16. Class Osteichthyes Notes
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16. Class Osteichthyes Notes

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16. Class Osteichthyes Notes 16. Class Osteichthyes Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Bony Fish Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Osteichthyes
  • Class Osteichthyes
    • “ Bony Fish”
    • Skeleton made of bone
    • Thin, flexible scales
  • Class Osteichthyes
    • Operculum – a gill cover that protects the gills
    • Swim Bladder – a gas-filled sac above the stomach allows for adjustments in buoyancy
  • Fins
  • Fins
    • Upper and lower lobes of Caudal Fin almost always the same size
    • Fin rays – rigid spines that support a thin membrane
  • Mouth & Jaws
    • Mouth of most bony fish is terminal or anterior end
    • Overall jaw movement is more than that of sharks with teeth that are fused to jaw
  • Feeding
    • Most bony fish are carnivores
    • Well developed teeth used for capture and holding
    • Roof of mouth, gill rakers, and pharynx may have teeth to help hold
  • Feeding
    • Grazers – fish that feed primarily on seaweeds and other plants
    • Some develop beaks to help scrape off algae or pieces of coral
  •  
  • Feeding
    • Filter feeders filter plankton through their gills
    • Tend to be smaller, schooling fish such as herrings, anchovies, and sardines
  • Internal Anatomy
  • Digestive System
    • Digestive System: stomach, intestine, pancreas, liver, pyloric caecae
    • Pyloric caecae – slender tubes that secrete digestive enzymes
    • Plant eaters = long intestine, Meat eaters = short intestines
  • Circulatory System
    • Two chambered heart
    • Gas exchange occurs in the gills
  • Gill Irrigation
    • Gills share a common gill chamber
    • Mouth opens, operculum closes, and pharynx expands to allow in water and the opposite is true
    • Fast swimmers just open their mouths
  • Nervous System
    • Brain & spinal cord
    • Olfactory sacs or bulbs located on either side of the head and connected to nostrils (smell)
    • Taste buds located in mouths or barbels
  • Vision
    • Better eyes than chondrichthyes
    • Fish eyes focus by moving closer or farther away from subject
    • Many have color vision
  • Hearing
    • Presence of inner ears
    • Chambers similar to the lateral line
    • Located on either side of the head just behind the brain
    • Can resonate/amplify sound through swim bladder
  • Lateral Line
    • Detects vibrations in water
    • Small canals filled with sensory cells
  • Behaviors
    • Territories – home areas that fish defend against intruders
    • Most common in crowded environments
    • Some defend as groups
  • Behaviors
    • Schools – well defined groups of fishes
    • Well coordinated with no leaders
    • Used a protection by confusion
    • Increase swimming efficiency
    • Advantageous in feeding
    • No single reason and vary species to species
  • Behavior
    • Migration – regular mass movements from one place to another
    • Anadromous fish – live mostly at sea and migrate to freshwater to breed (salmon)
    • Catadromous fish – breed a sea and live in rivers (eels)
  • Subclass Dipnoi
    • “ Lungfish”
    • Jaw fused to brain case
    • Caudal, dorsal, and anal fin connected
    • Pectoral fins long and tubular
    • Air breathing organ attached to esophogus
  •  
  • Subclass Crossopterygii
    • “ Coelacanths”
    • Cosmoid scale
    • Two dorsal fins and fleshy paired fins with skeletal elements
    • Thought to be extinct till found
    • Sometimes grouped with lungfish in Subclass Sarcopterygii
  •  
  •  
  • Subclass Actinopterygii
    • Ray-finned fishes
    • Most familiar fish
    • Have fin rays, swim bladders, and a symmetrically lobed caudal fin
  • Cartilaginous Fish Lungfish Ray-Finned Fish Lobed-Finned Fish Jawed Vertebrates Birds, lizards, turtles, dinosaurs, mammals
  • Subclass Actinopterygii Superorder Teleostei Bass Goldfish Guppies Seahorses Sturgeons Tuna Etc. Superorder Holostean Garpikes Bowfins Superorder Chondrostei Freshwater Sturgeon Bichirs Paddlefish Reedfish
  • Superorder Holostean
    • Fin arrangements make for more efficient swimmers
  • Superorder Chondrostei
    • Lack bone
    • Sometimes classified with sharks
    • Though more in common with the telosts
  • Superorder Telostei
    • Most prolific class
    • 96% of all fish
    • 12 suborders
    • Symmetrical caudal fin
    • Spines on fins
  • Osteoglossmorpha
    • Order Osteoglossiformes
    • Order Hiodontiformes
  • Elopomorpha
    • Order Elopiformes
    • Order Albuliformes
    • Order Notacanthiformes
    • Order Anguilliformes
    • Order Saccopharyngiformes
  • Clupeomorpha
    • Order Clupeiformes
  • Ostariophysi
    • OrderGonorynchiformes
    • Order Cypriniformes
    • Order Characiformes
    • Order Gymnotiformes
    • Order Silurioformes
  • Protacanthopterygii
    • Order Salmoniformes
    • Order Escociformes
    • Order Osmeriformes
  • Stenopterygii
    • Order Ateleopodiformes
    • Order Stomiiformes
  • Cyclosquamata
    • Order Aulopiformes
  • Scopelomorpha
    • Order Myctophiformes
  • Lampridiomorpha
    • Order Lampriformes
  • Polymyxiomorpha
    • Order Polymixiiformes
  • Paracanthopterygii
    • Order Percopsiformes
    • Order Batrachoidiformes
    • Order Lophiiformes
    • Order Gadiformes
    • Order Ophidiiformes
  • Acanthopterygii
    • Order Mugiliformes
    • Order Atheriniformes
    • Order Beloniformes
    • Order Cetomimiformes
    • Order Cyprinodontiformes
    • Order Stephanoberyciformes
    • Order Bericiformes
    • Order Zeiformes
  • Acanthopterygii
    • Order Gobiescociformes
    • Order Gasterosteiformes
    • Order Syngnathiformes
    • Order Synbranchiformes
    • Order Tetraodontiformes
    • Order Pleuronectiformes
    • Order Scorpaeniformes
    • Order Perciformes
    • - 46% of fish