Cetaceans Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti Suborder: Odontoceti Famil...
Mammals <ul><li>Evolved from reptiles 200 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>4,500 species </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic ...
Evolution of Whales <ul><li>Pakicetids are reasoned to be the earliest ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Lived on land </li></ul...
Ancient Whale Ancestors
 
 
Cetaceans <ul><li>Whales, dolphins, and porpoises </li></ul><ul><li>All are completely adapted for life in water </li></ul...
 
 
 
General Exterior Body Structure <ul><li>Pair of front flippers w/ similar bone structure to our hands </li></ul><ul><li>Ca...
Flipper vs. Hand Structure
General Interior Body Structure <ul><li>Small, useless pelvic bones are the rear pair of limbs that never developed </li><...
Melon <ul><li>Special organ located between the blowhole and rostrum of toothed whales </li></ul><ul><li>Oil filled sac th...
Spermaceti Organ <ul><li>Massive melon found in sperm whales </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with waxy oil called spermaceti </li...
Swimming <ul><li>Cetaceans swim by beating their flukes up and down while maneuvering with their fins. </li></ul>
Breathing <ul><li>Can exhale and inhale at incredible rate </li></ul><ul><li>Blowhole allows for breaths while swimming </...
Diving Adaptations <ul><li>Cetaceans hold breath for 15-30 seconds, then quickly take a breath to maximize oxygen consumpt...
Echolocation <ul><li>Nature’s version of sonar </li></ul><ul><li>Animals release sound waves which create echoes which are...
Vocalizations <ul><li>Play an important role in communication </li></ul><ul><li>Unique sounds for each species </li></ul><...
Baleen Whales - Mysticeti <ul><li>“ toothless” whales </li></ul><ul><li>Baleen – rows of flexible, fibrous plates that han...
Baleen Structure
Rorquals <ul><li>Lower part of the throat expands when filtering food </li></ul><ul><li>Includes humpback and blue whale <...
 
Other Baleen Feeding Methods <ul><li>Some whales skim the surface </li></ul><ul><li>These ones have the largest plates wit...
Toothed Whales <ul><li>Teeth adapted for a diet of fish, squid, and other prey </li></ul><ul><li>Use teeth to catch and ho...
 
Dolphins & Porpoises <ul><li>Considered whales </li></ul><ul><li>Technically porpoises only consist of a small group of bl...
Dolphin & Porpoises <ul><li>Most of the small whales called dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Dolphins typically have a distincti...
Family Delphinidae <ul><li>Dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Beak </li></ul><ul><li>Cone-shaped teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Curved/ho...
 
Family Phocoenidae <ul><li>Porpoises </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Small triangular dorsal fin...
Porpoise vs. Dolphin
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

18. Order Cetacea Notes

1,949 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,949
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
74
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

18. Order Cetacea Notes

  1. 1. Cetaceans Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetacea Suborder: Mysticeti Suborder: Odontoceti Family: Delphinidae Family: Phocoenidae
  2. 2. Mammals <ul><li>Evolved from reptiles 200 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>4,500 species </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic – warm-blooded </li></ul><ul><li>Brain size far larger in proportions than other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Have hair, mammary glands </li></ul>
  3. 3. Evolution of Whales <ul><li>Pakicetids are reasoned to be the earliest ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Lived on land </li></ul><ul><li>Closest living animals to whales are cows, hippos, and giraffes </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved into archaeocetes </li></ul><ul><li>More eel like form that developed into modern whales </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ancient Whale Ancestors
  5. 7. Cetaceans <ul><li>Whales, dolphins, and porpoises </li></ul><ul><li>All are completely adapted for life in water </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies designed for streamline swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe air </li></ul>
  6. 11. General Exterior Body Structure <ul><li>Pair of front flippers w/ similar bone structure to our hands </li></ul><ul><li>Caudal fin end in a pair of fin-like horizontal flukes </li></ul><ul><li>Blowhole – nostrils found on top of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Some species missing dorsal fin </li></ul>
  7. 12. Flipper vs. Hand Structure
  8. 13. General Interior Body Structure <ul><li>Small, useless pelvic bones are the rear pair of limbs that never developed </li></ul><ul><li>Blubber – fatty layer that provides insulation and buoyancy </li></ul>
  9. 14. Melon <ul><li>Special organ located between the blowhole and rostrum of toothed whales </li></ul><ul><li>Oil filled sac that serves as an acoustical lens </li></ul>
  10. 15. Spermaceti Organ <ul><li>Massive melon found in sperm whales </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with waxy oil called spermaceti </li></ul><ul><li>Used for lanterns and candles </li></ul>
  11. 16. Swimming <ul><li>Cetaceans swim by beating their flukes up and down while maneuvering with their fins. </li></ul>
  12. 17. Breathing <ul><li>Can exhale and inhale at incredible rate </li></ul><ul><li>Blowhole allows for breaths while swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Spout or blow – combination of warm breath, mucus, and seawater that differs whale to whale </li></ul>
  13. 18. Diving Adaptations <ul><li>Cetaceans hold breath for 15-30 seconds, then quickly take a breath to maximize oxygen consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Blood has higher concentration of red blood cells which can hold more hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce heart rate when diving </li></ul><ul><li>Divert blood to vital organs </li></ul><ul><li>Collapsible lungs prevent the nitrogen from dissolving in blood and thus getting the bends </li></ul>
  14. 19. Echolocation <ul><li>Nature’s version of sonar </li></ul><ul><li>Animals release sound waves which create echoes which are analyzed by brain </li></ul><ul><li>Created by the passage of air inside cetaceans </li></ul><ul><li>Melon focuses the sound waves </li></ul>
  15. 20. Vocalizations <ul><li>Play an important role in communication </li></ul><ul><li>Unique sounds for each species </li></ul><ul><li>Used for all forms of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Humpback whale songs are used for attracting mates </li></ul><ul><li>Whale Songs </li></ul>
  16. 21. Baleen Whales - Mysticeti <ul><li>“ toothless” whales </li></ul><ul><li>Baleen – rows of flexible, fibrous plates that hang from the upper jaw </li></ul><ul><li>Made of the same material as hair and nails </li></ul><ul><li>Covered with bristles </li></ul><ul><li>Filter water through and lick what has been left behind </li></ul>
  17. 22. Baleen Structure
  18. 23. Rorquals <ul><li>Lower part of the throat expands when filtering food </li></ul><ul><li>Includes humpback and blue whale </li></ul>
  19. 25. Other Baleen Feeding Methods <ul><li>Some whales skim the surface </li></ul><ul><li>These ones have the largest plates with the finest bristles </li></ul><ul><li>Others are bottom feeders who stir up the bottom and then filter </li></ul>
  20. 26. Toothed Whales <ul><li>Teeth adapted for a diet of fish, squid, and other prey </li></ul><ul><li>Use teeth to catch and hold not to chew, rather it is swallowed whole </li></ul><ul><li>Ambergris – remnants of indigestible food and debris that accumulates as sticky globs, used for perfume </li></ul>
  21. 28. Dolphins & Porpoises <ul><li>Considered whales </li></ul><ul><li>Technically porpoises only consist of a small group of blunt-nosed whales </li></ul>
  22. 29. Dolphin & Porpoises <ul><li>Most of the small whales called dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Dolphins typically have a distinctive snout called a beak </li></ul><ul><li>Travel in large groups called pods </li></ul>
  23. 30. Family Delphinidae <ul><li>Dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Beak </li></ul><ul><li>Cone-shaped teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Curved/hooked dorsal fin </li></ul><ul><li>Included Killer Whale </li></ul><ul><li>32 species </li></ul>
  24. 32. Family Phocoenidae <ul><li>Porpoises </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Small triangular dorsal fins </li></ul><ul><li>No beak </li></ul><ul><li>Small spade shaped teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Travel in smaller groups </li></ul><ul><li>6 species </li></ul>
  25. 33. Porpoise vs. Dolphin

×