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3. Atmosphere Notes
 

3. Atmosphere Notes

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    3. Atmosphere Notes 3. Atmosphere Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Atmosphere Notes
    • Atmosphere:
      Layer of gases that surround the Earth
    • Composition:
      78% Nitrogen
      21% Oxygen
      .9% Argon
      .1% Other Gases
    • Atmospheric Particles:
      • Water Vapor – from evaporation and transpiration, ranges from 1% (dry) to 4% (moist)
      • Ozone – O3, absorbs harmful UV radiation, being destroyed by particulates
      • Particulates – tiny solid particles such as ash, dust, pollen, microscopic organisms
    • Atmospheric Pressure:
      • The pressure exerted on a surface by the atmosphere
      • Decreases as altitude increases
      • Measured using a barometer
    • Layers of the Atmosphere:
      Troposphere
      Stratosphere
      Mesosphere
      Thermosphere
    • Troposphere:
      • Closest layer to the Earth
      • Where the weather is found
      • Temperature decreases as altitude increases because its heated by Earth’s surface
    • Stratosphere:
      • Almost all the ozone (including ozone layer) in this layer
      • As altitude increases temperature increases because UV rays absorbed by ozone
    • Mesosphere:
      • Temperature decreases as altitude increases
      • Coldest layer
    • Thermosphere:
      • As altitude increase temperature increases because oxygen and nitrogen atoms absorb solar radiation
    • Radiation:
      All the energy from the sun travels through space through radiation
      Travels at 300,000 km/s
    • Scattering:
      The deflection of solar radiation due to clouds, dust, water droplets, and gas particles
      Thus sunlight hits the Earth surface from all directions and makes the sky blue
    • Reflection:
      When solar radiation reaches the Earth surface it is either absorbed or reflected back into the atmosphere depending on the surface
    • Absorption:
      Absorbed solar radiation is converted into infrared waves (heat) and keeps the Earth warm
    • Greenhouse Effect:
      The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and re-radiation solar radiation
    • Conduction:
      The transfer of heat through a material through direct contact
      Collisions between molecules in the atmosphere transfer heat energy
    • Convection:
      Warm air moves up as cool air sinks due to density differences.