Using “Fatigue” Science to Reevaluate
“Traditional” Training Methods
Matt Gittermann
University of Maryland, Baltimore Cou...
Purpose of Training
Goal in Endurance Training:
• Create a precise amount of damage to the body such that the
body not only heals, but creates...
Supercompensation
• The ability of the body to not
only heal damage but build to
a higher level of homeostasis
Current Lev...
Keys to Training Design:
• Causing the correct magnitude of damage (stimulus), at the
correct timing, in the correct volum...
The Holy Trinity of
Endurance Training
“Too much lactic acid build-up”
• Traditional view of fatigue since 1907!5
• Still used plum pudding model of the atom (un...
Actuality
• Lactic acid is constantly being produced
• But it is immediately broken down into lactate (used for further
en...
Lactic Threshold Training
• Goal is to push back (both in longer
duration and at higher speeds) this
threshold
• The next ...
VO2 Max
• Ability of the body to extract and process as much oxygen as
possible before it leaves the body
Person A Person ...
Dirty Secrets of VO2 Max
• Largely genetic in regards to final maximal levels
• Very trainable in less experienced athlete...
Running Economy
• The ability to run at a submaximal pace
using less energy and/or oxygen (run the
same pace with less ene...
Holy Trinity of Traditional Training
• Lactic Threshold Training (very trainable)
• VO2 Max Training (initially trainable,...
Where does that leave us?
• The Holy Trinity of Training is
only the tip of the iceberg
Improve Running Economy
Increase V...
Fatigue Science
“Fatigue”
• Inability to continue running at the desired pace (though you could
continue at a slower pace)
• “aerobic exer...
Models of Fatigue:
• Build up of by-products due to energy production (H+ production)
• Exercise/performance limited by th...
Traditional/Peripheral/Catastrophic Models
• The models upon which traditional training methods are built upon
• The idea ...
Central Governor Theory (Tim Noakes)
• Your brain is trying to prevent you from doing harm to your body in an
anticipatory...
Deeper into the Rabbit Hole . . .
• “The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to
insure that the exercise ...
Anticipatory Feedback Loop
• A system at homeostasis experiences a stimulus that causes a change to
the system
• Change is...
Evidence of Central Governor Theory
Scientific Research:
• Cyclists worked to exhaustion still able to increase power outp...
Peripheral Governor Theory11
• “In central governor model theory, it has been proposed that a
central governor regulates p...
Evidence of Peripheral Governor Fatigue11
• Data from a Bicep flexing test showed fatigue starting before
target failure w...
Psychobiological Model
• Current mental status will effect the rating of perceived exertion,
thus how much fatigue one fee...
Using Principles of Fatigue Science,
Specificity, and Individualization to
Design Training
New Goals in Training:
• Identify the potential “causes” of
fatigue and use that knowledge to
create a training plan that
...
Specificity of Training Based on the
Individual and Fatigue Feedback of
their Event
Contributions to “Fatigue” Feedback
Internal Variables
• Acidosis (Drop in blood pH)
• Hypoxia (Lack of oxygen)
• Concentr...
Body Response to “Fatigue” Feedback
• Reducing of muscle recruitment which leads to reductions in force
and speed of muscl...
Physiological Adaptations We Can Target with
Training:
• Decrease in lactate/H+ production (increase LT)
• Increase proces...
Adaptation Needed Stimulus Needed
Running Economy (General)
Speed Endurance, lifting, sprinting, plyos, altitude and heat
...
Application of Adaptations and Fatigue Models
• If we think we have discovered what causes fatigue, then we
should target ...
Framing Your Training
Training Continuum
Time0-7s 90s
EnergySystemUse
Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event:
800m Example
Function Training
Range
Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event:
1500m/1600m/Mile Example
Function Training
Range
Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event:
3,000m Example
Function Training
Range
Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event:
5,000m Example
Function Training
Range
Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event:
10,000m Example
Function Training
Range
Emphasis within the Frame
• All paces/thresholds within the frame should be worked on
throughout the year; however their e...
Slow to Fast Emphasis
• As the training progression, each
macrocycle shifts the emphasis of the
frame from slower zones/pa...
Slow to Fast Emphasis – Multi-Tier
• Multi Tiered Training is hitting 3-6
paces over the course of usually two
weeks. Slid...
Outside-In Emphasis
• As the training progresses, each
macrocycle shifts the emphasis of
the frame from the zones/paces
fu...
Outside-In Emphasis – Multi-Tier
AT LT 10k 5k 3k 1500 800
High
LowEmphasis
Gen. Prep
Spec. Prep
Pre-Comp
Comp
• Multi Tier...
Increasing Duration at GP
• As the training progression, in
each macrocycle the duration
or length of rep at the goal race...
Increasing Percentage of GP
• As the training progression, in
each macrocycle the
percentage of goal race pace is
increase...
Slow Twitch vs. Fast Twitch Distribution
Considerations
• Each athlete has a genetic distribution of slow
twitch and a var...
Practical Implications of ST/FT Distribution
• Need to plan workouts based on the relative distribution of your
team’s ind...
Practical Implications of ST/FT Distribution
Collegiate Level Groups at UMBC
• Sub A’s: 400m/800m (do not run cross at all...
Date 16-Mar 17-Mar 18-Mar 19-Mar 20-Mar 21-Mar 22-Mar
Warm-Up
WO: 15 min / 2 laps tempo / 2
laps Ins & Outs
400mH: 800m jo...
Focusing on ST/FT Distribution within a Single
Event and its Effect on a Training Frame
Function Training
Range of FT 800m...
Targeting Racing Specific Fatigue
Adaptations:
• Develop workouts that target a specific strategy in order to make
the bod...
Targeting Racing Specific Fatigue
Adaptations:
• Example Two – Running Goal Pace in a Depleted State
• Use a supramaximal ...
Andrew Smith NCAA Championship Prep
• We determined that it was taking around 27 second last 200m to
advance to and at the...
Central Governor Training Workout #1:
The Value of a “Spiritual” Workout
• “Everyone has a plan until they get punched in ...
Central Governor Training Workout #2:
Take Away the Anticipatory Response
• Whistle Fartleks – no given duration for surge...
Central Governor Training Workout #3:
Hammer Intervals
• Base Workout: 8x400m @ 3200m GP, rest: 100m jog
• On the 6th or 7...
Brain Training Mental Prep:
• Don’t candy coat the racing process,
have them understand that as the
process continues, the...
Psychobiological Model Training
• Review: Strong correlation between mental fatigue and rating of
perceived exertion
• Tra...
Develop Self Talk Initiatives:
• Positive self-talk – using mantra/phrases, mental
rehearsal/imagery, goal affirmations on...
An Integrated/Redundant Fatigue Model
Conclusions: Items to be Addressed in
Training Design
• Give homage to the Holy Trinity of Training but do
not make it the...
Lactic Threshold
Training
VO2 Max Training Running Economy Peripheral
Fatigue
Central
Governor
Theory
Training
Frames
ST/F...
Reading List:
Central Governor Resources:
• The Lore of Running, Tim Noakes (3rd Edition, 2003)
• Run: The Mind-Body Metho...
Citations:
• 1: Magness, S. (2014). The science of running. Origin Press.
• 2: Tucker, R. (April 2008). Fatigue Series. ww...
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Re-evaluating Traditional Training Using Contemporary Fatigue Research

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  • 5: Fletcher and Hopkins (1907). J. Physiol. 35, 247.
    6: Hill et al. 1924a: 136
    7: http://trainingscience.net/?page_id=552
  • 8: http://www.runhilaryrun.ca/Images/LA_TH_VO2.pdf
  • 9: Saunders, P.U., D.B. Pyne, R.D. Telford, & J.A> Hawley. Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners. Sports Med (2004). 34 (7), 465-485.
    http://www.sociciens.org/2004_Rev._Factors_Affecting_Running_Economy.pdf
  • 14. Barry and Enoka as referenced in (Marcora, S. M., W. Staiano. The limit to exercise tolerance in humans: mind over muscle?. European Journal of Applied Physiology. (2010). 109: 763-770.)
  • 1: Magness, S. (2014). The science of running. Origin Press.
    2: Tucker, R. (April 2008). Fatigue Series. www.sportsscientists.com.
    11: MacIntosh, B. R., and M. R. Shahi. A peripheral governor regulates muscle contraction. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metalab. 36, 2011, 1-11
    14: Marcora, S. M., W. Staiano. The limit to exercise tolerance in humans: mind over muscle?. European Journal of Applied Physiology. (2010). 109: 763-770
    15: Marcora, S. M., W. Staiano. Talking yourself out of exhaustion: the effects of self-talk on endurance performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2014 May; 46 (5): 998-1007.
  • 3: Noakes, T. D., (2012). Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis. Frontiers in Physiology, 3, 1-9. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00082
  • 3: Noakes, T. D., (2012). Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis. Frontiers in Physiology, 3, 1-9. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00082
  • 1: Magness, S. (2014). The science of running. Origin Press., p. 107
    4: European Journal of Physiology (Tucker et al. Eur J Physiol; 448: 422-430, 2004 via www.sportsscientists.com “Fatigue Series”
    10: Hilty, L., Jancke, L., Luechinger, R., Boutellier, U. & Lutz. (2011). Limitations of physical performance in a muscle fatiguing handgrip exercise is mediated by thalamo-insular activity. Human Brain Mapping. 32 (12), 2151-60. Magness p. 33
  • 11: MacIntosh, B. R., and M. R. Shahi. A peripheral governor regulates muscle contraction. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metalab. 36, 2011, 1-11
  • 11: MacIntosh, B. R., and M. R. Shahi. A peripheral governor regulates muscle contraction. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metalab. 36, 2011, 1-11
  • 1: Magness, S. (2014). The science of running. Origin Press. P. 37
  • 10: J. Mark Davis, Ph.D.; SPORTS SCIENCE EXCHANGE; CARBOHYDRATES, BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS AND ENDURANCE: THE CENTRAL FATIGUE HYPOTHESIS; SSE#61 , VOLUME 9 (1996), NUMBER 2 (http://www.gssiweb.org/Article/sse-61-carbohydrates-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-endurance-the-central-fatigue-hypothesis)
  • 5: Physiologic Responses and Long-Term Adaptations to Exercise, http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/pdf/chap3.pdf
  • 1: Magness, S. (2014). The science of running. Origin Press. p. 100
  • 15: Marcora, S. M., W. Staiano. Talking yourself out of exhaustion: the effects of self-talk on endurance performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2014 May; 46 (5): 998-1007.
    14: Marcora, S. M., W. Staiano. The limit to exercise tolerance in humans: mind over muscle?. European Journal of Applied Physiology. (2010). 109: 763-770
  • Re-evaluating Traditional Training Using Contemporary Fatigue Research

    1. 1. Using “Fatigue” Science to Reevaluate “Traditional” Training Methods Matt Gittermann University of Maryland, Baltimore County Head Cross Country Coach Assistant Track & Field Coach
    2. 2. Purpose of Training
    3. 3. Goal in Endurance Training: • Create a precise amount of damage to the body such that the body not only heals, but creates adaptations to the circulatory, muscular, nervous, skeletal, cardiovascular, digestive, excretory and endocrine systems
    4. 4. Supercompensation • The ability of the body to not only heal damage but build to a higher level of homeostasis Current Level of Homeostasis Damage Causing Stimulus Body recovering to beyond original homeostasis New Level of Homeostasis
    5. 5. Keys to Training Design: • Causing the correct magnitude of damage (stimulus), at the correct timing, in the correct volume, in order to create a specific adaptation that allows the body to resist fatigue longer and longer at a desired pace • Switch thinking from trying to “run faster” to “not slowing down as fast” • How many people ever broke 60s in the 400m? • How many people ever broke 4 in the mile?
    6. 6. The Holy Trinity of Endurance Training
    7. 7. “Too much lactic acid build-up” • Traditional view of fatigue since 1907!5 • Still used plum pudding model of the atom (uncharged electrons and no nucleus, protons, or neutrons), Continents always where they currently are (No Theory of Continental Drift), the Milky Way was the only galaxy, the universe has always been here (no Big Bang Theory), Polio running rampant • “Lactic acid does not accumulate so long as the oxygen supply remains adequate”6 • Principle: As you run faster you shift from aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production of which a by product is lactic acid which builds up, slows you down, and makes you sore and tired the next day • Not entirely wrong but also not entirely correct7
    8. 8. Actuality • Lactic acid is constantly being produced • But it is immediately broken down into lactate (used for further energy production) and hydrogen ions (H+, essentially acid) • At rest and at exercises that predominately use aerobic energy systems (note: anaerobic systems always working) the body can recycle the lactate and H+ ions such that there is negligible build- up • As speed and energy needs increase the body begins to rely more and more on anaerobic pathways which produce more H+ ions per energy unit (anaerobic threshold), eventually reaching a point where it cannot process/buffer H+ ions fast enough (lactic threshold)
    9. 9. Lactic Threshold Training • Goal is to push back (both in longer duration and at higher speeds) this threshold • The next logical train of thought is to process more oxygen in order to stay aerobic longer (VO2 Max) Duration Speed Old LT New LT
    10. 10. VO2 Max • Ability of the body to extract and process as much oxygen as possible before it leaves the body Person A Person B 15 O2 In 2 O2 Out 15 O2 In 5 O2 Out Who has the bigger VO2 max? Who wins the race?
    11. 11. Dirty Secrets of VO2 Max • Largely genetic in regards to final maximal levels • Very trainable in less experienced athletes; maxed out in experienced athletes • Not always a great indicator of success (Bill Rodgers had a VO2 Max 8% higher than Frank Shorter8); in fact 20-30m sprints and plyos are better predictors of potential abilities in a 10,000 meter race • There are studies on athletes given a specific training stimulus in which their VO2 Max remained the same but they markedly improved and the opposite in which their VO2 Max improved but their performance did not • So maybe then we need to improve how economically they run and use that oxygen
    12. 12. Running Economy • The ability to run at a submaximal pace using less energy and/or oxygen (run the same pace with less energy or run faster using the same energy) • Helps explains the variations in performance in VO2 Max • Attributed to: increase in mitochondria numbers, increase in metabolic enzymes, muscular abilities to store and release elastic energy (stretch reflex), more efficient bio-mechanics (running form)9 Saunders, et al. p. 470
    13. 13. Holy Trinity of Traditional Training • Lactic Threshold Training (very trainable) • VO2 Max Training (initially trainable, but genetic limit to improvement) • Running Economy Development (a lot of variables; very trainable but in small doses using a lot of different methods)
    14. 14. Where does that leave us? • The Holy Trinity of Training is only the tip of the iceberg Improve Running Economy Increase VO2 Max Delay Lactic Threshold WHAT DO WE NEED TO ADDRESS DOWN HERE!!!!!!
    15. 15. Fatigue Science
    16. 16. “Fatigue” • Inability to continue running at the desired pace (though you could continue at a slower pace) • “aerobic exercise stops at the point commonly called exhaustion because fatigued subjects are no longer able to generate the power output required by the task despite their maximal voluntary effort”14 • A feeling that your brain sends to your body that you are in need of repair and rejuvenation • Fatigue is a continuum, not an absolute • “Emotion?” • “Task disengagement”
    17. 17. Models of Fatigue: • Build up of by-products due to energy production (H+ production) • Exercise/performance limited by the over abundance of waste products that inhibit further metabolism (energy production)1 • Depletion of fuel sources (ATP, glycogen, etc.) • Exercise/performance limited by the lack of energy sources to continue metabolism (energy production) at the current pace1 • Central Governor Theory • Exercise/performance is regulated such that catastrophic failure does not occur • Peripheral Governor Theory11 • Exercise/performance is regulated at the motor units to prevent failure • Psychobiological Model 14 & 15 • The body’s Rating of Perceived Effort will limit exercise tolerance “Classic Peripheral Fatigue Models” “Cardiovascular/ Anaerobic Model” “Catastrophe Model” “Anticipatory Regulation Model”2 “Anticipatory Peripheral RegulatIon Model”
    18. 18. Traditional/Peripheral/Catastrophic Models • The models upon which traditional training methods are built upon • The idea that fatigue is caused by the build-up of metabolites and the depletion of energy resources • Pace will begin to decrease as metabolites exist in higher concentration and available energy decreases • Should result in ‘catastrophic’ failure (i.e. rigor)
    19. 19. Central Governor Theory (Tim Noakes) • Your brain is trying to prevent you from doing harm to your body in an anticipatory way not in real time (i.e. your brain is slowing you down before you have even begun to approach exhaustion based on current mental and physical state, experience, environmental conditions duration of exercise, and feedback received during exercise) • Your brain is constantly measuring deviations from homeostasis via information/feedback from physiological systems • Will signal “fatigue” in increasingly incremental amounts in order to prevent catastrophic damage to the body • Brain regulates the ability to run fast by unconsciously slowing you down by reducing the efficiency and abilities of physiological systems before you need to • Wants to prevent you from building up by products, depleting energy resources, increasing core temperature, etc. • Fatigue is “illusionary” or an “emotion” and therefore can be worked through or ignored3
    20. 20. Deeper into the Rabbit Hole . . . • “The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops.”3 • “The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since sub-conscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athlete performance.”3 • “Fatigue is not a physical event but rather an emotion that is used by the brain to regulate the exercise performance”3
    21. 21. Anticipatory Feedback Loop • A system at homeostasis experiences a stimulus that causes a change to the system • Change is sensed by brain/control center of the system • Brain/control center signals a response that returns system to homeostasis • Think a thermostat in your house • Anticipatory because the brain is trying to prevent changes to homeostasis before they occur, thus the response is happening as a prediction of the stimulus (sometimes referred to as teleoanticipatory due to taking into account mental aspects) Versus a positive feedback loop in which a stimulus creates a response that further enhances that responses (i.e. oxytocin release during childbirth increases contractions and the release of more oxytocin) Basic Negative Feedback Loop
    22. 22. Evidence of Central Governor Theory Scientific Research: • Cyclists worked to exhaustion still able to increase power output at end of workout session of surges where power output decreased on every prior surge • Skeletal muscle recruitment maxes out at around 60% during maximal exercise and potentially only 45% at the end of maximal effort • Lower muscle activation/brain wave levels in heat, right from the beginning in order to prevent high core temperatures4 • Studies done when no duration or end point is provided before exercise and the resultant pacing • Stimulation of the part of the brain responsible for homeostatic processes during exercises to failure10 • Trained athletes showing a dulling of brain activity during exercise compared against untrained athletes1 Anecdotal Evidence: • There never is true catastrophic muscle failure at the end of maximal exercise • The fact after the hardest workout/race you have ever run, you are still not medically dead • Kicking at the end of a race
    23. 23. Peripheral Governor Theory11 • “In central governor model theory, it has been proposed that a central governor regulates pacing strategy and limits the muscular performance of elite athletes . . There is no consideration in this theory for the traditional concept of peripheral muscle fatigue, the possibility that muscles can diminish their contractile capability.” • Peripheral Governor – a more localized control system that regulates the use of muscle fiber units • In contrast to traditional fatigue models by associating that there is an anticipatory response rather than simple build-up or depletion
    24. 24. Evidence of Peripheral Governor Fatigue11 • Data from a Bicep flexing test showed fatigue starting before target failure was reached, (i.e. before homeostasis disturbed) • Used an electric stimulation to take the central governor out of the equation • Max force decreased starting with the second rep • Thus there is a regulation (distribution) or ATP use at a cellular level • Studies of individual muscle groups in rats being electrically stimulated, settled into a fairly consistent force after the initial force, implying a regulation that allows sustainment of activity without feedback with the central nervous system
    25. 25. Psychobiological Model • Current mental status will effect the rating of perceived exertion, thus how much fatigue one feels during exercise • “propose that exhaustion is a form of task disengagement, not task failure, determined by perception of effort and potential motivation as postulated by the psychobiological model of exercise tolerance. In order words subjects consciously decide to “give up” (i.e. disengage from the task) when the effort required by intense aerobic exercise is perceived to be maximal or exceeding the maximal effort they are willing to exert in order to succeed in the task (potential motivation)” • Different from Central Governor Theory because it implies a conscious brain
    26. 26. Using Principles of Fatigue Science, Specificity, and Individualization to Design Training
    27. 27. New Goals in Training: • Identify the potential “causes” of fatigue and use that knowledge to create a training plan that specifically targets specific adaptations in a specific individual in order prevent physiological feedback of ‘fatigue’ • Develop training that ignores and dulls the ‘fatigue emotion’ • Develop mental training practices to reduce mental fatigue and decrease RPE Traditional Training Methods (LT, VO2 Max, Running Economy) Targeting Specific Adaptations and Fatigue Systems Targeting Specific Parts of Races and Strategies Targeting Specific Physiology of an Individual Runner HIGHER LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE Targeting the Central Governor GENERAL SPECIFIC Addressing the Psychobiological
    28. 28. Specificity of Training Based on the Individual and Fatigue Feedback of their Event
    29. 29. Contributions to “Fatigue” Feedback Internal Variables • Acidosis (Drop in blood pH) • Hypoxia (Lack of oxygen) • Concentration of carbon dioxide in blood • Loss of Substrate for Energy Production • Hyperthermia (Rise in Core Temperature) • Inadequate ATP formation • Inhibition of Enzyme Activity due to Acidosis • Impairment of Neural Signaling Pathways • Lack of ATP to release Myosin and Actin coupling • Lack of buffers thus preventing Myosin and Actin coupling • Mental Status (emotionally, psyche)1 External Variables1 • Paces/Splits • Visual Feedback • Competitors • Auditory Feedback and Encouragement Environmental Variables • Temperature • Altitude • Dew Point/Humidity • Surface/Grade of Surface
    30. 30. Body Response to “Fatigue” Feedback • Reducing of muscle recruitment which leads to reductions in force and speed of muscle contractions • Decrease of motivation via hormones (tryptophan, serotonin, etc.), thus “beware of the runner’s high”10 • Body’s natural ability to set/change a pace based on a set duration, current mental and emotional status, and incoming feedback • Anticipatory regulation of pacing due to heat • Regulation of ATP use
    31. 31. Physiological Adaptations We Can Target with Training: • Decrease in lactate/H+ production (increase LT) • Increase processing abilities of lactate and H+ ions (increase LT) • Increase amount and abilities of buffers • Increase ability to absorb oxygen into bloodstream • Increase in Red Blood Cells • Increase in Blood Volume (RBC’s and Plasma) • Decrease in Blood Viscosity • Increase Stroke Volume and Frequency of heart (cardiac output) • Increase in the number of capillaries • Refinement of ST/FT muscle distribution • Increases in metabolism and catabolism • Increase muscle recruitment • Improvement in neural pathways • Shift from brain based (thinking) to spine based (reflexive) movements • Increase enzyme production • Increase hormone production • Increase blood shunting abilities (moving blood to legs) • Increase myoglobin (similar to hemoglobin) • Increase the abilities or efficiency of the Glucose Alanine Cycle and the Cori Cycle (transports alanine and lactate to the liver in order to create glucose) • Increase in the number/volume of mitochondria • Increase in glycogen and fat storing in muscles
    32. 32. Adaptation Needed Stimulus Needed Running Economy (General) Speed Endurance, lifting, sprinting, plyos, altitude and heat training Cardiac Output >90% VO2 Max effort workouts (>50% in untrained individuals) Increase # of Mitochondrial, Capillaries, Enzymes Long Runs Increase Fat Use for Energy and Storage Capacity Long, long runs at <60% VO2 Max Neuromuscular Patterns Long Runs Neuromuscular Fatigue and Motor Unit Recruitment Sprints, hill sprints, heavy weight lifting (low rep), plyos Lactate production and cycling, shuttling, buffer production Lactic Threshold work Increase plasma volume, reducing blood viscosity, and RBC production thus improving oxygen delivery Regular, intense training (either high VO2 Max percentages or high volume), altitude training Reduce Neuromuscular Fatigue Lots of short sprints (flys, 15x100m, strides for ST runners) Increase Carbohydrate Use for Energy +70% VO2 Max Increase in Muscle Glycogen Levels Long term (months & years, not mins) endurance training Increase in Maximum level of VO2 Max and Mitochondrial Energy Production Get in DeLorean, get up to 88 miles per hour, convince your dad to go out with the fastest girl on XC team rather than your current mom (no offense, she’s a great lady)
    33. 33. Application of Adaptations and Fatigue Models • If we think we have discovered what causes fatigue, then we should target adaptations that would slow feedback • We should also target specific adaptations for specific races run by specific people • These specific adaptations are going to occur at paces around given race pace, overlapping each other and blending as the speed is increased and decreased from the goal pace
    34. 34. Framing Your Training
    35. 35. Training Continuum Time0-7s 90s EnergySystemUse
    36. 36. Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event: 800m Example Function Training Range
    37. 37. Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event: 1500m/1600m/Mile Example Function Training Range
    38. 38. Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event: 3,000m Example Function Training Range
    39. 39. Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event: 5,000m Example Function Training Range
    40. 40. Frame the Energy Continuum of the Event: 10,000m Example Function Training Range
    41. 41. Emphasis within the Frame • All paces/thresholds within the frame should be worked on throughout the year; however their emphasis should change • Models of Frame Training: • Slow to fast • Outside In • Increasing Duration at Goal Pace • Increasing Percentages at Goal Pace
    42. 42. Slow to Fast Emphasis • As the training progression, each macrocycle shifts the emphasis of the frame from slower zones/paces to faster paces/frames • Gen. Prep: 10mi. AT & 4 mi. Tempo w/ strides • Spec. Prep: 5x1 mile @ LT & 8x1km @ 10k DP w/ strides • Pre-Comp: 5x800m @ 5k DP & 12x400m @ 3k DP • Comp: 12x200m @ 1500m DP & 4x400m @ 3k DP, 2x400m @ 1500m DP, 1x400m @ 800m DP • 5,000m Main Race AT LT 10k 5k 3k 1500 800 High LowEmphasis Gen. Prep Spec. Prep Pre-Comp Comp
    43. 43. Slow to Fast Emphasis – Multi-Tier • Multi Tiered Training is hitting 3-6 paces over the course of usually two weeks. Slide the frame down as you progress through your macrocycles • Gen. Prep: Week 1 – AT, LT, 10k Week 2 – 5k, 3k • Spec. Prep: Week 1 – LT, 10k, 5k Week 2 – 3k, 1500m • Pre-Comp: Week 1 – 10k, 5k, 3k Week 2 – 1500m, 800m • Comp: Week 1 – 5k, 3k, 1500m Week 2 – 5k, 800m • 5,000m Main Race AT LT 10k 5k 3k 1500 800 High LowEmphasis Gen. Prep Spec. Prep Pre-Comp Comp
    44. 44. Outside-In Emphasis • As the training progresses, each macrocycle shifts the emphasis of the frame from the zones/paces furthest from race of emphasis to race goal pace • Gen. Prep.: 10mi. AT & 100m strides @ 800m DP • Spec. Prep: 5x1mi. @ LT & 200m intervals @ 1500m DP • Pre-Comp: 8x1km @ 10k DP & 400m @ 3k DP • Comp: 5x800m @ 5k GP • 5,000m Main Race AT LT 10k 5k 3k 1500 800 High LowEmphasis Gen. Prep Spec. Prep Pre-Comp Comp
    45. 45. Outside-In Emphasis – Multi-Tier AT LT 10k 5k 3k 1500 800 High LowEmphasis Gen. Prep Spec. Prep Pre-Comp Comp • Multi Tiered Training is hitting 3-6 paces over the course of usually two weeks. Shrink or focus your frame as you progress through your macrocycles toward the goal race pace • Gen. Prep: Week 1 – AT, LT, 10k Week 2 – 1500m, 800m • Spec. Prep: Week 1 – LT, 10k, 5k Week 2 – 3k, 1500m • Pre-Comp: Week 1 – 10k, 5k, 3k Week 2 – 10k, 3k • Comp: Week 1 – 5k, 10k, 5k Week 2 – 3k, 5k • 5,000m Main Race
    46. 46. Increasing Duration at GP • As the training progression, in each macrocycle the duration or length of rep at the goal race pace is increased • Gen. Prep: 20x200m @ 5k GP • Spec. Prep: 10x400m @ 5k GP • Pre-Comp: 5x800m @ 5k GP • Comp.: 4x1000m @ 5k GP • 5,000m Main Race Gen Prep Spec Prep Pre-Comp Comp High Low Duration/LengthofInterval
    47. 47. Increasing Percentage of GP • As the training progression, in each macrocycle the percentage of goal race pace is increased • Gen. Prep: 5x1000m @ 85% 5k GP • Spec. Prep: 5x1000m @ 90% 5k GP • Pre-Comp: 5x1000m @ 95% 5k GP • Comp.: 3-4x1000m @ 5k GP • 5,000m Main Race Gen Prep Spec Prep Pre-Comp Comp 100% 0% PercentageofRacePace
    48. 48. Slow Twitch vs. Fast Twitch Distribution Considerations • Each athlete has a genetic distribution of slow twitch and a variety of fast twitch muscles and thus will ‘fatigue’ in a different fashion • With enough time (think in the range of 5-10 years) or near catastrophic damage (probably not a good idea) you can change the make up of some of the distribution of muscle types1 • When planning your training, devise training that trains their strengths not their weaknesses • Ex: a miler with high density of fast twitch muscles - by focusing solely on LT, AT, MP runs, you will get some improvement in those areas, but at a larger cost in their areas of strength (speed, anaerobic energy systems) Anaerobic Abilities Aerobic Abilities Total Abilities More Anaerobically Focused More Aerobically Focused
    49. 49. Practical Implications of ST/FT Distribution • Need to plan workouts based on the relative distribution of your team’s individuals • Potential ST/FT groupings at the high school level: • 400m/800m (not good at cross, long runs, LT stuff) • 1600m/800m FT (probably use on 4x4 as third leg) • 1600m/800m ST (runs 4x8 but probably not the 4x4) • 1600m ST/3200m FT (probably runs 4x8, but splits 2:00 60s/60s) • 3200m ST (400m PR is also mile DP; leaves you wishing there was a 10k/marathon at the high school level) • As much as you can do while being practical due to numbers and organization, each group should train slightly different in regards to their training frame More anaerobic More aerobic
    50. 50. Practical Implications of ST/FT Distribution Collegiate Level Groups at UMBC • Sub A’s: 400m/800m (do not run cross at all, less long runs, more workouts, train more similar to 400m runners than milers, LT stuff only in fall; volume range: 25-45 miles) – Speed Training Group during XC • A Group: 800m specialists (run cross as training only, handle more volume, moderately successful at mile, more long runs than Sub A’s, but more workouts than B Group, volume range: 30-70 miles) – Mids Training Group during XC • B Group: 1500m/800m (can do LT, sometimes successfully, run cross sometimes with success and despite training, volume closer to higher groups, but more workouts than C and D groups, volume range: 40-90 miles ) – Men Mids Training Group during XC; Women Traditional XC Training Group during XC • C Group: 1500m/3000m/5000m (big contributors in cross; can handle high volumes and decent amount of speed work, ideally steeplers come from this group, volume range: 50-90 miles) – Traditional XC Training Group during XC • D Group: 5000m/10,000m (big contributors in cross; borderline worthless in indoor as 5,000m is bottom of range, lots of volume in both long runs and workouts, get sore very easily with speed work, volume range: 60-110 miles) – Traditional Training Group during XC • 400m Hurdlers: oddities; female runs xc workouts with women in fall and races, trains B group during indoor aiming for 1,000m, drops to modified Sub A group (add hurdle workouts) in outdoors; male runs with mids group in fall, runs shorter 5k XC races for workouts, trains A group during indoor running 4x400m,800m, 1000m, trains modified Sub A group in spring
    51. 51. Date 16-Mar 17-Mar 18-Mar 19-Mar 20-Mar 21-Mar 22-Mar Warm-Up WO: 15 min / 2 laps tempo / 2 laps Ins & Outs 400mH: 800m jog, static stretch Steeplers: 7 min jog/Hip Exercises/3 min/ 7 min barriers Recovery Run: 800m jog, static stretch 400mH: 7 min jog/Hip Exercises/3 min/ 7 min barriers Sub A: 15min/2 laps tempo/2 laps in and outs Recovery Run: 800m jog, static stretch 400mH: 7 min jog/Hip Exercises/3 min/ 7 min barriers WO: 15 min / 2 laps tempo / 2 laps Ins & Outs 400mH: 800m jog, static stretch Steeplers: 7 min jog/Hip Exercises/3 min/ 7 min barriers Recovery Run: 800m jog, static stretch 400mH: 7 min jog/Hip Exercises/3 min/ 7 min barriers Sub A: 15min/2 laps tempo/2 laps in and outs Recovery Run: 800m jog, static stretch 400mH: 7 min jog/Hip Exercises/3 min/ 7 min barriers WO: 15 min / 2 laps tempo / 2 laps Ins & Outs 400mH: 800m jog, static stretch Steeplers: 7 min jog/Hip Exercises/3 min/ 7 min barriers Stretch WO: Dynamic Non-WO: Static WO: Dynamic Non-WO: Static WO: Dynamic Non-WO: Static WO: Dynamic Non-WO: Static WO: Dynamic Non-WO: Static WO: Dynamic Non-WO: Static WO: Dynamic Non-WO: Static Sprint Drills X - WO only X - WO Only X - WO Only X - WO Only X - WO Only X - WO Only X - WO Only Strength WO: Hurdles Non-WO: Duck Walks WO: Hurdles Non-WO: Duck Walks WO: Hurdles Non-WO: Hip Mobility WO: Hurdles Non-WO: Duck Walks WO: Hurdles Non-WO: Duck Walks WO: Hurdles Non-WO: Hip Mobility WO: Hurdles Non-WO: Duck Walks Low er Leg Non-WO only Non-WO Only Non-WO Only Non-WO Only Non-WO Only Non-WO Only Non-WO Only A: 800m 15x100m Pace: 200m DP Rest: Walk Back B: 800/1500 1000m @ 5k GP Gp5/4/3: 8 Gp2/1: 6 Rest: 400m jog *last 3k DP C: 1500/5k Miles @ 10k DP Gp5/4/3: 5 Gp3/2: 4 Rest: 90s *last one 3k DP 2k's @ 10k DP/ 400's @ 1500m DP Gp5/4/3: 4x2k/4x400 Gp2/1: 3x2k/4x400 Rest: 2 mins D: 5k/10k AT Progression: Gp5/4/3: 8 miles AT 2 miles on track timed; pace fast Gp2/1: 6 miles AT, 2 miles on track timed, pace fast AT & 800m @ 3k DP: Gp5/4/3: 8 miles AT, 10 min rest, 4x800m @ 3k DP = time rest Gp2/1: 6 miles AT, 10 min rest, 3x800m @ 3k DP = time rest 400mH Steeplers 400mH: Gp5: 91 mins Gp4: 84 mins Gp3: 77 mins Gp2: 64 mins Gp1: 56 mins Steeplers: See Event Group 400H: 5x5 Hurdles at 23.9/26.5 Rest: Walk around track 5x150m @ 18/21 Rest: Walk back Steeplers: See Volume Group 400H: 1st Hurdles/Open/Last 3 Hurdles Reps: 4 Rest: Full Recovery Pace: 56/65 Steeplers: See Volume Group 400H: Gp5: 24/60 Gp4: 21/42 Gp3: 21/35 Gp2: 21/35 Gp1: 3-6 miles Steeplers: See above, 1k's over barriers 400m H: Shuffled Hurdles 8x200m, last 5 hurdles From jog in Hurdle distances shuffled each rep Pace: Fast Rest: 130bpm/2mins Steeple: See Event Group 400H: 8x 3 Hurdles in 15.1/16.5 Rest: Full Recovery 6x100m @ 12/13 & 14/15 Steeplers: See Volume Group 400H: Split Run: Gp5: 31/60 Gp4: 30/54 Gp3: 30/40 Gp2: 21/42 Gp1: 21/35 Steeplers: See Event Group Core Drills Ab Ripper X Static Dynamic Ab Ripper X Static Dynamic Ab Ripper X Lift x x - 400H X - ABCD X Gp5: 91 mins Gp4: 84 mins Gp3: 77 mins Gp2: 64 mins Gp1: 56 mins Strides Sub A: 6x600m @ fast and smooth Split Run: Gp5: 24/60 Gp4: 21/42 Gp3: 21/35 Gp2: 21/35 Gp1: 3-6 miles single run Strides Gp5: 91 mins Gp4: 84 mins Gp3: 77 mins Gp2: 64 mins Gp1: 56 mins Strides Sub A: 8x1 min fartlek Split Run: Gp5: 31/60 Gp4: 30/54 Gp3: 30/40 Gp2: 21/42 Gp1: 21/35 Strides 6x200m: Pace: 400m DP Rest: Full 3k @ 10k DP 2k @ 5k DP 1K's @ 3k dP Gp5/4/3: 1x/1x/3x Gp2/1: 1x/1x/1x Rest: 400m jog 4x400m Pace: 800m DP Rest: Full Recovery
    52. 52. Focusing on ST/FT Distribution within a Single Event and its Effect on a Training Frame Function Training Range of FT 800m Function Training Range of ST 800m Function Training Range of ST 3200m Function Training Range of FT 3200m
    53. 53. Targeting Racing Specific Fatigue Adaptations: • Develop workouts that target a specific strategy in order to make the body adapt to that situation. • Example 1 - Kicking: • Ending every workout and long run with a pick-up (5x1000m @ LT, 2x1000m @ 5k GP, 200m jog, 600m fast or at desired pace) • Kicking workouts, put the athlete in debt then have them kick (8x500m kicks w/ 400m @ Mile GP, 100m kick) • Strong pace up a long, gradual hill then sprint once you reach top • Designing multi-pace workouts such that they progress from fast to slow (4x400m @ 3k DP, 2x400m @ 1500m DP, 2x200m @ 800m DP, 1x200m @ 400m DP)
    54. 54. Targeting Racing Specific Fatigue Adaptations: • Example Two – Running Goal Pace in a Depleted State • Use a supramaximal pace in training frame to put athlete in a depleted state, then attempt race pace intervals • 10k Runner – 4x800m @ 3k DP (400m jog rest), 2x1000m @ 5k DP (400m jog rest), 2-4x800m @ 10k DP, (200m jog rest) • Miler Peaking Workout – 4x400m @ GP, 15s rest • 400mH Workout – 4x 1st 4 hurdles at GP, 6-8 steep hill repeats, 4x last 4 hurdles at GP • Marathon Workout – “Starvation Runs”, wake up, drink water, do a long run
    55. 55. Andrew Smith NCAA Championship Prep • We determined that it was taking around 27 second last 200m to advance to and at the NCAA Championships: • Specific Workout #1: Progressive 600m’s – 1st 200m @ 33s, 2nd 200m @ 30s, 3rd 200m @ 27s; as conditioning improved during outdoor progression shifted to 31s/29s/27s • Specific Workout #2: GP Range 150m’s – Run 150m with 50m steady run rest within 18.75s to 20.25s (GP range 1st lap to 4th lap) until he failed to meet 20.25s twice in a row then attempt a 200m at 27s
    56. 56. Central Governor Training Workout #1: The Value of a “Spiritual” Workout • “Everyone has a plan until they get punched in the face” – Mike Tyson • Workouts that really have no other goal but just to be hard • Noakes quote revisited: “sub-conscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athlete performance.” • “Callouses” the body with regards to discomfort, leads to better mental toughness in races • Can not be done too often as it taxes the body and can be overdone really easily • Gives athletes confidence that race days are the easy days • Ex: 4x400m; Men @ 49-54s, Women @ 59-64s, Rest: 5-7 mins
    57. 57. Central Governor Training Workout #2: Take Away the Anticipatory Response • Whistle Fartleks – no given duration for surges nor runner decided, in a big field or open area, coach blows whistle to begin and end surges • Athlete Led Fartlek – team takes turns leading group at a pace and duration determined by leader • Open Workouts – do not tell the athletes how many repeats/intervals they are running
    58. 58. Central Governor Training Workout #3: Hammer Intervals • Base Workout: 8x400m @ 3200m GP, rest: 100m jog • On the 6th or 7th interval let the athletes “hammer” or go all out • Keep same recovery and have them hit GP on the remaining intervals
    59. 59. Brain Training Mental Prep: • Don’t candy coat the racing process, have them understand that as the process continues, their Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), i.e. pain, is going to increase the whole time even if they don’t increase pace • Teach them about Central Governor Theory to give them confidence in the later parts of the race, such that they know if they can get to the kick they still have the physiological capabilities no matter how tired Comfort Pain Even Pace
    60. 60. Psychobiological Model Training • Review: Strong correlation between mental fatigue and rating of perceived exertion • Track the moods of athletes (Borg Scale) prior to workouts and races using simple survey • Track the resultant RPE after the workouts and races and see if there is correlation • Incorporate mental rehearsal training and other modes of sports psychology into program • Periodization of Mental Training (by season and within week)
    61. 61. Develop Self Talk Initiatives: • Positive self-talk – using mantra/phrases, mental rehearsal/imagery, goal affirmations on a daily basis both during and outside of workouts • Marcora and Staiano found that a group of endurance athletes who went through a structured self-talk program showed lower RPE’s in the final tests and thus higher performances15 • “exercise tolerance in highly motivated subjects is ultimately limited by perception of effort”14
    62. 62. An Integrated/Redundant Fatigue Model
    63. 63. Conclusions: Items to be Addressed in Training Design • Give homage to the Holy Trinity of Training but do not make it the only part of your training and be a slave to zones and percentages • Train your athletes specifically to the energy demands and ‘fatigue’ feedback of their specific event by framing their training • Determine the relative ST/FT make-up of your athletes and frame their training around both their event and muscle type distribution • Play to their strengths not weaknesses of athletes • Plan workouts that address specific strategies, goals, and weaknesses within a race in order to build ‘familiarity’ • Train the brain to ignore ‘fatigue’ and use self-talk to lower RPE Traditional Training Methods (LT, VO2 Max, Running Economy) Targeting Specific Adaptations and Fatigue Systems Targeting Specific Parts of Races and Strategies Targeting Specific Physiology of an Individual Runner HIGHER LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE Targeting the Central Governor
    64. 64. Lactic Threshold Training VO2 Max Training Running Economy Peripheral Fatigue Central Governor Theory Training Frames ST/FT Muscle Fatigue Considerations Training Race Specific Fatigue Adaptations Race Strategy Specific Fatigue Training Mental Prep Short Term Goal Planning Nutrition Individualization Long Term Athlete Development Ancillary Training Cross Training Periodization Strength TrainingRunning Form Rehabilitation Recovery Injury History Plyos Hill Training Tapering Team Culture and Cohesion Individual Athlete’s Mental Make- Up Coaching Style
    65. 65. Reading List: Central Governor Resources: • The Lore of Running, Tim Noakes (3rd Edition, 2003) • Run: The Mind-Body Method of Running, Matt Fitzgerald Science Based/Research Resources: • The Science of Running, Steve Magness • www.sportsscientists.com, run by student of Noakes • www.elitetrack.com, more sprint and strength focused Traditional Training Resources: • Jack Daniel’s Running Formula, Jack Daniels • Running with Lydiard, Arthur Lydiard • Running to the Top, Joe Vigil Multi-Tiered Pacing Resources: • Better Training for Distance Runners, Dr. David Martin and Peter Coe • Fundamental Principles of the Competitive 1500m Runner, Joe Rubio (available online) • 400m/800m Training, Derrick Peterson (ppt available online)
    66. 66. Citations: • 1: Magness, S. (2014). The science of running. Origin Press. • 2: Tucker, R. (April 2008). Fatigue Series. www.sportsscientists.com. • 3: Noakes, T. D., (2012). Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis. Frontiers in Physiology, 3, 1-9. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00082 • 4: European Journal of Physiology (Tucker et al. Eur J Physiol; 448: 422-430, 2004 via www.sportsscientists.com “Fatigue Series” • 5: Physiologic Responses and Long-Term Adaptations to Exercise, http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/pdf/chap3.pdf • 6: Fletcher and Hopkins (1907). J. Physiol. 35, 247. • 7: Hill et al. 1924a: 136 • 8: http://trainingscience.net/?page_id=552 • 9: http://www.runhilaryrun.ca/Images/LA_TH_VO2.pdf • 10: Saunders, P.U., D.B. Pyne, R.D. Telford, & J.A> Hawley. Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners. Sports Med (2004). 34 (7), 465-485. • 11: http://www.sociciens.org/2004_Rev._Factors_Affecting_Running_Economy.pdf • 12: Hilty, L., Jancke, L., Luechinger, R., Boutellier, U. & Lutz. (2011). Limitations of physical performance in a muscle fatiguing handgrip exercise is mediated by thalamo- insular activity. Human Brain Mapping. 32 (12), 2151-60. Magness p. 33 • 13: MacIntosh, B. R., and M. R. Shahi. A peripheral governor regulates muscle contraction. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metalab. 36, 2011, 1-11 • 14: Marcora, S. M., W. Staiano. The limit to exercise tolerance in humans: mind over muscle?. European Journal of Applied Physiology. (2010). 109: 763-770 • 15: Marcora, S. M., W. Staiano. Talking yourself out of exhaustion: the effects of self-talk on endurance performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2014 May; 46 (5): 998-1007.

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