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Standards For Foreign Language For U  Ma
 

Standards For Foreign Language For U Ma

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Choosing to incorporate strategies for learning a second language leads to more success on the part of your students. These slides will provide you with ideas on how to achieve this goal and meet the ...

Choosing to incorporate strategies for learning a second language leads to more success on the part of your students. These slides will provide you with ideas on how to achieve this goal and meet the national standards for teaching foreign language in the United States.

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    Standards For Foreign Language For U  Ma Standards For Foreign Language For U Ma Presentation Transcript

    • Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the U.S. Preparing for the 21 st Century
    • Statement of Philosophy Standards for Foreign Language Learning
      • “ Language and communication are at the heart of the human experience. The United States must educate students who are linguistically and culturally equipped to communicate successfully in a pluralistic American society and abroad. This imperative envisions a future in which ALL students will develop and maintain proficiency in English and at least one other language, modern or classical. Children who come to school from non-English backgrounds should also have opportunities to develop further proficiencies in their first language.”
      • Statement of Philosophy
      • Standards for Foreign Language Learning
    • Background Information
      • In 1993, a coalition of four national language organizations received funding to develop standards for foreign language education, grades K-12.
      • ACTFL, American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
      • AATF, American Association of Teachers of French
      • AATG, American Association of Teachers of German
      • AATSP, American Association of Teachers of Spanish & Portuguese
    • Federal Support Helps
      • Teaching foreign languages was the final subject area to receive federal support to develop national standards.
      • Bush Administration’s America 2000 education initiative
      • Goals 2000 in the Clinton Administration
      • 11 member task force, representing a variety of languages, levels of instruction, program models, and geographic regions, was appointed to undertake the task of defining content standards .
    • Question: How do you define Content Standards?
      • Answer:
      • What students should know and what students should be able to do with foreign language learning.
    • Question: What did the task force do to gain unprecedented consensus?
      • Answer:
      • At each stage of development of the content standards, the task force shared its work with the broader profession and the public at large. As a result there is unprecedented consensus among educators, business leaders, government, and the community on the definition and role of foreign language instruction in education in the United States.
    • The Standards for Foreign Language: What they do & What they do not do:
      • > Provide a gauge against which to measure improvement in the years to come.
      • >Suggest the types of curricular experiences needed to enable students to achieve the standards.
      • >Support the ideal of extended sequences of study beginning in elementary grades and continuing through secondary school and beyond.
      • >Must be used in conjunction with state and local standards and curriculum frameworks to determine the best approaches and reasonable expectations for students in individual districts and schools.
      • > The Standards will not be achieved overnight.
      • >Do not describe the current status of foreign language education in the U.S.
      • >Do not describe what is being attained by the majority of foreign language students.
      • >The standards are not a curriculum guide.
      • >Do not describe specific course content.
      • >Do not describe a recommended sequence of study.
    • Question: What are some of the purposes and uses of foreign languages in the United States?
      • Answers:
      • Finding a rewarding career in the international marketplace.
      • Finding a rewarding career in government service.
      • Interest in intellectual challenges and cognitive benefits to those who acquire and learn multiple languages.
      • Fulfill an educational graduation requirement.
      • Finding a rewarding career in the field of teaching.
      • More. . .
    • Question: What are the 5 C’s of foreign language education?
      • The answer to this question lies in this clue. What are the 5 C’s of any language learning?
      • C ommunication
      • C ultures
      • C onnections
      • C omparisons
      • C ommunities
    • Question: What is communication in foreign language learning?
      • Answer:
      • Communication is at the heart of 2 nd language study and learning, whether the communication takes place face-to-face, in writing, or across centuries through the reading of literature.
    • Question: What is the role of cultures in foreign language learning?
      • Answer:
      • Through the study of other languages, students gain a knowledge and understanding of the cultures of the speakers of those languages. In fact, speakers of 2 nd languages cannot truly master knowing that language unless they have also mastered the cultural contexts in which the language occurs.
    • Question: What connections do the students gain by learning 2 nd languages?
      • Answer:
      • Learning languages provides connections to additional bodies of knowledge that may be unavailable to the monolingual English speaker.
      • Quiz:
      • What examples of connections to additional bodies of knowledge can you list?
    • Question: How do students benefit from learning to make comparisons and contrasts between the 2 nd language and their 1 st language?
      • Answer:
      • Through comparisons and contrasts with the language being studied, students develop insight into the nature of language and the concept of culture and realize there are multiple ways of viewing the world.
      • Quiz:
      • What examples of comparisons and contrasts have your students made between Mandarin and English that you can list today?
    • Question: How does learning a 2 nd language help individuals build communities?
      • Answer:
      • Together, the five C’s of foreign language education enable the students of 2 nd languages to participate in multilingual communities at home and around the world in a variety of contexts and in culturally appropriate ways.
      • Quiz:
      • When have you witnessed your 2 nd language students cross into a 2 nd culture and begin to build a multilingual community?
    • Question: What is communicative competence?
      • Question:
      • How do you interpret the intent of this phrase? “knowing how, when, and why to say what to whom”
      • Clue:
      • How do you teach a language? What do you want your students to learn?
    • Some Answers to the Question: What is Communicative Competence?
      • All the linguistic and social knowledge required for effective human-to-human interaction is encompassed in these words, “knowing how, when, and why to say what to whom”.
      • The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language in order to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom.
      • Communicative competence includes:
        • Knowledge of the grammar and vocabulary of the language
        • Knowledge of the rules of speaking
        • Knowing how to use and respond to different types of speech acts (requests, apologies, thanks, and invitations, etc.)
        • Knowing how to use language appropriately
      • Source: Longman, Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics.
    • Time to Reflect Question: What about culture and communicative competence?
      • What do the Standards for Foreign Language Learning say about the role of cultures in 2 nd language learning?
      • Clue: Do students really know how to communicate in a 2 nd language if they do not understand the cultures of the speakers of that language?
      • Answer:
      • Through the study of other languages, students gain a knowledge and understanding of the cultures of the speakers of those languages. In fact, they cannot truly master the 2 nd language until they have also mastered the cultural contexts in which the language occurs.
    • Time to Reflect Question: How does the inclusion of knowing how, when, and why to say what to whom in 2 nd language education change your classroom?
      • Clue: Does teaching 2 nd language with the five C’s make a difference?
      • Answers:
      • Formerly, most teaching in foreign language classrooms concentrated on the how (grammar) to say what (vocabulary).
      • These components of language are crucial, but the current organizing principle of foreign language study is communication , it is the acquisition of the ability to communicate in meaningful and appropriate ways with users of other languages that is the ultimate goal of today’s foreign-language classroom.
    • Standards: Communication Communicate in Languages Other than English
      • Standard 1.1 : Students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions.
      • This standard focuses on interpersonal communication; direct oral or written communication between individuals who are in personal contact. In most modern languages, students can quickly learn a number of phrases that will permit them to interact with each other. In the course of their study, they will grow in their ability to converse in a culturally appropriate manner.
      • Can you think of a sample progress indicator for grade 4, grade 8, or grade 12 students?
    • Standards: Communication Communicate in Languages Other than English
      • Sample Progress Indicators for Standard 1.1:
      • Grade 4: Students ask and answer questions about family, school events, and celebrations in person or in letters, e-mails, or on audio or video tapes.
      • Grade 8: Students exchange information about personal events, memorable experiences, and other school subjects with peers and/or members of the target cultures.
      • Grade 12: Students exchange, support, and discuss their opinions and individual perspectives with peers and/or speakers of the target language on a variety of topics dealing with contemporary and historical issues.
      • Source: Standards for Foreign Language Learning, Preparing for the 21 st Century.
    • Standards: Communication Communicate in Languages Other than English
      • Standard 1.2: Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics.
      • As the learners work with a variety of print and non-print materials, they are involved with one-way listening and reading. The context in which language is experienced and the ability to control what is heard and read may impact the students’ development of comprehension. The ability to read may develop before the ability to comprehend rapid spoken language. Content knowledge will often affect successful comprehension because students often understand materials with greater ease that reflect their interests or for which they have some background knowledge.
      • Can you think of a sample progress indicator for grade 4, grade 8, or grade 12 students?
    • Standards: Communication Communicate in Languages Other than English
      • Sample Progress Indicators for Standard 1.2:
      • Grade 4: Students comprehend the main idea of developmentally appropriate oral narratives that may include personal anecdotes, familiar fairy tales, and other narratives based on familiar themes.
      • Grade 8: Students use knowledge acquired in other settings and from other subject areas to comprehend spoken and written messages in the target languages.
      • Grade 12: Students demonstrate an increasing understanding of the cultural nuances of meaning in written and spoken language as expressed by speakers and writers of the target language in formal and informal settings.
      • Source: Standards for Foreign Language Learning, Preparing for the 21 st Century.
    • Standards: Communication Communicate in Languages Other than English
      • Standard 1.3: Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics.
      • Students are ready for formal presentations of information, concepts, and ideas in the spoken and written form, in most cases with one-way speaking and writing. Students with little or no previous language experience are likely to produce written and spoken language containing a variety of learned patterns or patterns that look like English with words in the 2 nd language. This process is natural and, over time, the learners begin to acquire authentic patterns and use appropriate styles. By contrast, home-background students will write in ways closely resembling the spoken language. They will control informal oral styles. Over time these learners will develop the ability to write and speak using more formal styles.
      • Can you think of a sample progress indicator for grade 4, grade 8, or grade 12 students?
    • Standards: Communication Communicate in Languages Other than English
      • Sample Progress Indicators for Standard 1.3:
      • Grade 4: Students prepare illustrated stories about activities or events in their environment and share them with their teachers and class.
      • Grade 8: Students prepare tape or video recorded messages to share locally or with school peers and/or members of the target cultures on topics of personal interest.
      • Grade 12: Students prepare a research-based analysis of a current event from the perspective of both the U.S. and target cultures.
      • Source: Standards for Foreign Language Learning, Preparing for the 21 st Century.
    • Standards: Cultures Gain Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
      • Standard 2.1: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied.
      • Students are focusing on the practices derived from traditional ideas and attitudes (perspectives) of a culture. Cultural practices refer to patterns of behavior accepted by a society and deal with aspects of culture that may include rites of passage, use of forms of discourse, social class structure, and use of space. They represent the knowledge of “what to do when and where”.
      • Can you describe a learning scenario that demonstrates the learning in standard 2.1?
    • Standards: Cultures Gain Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
      • Sample Learning Scenario Demonstrating Standard 2.1:
      • Grade 6-8: Students in a Latin class re-enact a Roman wedding. Students receive printed information from their teacher about Roman marriage ceremonies. This includes a marriage contract, the sequence of events, and the script participants read during the ceremony, along with supporting vocabulary in Latin and its English derivatives. After discussing the information, students choose roles. After students enacted the ceremony in Latin, they compare Roman weddings with weddings in American culture.
      • Source: Massachusetts Foreign Language Curriculum Framework, August, 1999.
    • Standards: Cultures Gain Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
      • Standard 2.2: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied.
      • Students are learning about the products of the target culture and how they reflect the perspectives of the culture. Products can be tangible (a painting, piece of literature, pair of chopsticks) or intangible (a story in the oral tradition, a dance, a sacred ritual, a system of education). Whatever the form of the product, its presence within the culture is required or justified by the underlying beliefs and values (perspectives) of that culture, and the cultural practices involving the use of that product.
      • Can you describe a learning scenario that demonstrates the learning in standard 2.2?
      • Sample Learning Scenario Demonstrating Standard 2.2:
      • Using texts, VCR, and videocassettes of films as the products, students read excerpts of the classical epic novel of the Monkey King, “Journey to the West”, view and listen to segments of Hewlett and Albarn’s Chinese opera, “Monkey: Journey to the West”, and perhaps view the film, “The Forbidden Kingdom” and segments of the television series, “The Lost Empire”. Students then compare the text version with the opera, films, and television videos, commenting on the fidelity of the films to the original text. They then compare the opera, the movie, and the tv series to the original story, analyzing the interpretation of the themes. Studying a variety of theatre and film reviews in Mandarin, students then write their own review in Mandarin of either the opera or one of the films.
      • Source: Massachusetts Foreign Language Curriculum Framework, August, 1999, Wikipedia, and several internet sites.
      Standards: Cultures Gain Knowledge and Understanding of Other Cultures
    • Standards: Connections Connect with Other Disciplines and Acquire Information
      • Standard 3.1: Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language.
      • Learning today is interdisciplinary. Reading is not limited to a particular segment of the school day. Foreign language can be used to build on the knowledge students acquire in other subject areas. Students can learn to relate information studied in other subjects to their learning of a foreign language and culture. Foreign language instruction is a means to expand and deepen students’ understanding of, and exposure to, other areas of knowledge. The new information and concepts presented in one class become the basis of continued learning in the foreign language classroom.
      • Can you describe a learning scenario that demonstrates the learning in standard 3.1?
    • Standards: Connections Connect with Other Disciplines and Acquire Information
      • Sample Learning Scenario Demonstrating Standard 3.1:
      • Using food packaging, nutritional charts, food advertising from Japan and the United States, students in grades kindergarten through 4 can learn about nutrition, food groups, and eating a balanced diet. Students can draw comparisons between the typical American diet and a Japanese diet. They study food packaging and nutritional charts from Japan and compare them to their own. They find out how different meals in Japan satisfy nutritional requirements.
      • Source: Massachusetts Foreign Language Curriculum Framework, August, 1999.
    • Standards: Connections Connect with Other Disciplines and Acquire Information Standard 3.2: Students acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign language and its cultures. As a result of learning another language and gaining access to its unique means of communication, students can broaden the sources of information available to them. At the beginning levels of language learning, students can begin to examine a variety of sources intended for native speakers to extract specific information. As they gain more proficiency in the 2 nd language, they can search for materials of interest to them, analyze the content, compare it to information available in their own language, and explore the linguistic and cultural differences. Can you describe a learning scenario that demonstrates the learning in standard 3.2?
    • Standards: Connections Connect with Other Disciplines and Acquire Information
      • Sample Learning Scenario Demonstrating Standard 3.2:
      • Using texts students in grades 11 or 12 can read Balzac’s Eugenie Grandet or Le Pere Goriot and compare these to works in English such as Charles Dickens’ Christmas Carol, or George Eliot’s Silas Marner. Students discuss the plots, the main characters, settings, and themes. Finally each group presents its findings to the class by first outlining the stories and then analyzing the similarities and differences in the author’s use of classic examples.
      • Source: Massachusetts Foreign Language Curriculum Framework, August, 1999.
    • Standards: Comparisons Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
      • Standard 4.1: Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own.
      • Students focus on learning the linguistic elements in the new language. This learning enables students to examine English and develop hypotheses about the structure and use of languages. From the beginning stages of 2 nd language learning, students can compare and contrast the two languages as different elements are presented. Activities can be systematically integrated into instruction to assist students in gaining understanding and in developing their abilities to think critically about how languages work, similarities, and differences.
      • Can you describe a learning scenario that demonstrates the learning in standard 4.1?
    • Standards: Comparisons Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
      • Sample Learning Scenario Demonstrating Standard 4.1:
      • Using resources on the Day of the Dead ( el Día de los Muertos); books, articles, web sites, dictionaries, documentary films, students in grades 6 to 8 can learn the vocabulary pertinent to the American holiday of Halloween and the Mexican celebration of the Day of the Dead (el Día de los Muertos). Using a variety of materials including textbook presentations, information from the Internet, cultural objects, students will be able to compare and contrast the two celebrations and explain the meanings and origins of words, phrases, images, and practices.
      • Source: Massachusetts Foreign Language Curriculum Framework, August, 1999.
    • Standards: Comparisons Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
      • Standard 4.2: Students demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own.
      • Students expand their knowledge of cultures through foreign language learning and discover perspectives, practices, and products that are similar and different from their own culture. This acquisition of knowledge and the discoveries enable them to hypothesize about cultural systems in general. In the classrooms we can encourage the reflective process by incorporating it into our instruction from the earliest levels of learning.
      • Can you describe a learning scenario that demonstrates the learning in standard 4.2?
    • Standards: Comparisons Develop Insight into the Nature of Language and Culture
      • Sample Learning Scenario Demonstrating Standard 4.2:
      • Using print and non-print materials on immigration trends in the United States and in Latin American countries, in conjunction with history classes, students in grades 6 to 8 can work in small groups to research trends in the U.S. since 1800. Other groups of students can investigate trends in immigration to a Latin American country during the same time period to find similarities and differences. They research reasons for immigration, countries of origin, conditions in those countries, the immigrants’ adjustments to the new culture, and traditions and products they brought to their adopted country. Groups then present findings to the whole class for discussion. Good sources for this activity include encyclopedia entries and biographies of famous immigrants or descendants of immigrants.
      • Source: Massachusetts Foreign Language Curriculum Framework, August, 1999.
    • Standards: Communities Participate in Multilingual Communities at Home & Around the World
      • Standard 5.1: Students use the language both within and beyond the school setting.
      • Language is a tool for communicating with speakers of the target language in one’s life: in schools, in communities, and while traveling to other countries. In schools, students share their knowledge of language and culture with classmates and with younger students who may also be learning the target language. Students come to realize the advantages in being able to communicate in more than one language and develop an understanding of the power of language.
      • Can you describe a learning scenario that demonstrates the learning in standard 5.1?
    • Standards: Communities Participate in Multilingual Communities at Home & Around the World
      • Sample Learning Scenario Demonstrating Standard 5.1:
      • Using resource materials on the target culture; art materials, groceries needed to prepare food, etc., students in grades 9 to 10 can make arrangements to set up a booth at traditional cultural festivals in their communities. These festivals may include the Blessing of the Fleet, Cinco de Mayo, Feast of St. Anthony, Oktoberfest, Bastille Day and more where they sell food and/or crafts typical of the target culture. Since many people attend these festivals speak the target language, students attempt to use it to conduct as many transactions as possible. If it is appropriate, students can perform a dance, sign a song, or tell a story from the target culture. This model can also be used in a school-wide multicultural fair.
      • Source: Massachusetts Foreign Language Curriculum Framework, August, 1999.
    • Standards: Communities Participate in Multilingual Communities at Home & Around the World
      • Standard 5.2: Students show evidence of becoming life-long learners by using the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment.
      • Learners can use skills to access information in their 2 nd language by developing a certain level of comfort and confidence with their new language. Just as each day millions of people in the United States spend leisure time reading, listening to music, viewing films and TV programs, and interacting with each other. Students who study a 2 nd language can use their skills to further enrich their personal lives. Some students have the opportunities to travel to communities and countries where the 2 nd language is used extensively. Through this experience, they can further develop their language skills and understanding of the culture.
      • Can you describe a learning scenario that demonstrates the learning in standard 5.2?
    • Standards: Communities Participate in Multilingual Communities at Home & Around the World
      • Sample Learning Scenario Demonstrating Standard 5.2:
      • Using job-related resources, dictionaries, and Internet materials, students in grades 11 to 12 can volunteer their time in a community service center, performing non-critical translations to aid communication between speakers of these languages and the staff of the centers. In some cases, students might be enrolled in a school-to-work program. In other cases, students who demonstrate strong skills in their English classes may be able to offer tutoring assistance to individuals in the community learning English as a Second Language who speak the target language.
      • Sources: Massachusetts Foreign Language Curriculum Framework, August, 1999 and my students’ actual experiences.
    • Sample Learning Scenario Activity One: Newscast
      • Description: In the Spanish II class in Williamston High School, a small rural community in Michigan, students worked in groups to write, produce, and videotape a 15 to 20 minute Spanish language news show that included news events; a live, from-the-scene report; weather, sports; and commercials. The news events included items from the Spanish-speaking world, the United States, the state, and local areas. This scenario can be applied to any language at a variety of levels—be creative.
      • Your task today is to develop your own class activity identifying the Standards for Foreign Language Learning targeted in your lesson plan and activity with using a newscast as your focus.
      • Enjoy working together in your group and we will report back with your results in approximately 15 minutes.
    • Sample Learning Scenario Activity Two: Chinese Calendar
      • Description: In Ms. Chen-Lin’s Chinese class in W. Hartford, CT, 8 th graders are learning about the Chinese calendar. Students listen to the folkloric tale of how the years got their names, as the teacher explains using story cards. The students use artistic expression to recall the details of the story by making posters that announce the race of the 12 animals in the story. They are encouraged to include on their poster the date, time, location, and prize in Chinese. On the next day, the class explores the importance of a calendar in the students’ own culture and in others. The students discuss the differences found in the Chinese and American calendars. They make a calendar using Chinese characters to be used in their homes. They include birthdays, family celebrations, school activities, and other special events.
      • Your task today is to develop your own class activity identifying the Standards for Foreign Language Learning targeted in your lesson plan and activity with the Chinese Calendar.
      • Enjoy working together in your group and we will report back with your results in approximately 15 minutes.
    • What did your students learn? What standards were targeted?
      • Sample Learning Scenario One: Newscast
      • If the students were asked to view taped newscasts and commercials from two Spanish speaking countries and use them as models for their project, an emphasis could be placed on Standards 1.2 and 4.1 and Standard 4.2. This type of preparation for the project would also provide the opportunity to target Standard 2.2 with students analyzing a product of the culture studied. This scenario could be applied to any language at a variety of levels.
      • In preparation for the project, students view newscasts and compare and contrast the language styles. Students also note cultural similarities and differences in the videotapes they viewed.
      • Targeted Standards: 1.1, Interpersonal Communication, 1.3, Presentational Communication, 2.1, Practices of Culture, 3.1, Furthering Connections, 5.1, School and Community, 5.2, Life-long Learning.
    • What did your students learn? What standards were targeted? Sample Learning Scenario Two: Chinese Calendar In this activity, the students understand the calendar explanation more easily because the teacher accompanies the story with visuals. The use of artistic expression to check for their understanding allows students with various learning styles to be successful in showing what they understood from the story. The follow-up discussion helps students reflect on the importance of a calendar within a culture and the role the calendar plays in American culture. Targeted Standards: 1.2, Interpretive Communication, 2.2, Products of Culture, 4.2. Culture Comparisons.
    • Thank you!
      • Sources Used to Prepare for Today:
      • Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21 st Century
      • Massachusetts Foreign Languages Curriculum Framework, August, 1999.
      • Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics.
      • My education at U. MA., Boston, Applied Linguistics Program.
      • My professional experience as a bilingual corporate language trainer, community college instructor, trainer of graduate students, and teacher for second language speaking high-school and middle-school students.
      • My life as a second language speaker and my family members’ experiences.
    • Contact Information:
      • Marilyn R. Glazer-Weisner,
      • M.A., Applied Linguistics
      • [email_address]
      • 617-435-3312