20. Class Reptilia Notes


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20. Class Reptilia Notes

  1. 1. Reptiles Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: Testudines Order: Squamata Order: Crocodilia
  2. 2. Class Reptilia <ul><li>Herpetology – study of reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms – cold blooded, must get heat from environment </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is covered with scales </li></ul><ul><li>Most are egg-laying </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrapods – land-dwelling vertebrates </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ectotherms <ul><li>Cold-blooded animals take on the temperature of their surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>More active in warm environments and very sluggish in cold environments </li></ul><ul><li>Results of muscle activities that work on chemical reactions which speed up in warmer temperatures </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ectotherms <ul><li>Must bask in sun to warm-up and speed-up metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Lie in certain directions and expand rib cages to absorb more heat </li></ul><ul><li>If too hot they move to shade, burrow, open their mouth wide, or lighten skin color </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advantages vs. Disadvantages <ul><li>Require less energy than warm-blooded animals </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore in food scarce environments such as the desert they do not have to burn energy to keep warm </li></ul><ul><li>Can reduce body temperature to save energy </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system more efficient because bacteria grows slower in the cold </li></ul><ul><li>Must be warm out for them to have a certain level of activity to hunt and defend themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Also need it to be warm to find a mate and reproduce </li></ul>
  6. 6. Class Reptilia <ul><li>Breathe air using lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved from amphibians </li></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution <ul><li>Evolved during the Paleozoic Era from the dinosaurs </li></ul><ul><li>Included Icthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, placodonts, and mosasaurs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Order Testudines <ul><li>Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins </li></ul><ul><li>Bony or cartilaginous shells are used for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Shell is fused to backbone </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sea Turtles <ul><li>Legs have been modified into flippers </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot retract head into shell </li></ul><ul><li>Lay eggs on land </li></ul><ul><li>8 species who live primarily in warm water, all endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on sea grasses and seaweeds </li></ul>
  10. 10. Beak <ul><li>All turtles do not have teeth, instead they have a beak and strong biting jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Eat everything from sea weeds to sponges to barnacles to jellyfish </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exploitation <ul><li>Nesting areas turned into resorts </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs are taken by the bucketful to be eaten </li></ul><ul><li>Adults meat considered a delicacy and cartilage used in turtle soup </li></ul><ul><li>Some shells are collected as jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp nets trap and kill </li></ul>
  12. 12. Order Squamata <ul><li>Includes sea snakes and marine iguanas </li></ul>
  13. 13. Marine Iguanas <ul><li>Only lizard to feed underwater </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter snout to scrape algae off of rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Long, curled claws to hold onto rocks in rougher waters </li></ul><ul><li>Longer, flattened tails to help swimming </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diving Ability <ul><li>Can withstand long bouts of lactate for periods of to two minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine being able to sprint as hard as you can for two minutes straight </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sea Snakes <ul><li>Breath air </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened tail for swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Flap covers nostril while swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Eels have gills and no scales </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sea Snakes <ul><li>Feed on fish, fish eggs, and eels </li></ul><ul><li>Stay in shallow waters and can be found in groups </li></ul>
  17. 17. Venom <ul><li>Venom used to immobilize not kill prey </li></ul><ul><li>Most toxic snakes on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Bite is painless due to short fangs </li></ul><ul><li>½ Hour Symptoms: stiffness, muscle aches, spasm of jaw, pain in limb </li></ul><ul><li>Eventual symptoms: Blurred vision, drowsiness, and respiratory paralysis </li></ul>
  18. 18. Order Crocodilia <ul><li>Saltwater Crocodile </li></ul><ul><li>Found in estuaries and along the coast of Indian Ocean, Australia, and Western Pacific Islands </li></ul>
  19. 19. Evolution of Crocodile <ul><li>Last of the types of reptiles around during the dinosaurs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Saltwater Crocodile <ul><li>Animal most likely to attack and eat a human </li></ul><ul><li>17-23 feet and 1000-2000 pounds in size </li></ul><ul><li>Some estimated at as much as 33 feet </li></ul>