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Proposed by Alfred
Wegener in 1912; the
hypothesis that state that
the continents once formed
a single landmass
(Pangea), ...
a) Shape of the continents
b) Fossil evidence on both
sides of the Atlantic
c) Rock formations on both
sides of the Atlant...
He could not come up with
the mechanisms or process
that caused the continents
to move
a) Mid-Ocean Ridges – a
long undersea mountain
chain that has a
steep, narrow valley at its
center, that forms as
magma ri...
b) Sea Floor Spreading –
the process by which new
oceanic crust forms as
magma rises to Earth’s
surface and solidifies at ...
c) Paleomagnetism –
• As magma solidifies, iron
particles line up with the
Earth’s magnetic field
• Rocks show reversals i...
The theory that explains
how large pieces of the
crust, called plates, move
and change shape
Lithosphere – solid, outer
layer of the Earth that
consists of the crust and the
rigid upper part of the
mantle
Asthenosph...
15 Major Plates Identified:
Convection – the movement
of hot, less dense material
up and cold, more dense
material down
• Interior of the Earth heats
the mantle which rises to
the surface at the Mid-
Ocean Ridges
• Cools into rock and
eventua...
The boundary between
tectonic plates that are
moving away from each
other.
Results in: magma rises to
surface, forms mid-o...
The boundary between
tectonic plates that are
moving towards each other
One plate subducts under
the other, forming a trench
and melting the plate
causing an island arc
The oceanic plate subducts
under the less dense
continental plate, the
oceanic plate melts, causing
volcanoes above
Neither plate is dense
enough to subduct, thus
mountains are built up
The boundary between two
tectonic plates that are
sliding past one
another, like the San
Andreas fault
Created by the sudden
movement of tectonic
plates, typically occur along
plate boundaries
Places where magma
erupts from the surface
An area around the Pacific
Ocean characterized by
volcanoes and seismic
activity
Areas where magma
reaches the surface, the
source is under the plates
so the hot spot does not
move, but the plates
do, cr...
7. plate tectonics notes
7. plate tectonics notes
7. plate tectonics notes
7. plate tectonics notes
7. plate tectonics notes
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7. plate tectonics notes

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Transcript of "7. plate tectonics notes"

  1. 1. Proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912; the hypothesis that state that the continents once formed a single landmass (Pangea), broke up, and drifted to their current location
  2. 2. a) Shape of the continents b) Fossil evidence on both sides of the Atlantic c) Rock formations on both sides of the Atlantic d) Climatic evidence (i.e. evidence of glaciers in Southern Africa)
  3. 3. He could not come up with the mechanisms or process that caused the continents to move
  4. 4. a) Mid-Ocean Ridges – a long undersea mountain chain that has a steep, narrow valley at its center, that forms as magma rises from the mantle, and that creates new ocean floor as the tectonic plates move apart
  5. 5. b) Sea Floor Spreading – the process by which new oceanic crust forms as magma rises to Earth’s surface and solidifies at a mid-ocean ridge, symmetry of rock layers show oldest layers are farther from the ridge
  6. 6. c) Paleomagnetism – • As magma solidifies, iron particles line up with the Earth’s magnetic field • Rocks show reversals in the Earth’s Magnetism • Rocks show symmetrical patterns on both side of the ridges, thus both plates formed at the same time
  7. 7. The theory that explains how large pieces of the crust, called plates, move and change shape
  8. 8. Lithosphere – solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle Asthenosphere – the solid, plastic layer of the mantle that flows slowly
  9. 9. 15 Major Plates Identified:
  10. 10. Convection – the movement of hot, less dense material up and cold, more dense material down
  11. 11. • Interior of the Earth heats the mantle which rises to the surface at the Mid- Ocean Ridges • Cools into rock and eventually sinks back into the mantle where it is melted and sinks • This movement of the mantle drags the plates with it
  12. 12. The boundary between tectonic plates that are moving away from each other. Results in: magma rises to surface, forms mid-ocean ridges and rift valleys
  13. 13. The boundary between tectonic plates that are moving towards each other
  14. 14. One plate subducts under the other, forming a trench and melting the plate causing an island arc
  15. 15. The oceanic plate subducts under the less dense continental plate, the oceanic plate melts, causing volcanoes above
  16. 16. Neither plate is dense enough to subduct, thus mountains are built up
  17. 17. The boundary between two tectonic plates that are sliding past one another, like the San Andreas fault
  18. 18. Created by the sudden movement of tectonic plates, typically occur along plate boundaries
  19. 19. Places where magma erupts from the surface
  20. 20. An area around the Pacific Ocean characterized by volcanoes and seismic activity
  21. 21. Areas where magma reaches the surface, the source is under the plates so the hot spot does not move, but the plates do, creates island arcs like Hawaii
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