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18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
18. Order Cetacea Notes
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18. Order Cetacea Notes

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  1. Cetaceans Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Delphinidae Family: Phocoenidae
  2. Mammals <ul><li>Evolved from reptiles 200 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>4,500 species </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic – warm-blooded </li></ul><ul><li>Brain size far larger in proportions than other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Have hair, mammary glands </li></ul>
  3. Evolution of Whales <ul><li>Pakicetids are reasoned to be the earliest ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Lived on land </li></ul><ul><li>Closest living animals to whales are cows, hippos, and giraffes </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved into archaeocetes </li></ul><ul><li>More eel like form that developed into modern whales </li></ul>
  4. Ancient Whale Ancestors
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  7. Cetaceans <ul><li>Whales, dolphins, and porpoises </li></ul><ul><li>All are completely adapted for life in water </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies designed for streamline swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe air </li></ul>
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  11. General Exterior Body Structure <ul><li>Pair of front flippers w/ similar bone structure to our hands </li></ul><ul><li>Caudal fin end in a pair of fin-like horizontal flukes </li></ul><ul><li>Blowhole – nostrils found on top of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Some species missing dorsal fin </li></ul>
  12. Flipper vs. Hand Structure
  13. General Interior Body Structure <ul><li>Small, useless pelvic bones are the rear pair of limbs that never developed </li></ul><ul><li>Blubber – fatty layer that provides insulation and buoyancy </li></ul>
  14. Melon <ul><li>Special organ located between the blowhole and rostrum of toothed whales </li></ul><ul><li>Oil filled sac that serves as an acoustical lens </li></ul>
  15. Spermaceti Organ <ul><li>Massive melon found in sperm whales </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with waxy oil called spermaceti </li></ul><ul><li>Used for lanterns and candles </li></ul>
  16. Swimming <ul><li>Cetaceans swim by beating their flukes up and down while maneuvering with their fins. </li></ul>
  17. Breathing <ul><li>Can exhale and inhale at incredible rate </li></ul><ul><li>Blowhole allows for breaths while swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Spout or blow – combination of warm breath, mucus, and seawater that differs whale to whale </li></ul>
  18. Diving Adaptations <ul><li>Cetaceans hold breath for 15-30 seconds, then quickly take a breath to maximize oxygen consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Blood has higher concentration of red blood cells which can hold more hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce heart rate when diving </li></ul><ul><li>Divert blood to vital organs </li></ul><ul><li>Collapsible lungs prevent the nitrogen from dissolving in blood and thus getting the bends </li></ul>
  19. Echolocation <ul><li>Nature’s version of sonar </li></ul><ul><li>Animals release sound waves which create echoes which are analyzed by brain </li></ul><ul><li>Created by the passage of air inside cetaceans </li></ul><ul><li>Melon focuses the sound waves </li></ul>
  20. Vocalizations <ul><li>Play an important role in communication </li></ul><ul><li>Unique sounds for each species </li></ul><ul><li>Used for all forms of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Humpback whale songs are used for attracting mates </li></ul><ul><li>Whale Songs </li></ul>
  21. Baleen Whales - Mysticeti <ul><li>“ toothless” whales </li></ul><ul><li>Baleen – rows of flexible, fibrous plates that hang from the upper jaw </li></ul><ul><li>Made of the same material as hair and nails </li></ul><ul><li>Covered with bristles </li></ul><ul><li>Filter water through and lick what has been left behind </li></ul>
  22. Baleen Structure
  23. Rorquals <ul><li>Lower part of the throat expands when filtering food </li></ul><ul><li>Includes humpback and blue whale </li></ul>
  24.  
  25. Other Baleen Feeding Methods <ul><li>Some whales skim the surface </li></ul><ul><li>These ones have the largest plates with the finest bristles </li></ul><ul><li>Others are bottom feeders who stir up the bottom and then filter </li></ul>
  26. Toothed Whales <ul><li>Teeth adapted for a diet of fish, squid, and other prey </li></ul><ul><li>Use teeth to catch and hold not to chew, rather it is swallowed whole </li></ul><ul><li>Ambergris – remnants of indigestible food and debris that accumulates as sticky globs, used for perfume </li></ul>
  27.  
  28. Dolphins & Porpoises <ul><li>Considered whales </li></ul><ul><li>Technically porpoises only consist of a small group of blunt-nosed whales </li></ul>
  29. Dolphin & Porpoises <ul><li>Most of the small whales called dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Dolphins typically have a distinctive snout called a beak </li></ul><ul><li>Travel in large groups called pods </li></ul>
  30. Family Delphinidae <ul><li>Dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Beak </li></ul><ul><li>Cone-shaped teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Curved/hooked dorsal fin </li></ul><ul><li>Included Killer Whale </li></ul><ul><li>32 species </li></ul>
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  32. Family Phocoenidae <ul><li>Porpoises </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Small triangular dorsal fins </li></ul><ul><li>No beak </li></ul><ul><li>Small spade shaped teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Travel in smaller groups </li></ul><ul><li>6 species </li></ul>
  33. Porpoise vs. Dolphin

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