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17. Class Chondrichthyes Notes
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17. Class Chondrichthyes Notes

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  • 1. Class Chondrichthyes “ Cartilaginous Fish” Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Sub Phylum: Verterbrata Class: Chondrichthyes
  • 2. Class Chondrichthyes
    • Sharks, Rays, Skates, Ratfish
    • Skeleton made of cartilage
  • 3. General Characteristics
    • Possess movable jaws that usually have teeth
    • Mouth is ventral, underneath the head
  • 4. General Characteristics
    • Paired lateral fins
  • 5. General Characteristics
    • Rough, sand paper like skin
    • Made up of scales that have the same composition as teeth
  • 6. Ratfish / Chimaeras
    • Gill slits covered by a flap of skin
    • Mostly deep-water fish
    • Eat crustaceans and mollusks
  • 7. Skates & Rays
    • Flattened bodies
    • Dermersal – live on the bottom
    • Gill slits on the ventral side (bottom)
  • 8. Skates & Rays
    • Pectoral fins are flat and expanded
    • Head fuses with pectoral fins with eyes on top
  • 9.  
  • 10. Sawfish
    • Ventral gill slits
    • Swing blade through schools disabling prey
    • Similar to saw sharks except for size and gill placement
  • 11. Stingrays
    • Equipped with a stinging spine
    • Spine connected to venomous glands
    • Teeth modified into grinding plates
  • 12. Manta & Devil Rays
    • Not bottom dwellers instead choose to swim
  • 13. Sharks
    • Living Fossils
    • Have not needed to evolve for 100 million years
  • 14. Megalodon
    • Ancient shark
    • Largest predatory fish ever
    • Twice the size of a great white
  • 15. External Structure
  • 16. Paired vs. Unpaired fins
    • Paired: Pectoral & Pelvic
    • Comparable to our arms and legs
    • Unpaired: 1 st Dorsal, 2 nd Dorsal, Anal, and Caudal
    • All found along mid-line
  • 17. Scales
    • Scales are very small and sharp
    • Same composition as the teeth
  • 18. Jaws
    • Made of bone
    • Contain the disposable teeth
    • In some species capable of extending jaw out from body
  • 19. Teeth
    • Same composition as the scales
    • Continually shed and replaced by the rows behind
  • 20. Respiration
    • Must swim to force water through their gills
    • Some such as nurse sharks can get enough oxygen so they do not need to swim
  • 21. Digestion
    • Very short esophogus
    • Stomach can be up to 1/3 the length of the shark
    • Intestine is really small, only about a foot
  • 22. Nervous System
    • Lateral line used for sensing vibrations in the water
  • 23. Nervous System
    • Ampullae of Lorenzini
    • Jelly filled canals that can detect electrical fields, magnetic fields, temperature, salinity, water pressure, etc.
  • 24. Nervous System
    • Paired external nostrils that lead directly to the brain
    • Very acute sense of smell, can detect concentrations as low as one part per billion
  • 25. Shark Classification
    • Two Super-Orders:
      • Galeomorphs & Squalomorphs
    • Further broken down into orders
  • 26. Order Heterodontiformes:
    • Bullhead Sharks
    • Pig like snout
    • Bottom dwellers
  • 27. Order Orectolobiformes:
    • “ Carpet Sharks”
    • Very short mouths
    • Upper lobe of caudal fin extended with reduced lower lobe
    • Includes filter feeders
  • 28. Order Lamniformes:
    • “ Mackerel Fish”
    • Larger front teeth
    • Include some of most popular
    • Most are active predators
    • Functionally warm-blooded
  • 29. Order Lamniformes:
    • “ Goblin Sharks”
    • Mitsukurindidae
    • “ Sandtiger Sharks”
    • Carchariidae
  • 30. Order Lamniformes:
    • “ Ragged-Tooth Sharks”
    • Odontaspididae
    • “ Thresher Sharks”
    • Alopiidae
  • 31. Order Lamniformes:
    • “ Megamouth Shark”
    • Megachasmidae
    • “ Crocodile Sharks”
    • Pseudocarchariidae
  • 32. Order Lamniformes:
    • “ Basking Shark”
    • Cetorhinidae
    • “ Mackerel Sharks”
    • Lamnidae
  • 33. Order Carcharhiniformes:
    • “ Ground or Whaler Sharks”
    • Adaptable to many environments, even estuarine and freshwater
    • Flappable lower eyelids
  • 34. Order Carcharhiniformes:
    • “ Whaler Sharks”
    • Carcharhinidae
    • “ Hammerhead Sharks”
    • Sphyrnidae
  • 35. Order Carcharhiniformes:
    • “ Cat Sharks”
    • Schliorhinidae
  • 36. Order Chlamydoselachi
    • “ Frilled Shark”
    • Eel like body
    • Teeth are three pronged
    • Deep water
  • 37. Order Hexanchiformes
    • “ Cow Sharks”
    • Deep water
    • Very little is known
  • 38. Order Echinorhiniformes
    • “ Bramble Sharks”
    • Thick tail stalk
    • Has bumps on skin
    • “ hedgehog shark
  • 39. Order Sqauliformes
    • “ Dogfish Sharks”
    • Large ranges of sizes
    • Generally best known shark
  • 40. Order Sqauliformes
    • Greenland Shark (21 feet +)
    • Dwarf Laternshark
  • 41. Order Squantiniformes
    • “ Angel Sharks”
    • Flattened bodies
    • Gills on ventral side
    • Mouth at end rather than ventral like rays and skates
  • 42. Order Pristiophoriformes
    • “ Sawsharks’
    • Similar to sawfish, but skinnier and have sensitive barbs on snout
    • Alternating long short teeth