20. Class Reptilia Notes
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20. Class Reptilia Notes

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20. Class Reptilia Notes 20. Class Reptilia Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Reptiles Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: Testudines Order: Squamata Order: Crocodilia
  • Class Reptilia
    • Herpetology – study of reptiles
    • Ectotherms – cold blooded, must get heat from environment
    • Skin is covered with scales
    • Most are egg-laying
    • Tetrapods – land-dwelling vertebrates
  • Ectotherms
    • Cold-blooded animals take on the temperature of their surroundings
    • More active in warm environments and very sluggish in cold environments
    • Results of muscle activities that work on chemical reactions which speed up in warmer temperatures
    View slide
  • Ectotherms
    • Must bask in sun to warm-up and speed-up metabolism
    • Lie in certain directions and expand rib cages to absorb more heat
    • If too hot they move to shade, burrow, open their mouth wide, or lighten skin color
    View slide
  • Advantages vs. Disadvantages
    • Require less energy than warm-blooded animals
    • Therefore in food scarce environments such as the desert they do not have to burn energy to keep warm
    • Can reduce body temperature to save energy
    • Immune system more efficient because bacteria grows slower in the cold
    • Must be warm out for them to have a certain level of activity to hunt and defend themselves
    • Also need it to be warm to find a mate and reproduce
  • Class Reptilia
    • Breathe air using lungs
    • Evolved from amphibians
  • Evolution
    • Evolved during the Paleozoic Era from the dinosaurs
    • Included Icthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, placodonts, and mosasaurs
  • Order Testudines
    • Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins
    • Bony or cartilaginous shells are used for protection
    • Shell is fused to backbone
  • Sea Turtles
    • Legs have been modified into flippers
    • Cannot retract head into shell
    • Lay eggs on land
    • 8 species who live primarily in warm water, all endangered
    • Feed on sea grasses and seaweeds
  • Beak
    • All turtles do not have teeth, instead they have a beak and strong biting jaws
    • Eat everything from sea weeds to sponges to barnacles to jellyfish
  • Exploitation
    • Nesting areas turned into resorts
    • Eggs are taken by the bucketful to be eaten
    • Adults meat considered a delicacy and cartilage used in turtle soup
    • Some shells are collected as jewelry
    • Shrimp nets trap and kill
  • Order Squamata
    • Includes sea snakes and marine iguanas
  • Marine Iguanas
    • Only lizard to feed underwater
    • Shorter snout to scrape algae off of rocks
    • Long, curled claws to hold onto rocks in rougher waters
    • Longer, flattened tails to help swimming
  • Diving Ability
    • Can withstand long bouts of lactate for periods of to two minutes
    • Imagine being able to sprint as hard as you can for two minutes straight
  • Sea Snakes
    • Breath air
    • Flattened tail for swimming
    • Flap covers nostril while swimming
    • Eels have gills and no scales
  • Sea Snakes
    • Feed on fish, fish eggs, and eels
    • Stay in shallow waters and can be found in groups
  • Venom
    • Venom used to immobilize not kill prey
    • Most toxic snakes on earth
    • Bite is painless due to short fangs
    • ½ Hour Symptoms: stiffness, muscle aches, spasm of jaw, pain in limb
    • Eventual symptoms: Blurred vision, drowsiness, and respiratory paralysis
  • Order Crocodilia
    • Saltwater Crocodile
    • Found in estuaries and along the coast of Indian Ocean, Australia, and Western Pacific Islands
  • Evolution of Crocodile
    • Last of the types of reptiles around during the dinosaurs
  • Saltwater Crocodile
    • Animal most likely to attack and eat a human
    • 17-23 feet and 1000-2000 pounds in size
    • Some estimated at as much as 33 feet