural diversity, and
• dynamic structure.
Changes in Requirements
• Development aims at moving target
• Bigger the system and longer the project, the more requirements
When requirements change, what should the development team do?
• Stop work and rebuild system in accordance with new
requirements? If they do that, system will develop in fits and starts
and might never be completed.
• Or, should the team finish the system, knowing that it will be
unsatisfactory the day it is implemented and will therefore need
Scheduling and Budgeting Problems
• How long to build it?
• How long to create data model?
• How long to build database applications?
• How long to do testing?
• How long to develop and document procedures?
• How long for training?
• How much will it cost for labor?
• What are the costs and benefits?
• What’s the rate of return on investment?
Changing Technologies and
Diseconomies of Scale
• Technology is constantly
• Do you change mid-way
through a systems
should something newer
Diseconomies of Scale
• As development teams
get larger, the average
contribution per worker
• As a result, more
required…= more time!
Adding more people to a project makes the
When new staff are brought into a late
project, they must be trained by productive
members who lose productivity while they’re
training new members.
• Some tasks simply can’t be speeded up.
Systems Development Lifecycle -SDLC
1. Systems definition
• Management’s statement of objective and goals for new system
2. Requirements analysis
• Identify features and functions
3. Component design (hardware, software, network)
• Based on approved user requirements
• Purchase, build, test, and convert to new system
5. System maintenance (fix or enhance)
• Repair, add new features, maintain
How Is System Definition Accomplished?
• Team of users and IT professionals assigned to assess
• Small business may hire consultant to work with
managers and key employees
1. (a.) Define system goals for new system
Facilitate competitive strategy
Improve decision making
• Create quality relationships with quality customers
• Use those relationships to generate revenue
How Is System Definition Accomplished?
1.(b.) Define scope for new system
Defined by customers, users involved, business
processes impacted, physical location, functional
Clear definition of scope simplifies
• Requirements determination
• Coordination and other work
Dimensions of feasibility
• Cost feasibility
Approximated, “back-of-the-envelope” analysis
Purpose: eliminate infeasible ideas early
Consider cost of previous projects, operational and labor costs
• Schedule feasibility
Ball park estimate
• Technical feasibility
Is it technically likely to meet needs?
• Organizational feasibility
Fit with customs, culture, charter, legal requirements of
Form a Project Team
• Typical personnel on a development team are:
• Manager (or mangers for larger projects)
• System analysts
• Software testers
• Depending on nature of project, team may also include
hardware and communications specialists, database
designers and administrators, and other IT specialists.