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15. Phylum Chordata Notes
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15. Phylum Chordata Notes


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  • 1. Phylum Chordata & Types of Fish
    Kingdom Animalia
    Phylum Chordata
    Subphylum Urochordata
    Subphylum Cephalochordata
    Subphylum Vertebrata
    Class Agnatha
    Class Chondrichthyes
    Class Osteichthyes
  • 2. Phylum Chordata
    Contains invertebrate and vertebrate species
    All have bilateral symmetry
    All at one point have a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, pharynx, and gill slits
  • 3. Notochord
    A long rod of stiffened tissue
    Not bone or cartilage
  • 4. Nerve Cord
    Tube found on the dorsal side that runs parallel to the notochord and gut
    Anterior end enlarges during development to form brain
  • 5. Pharynx
    A muscular tube that acts in feeding, respiration, or both
  • 6. Gill Slits
    A means of removing oxygen from a liquid environment for respiration
  • 7. Subphylum Urochodata
    Includes: Tunicates or Sea Squirts
    Similar niche to sponges but far more complex animal
    Filter feeder, diatoms and other bits of food caught in gill slits
    Leathery “tunic” secreted and covers the body
  • 8. Subphylum Cephalochordata
    Includes: Lancelets (called due to shape)
    Shows the four distinct characteristics of chordates
    Closed circulatory system
    Respiratory gases diffuse across the body
    Filter feeders
  • 9. Subphylum Vertebrata
    7 Current Classes:
    Agnatha – jawless fish
    Chondrichthyes – Cartilaginous fish
    Osteichthyes – Bony fish
    Amphibia – Amphibians
    Reptilia – Reptiles
    Aves – Birds
    Mammalia - Mammals
  • 10. Characteristics of Vertebrates:
    Many chordata characteristics seen in embryo stage
    Nerve cord develops into a spinal cord and a brain
  • 11. Two Large Advances:
    Spinal cord is protected by a bony vertebrae
    Brain is protected by a bony skull
  • 12. Other Evolutionary Advancements
    Expansion of species began with the evolution of a jaw developed from the structure supporting the gill slits
    This lead to the ability to hunt other animals and thus led to advances in the nervous system and other body system processes
  • 13. Other Evolutionary Advancements
    Development of fleshy and skeleton fins that became the starting point for arms, legs, and wings
    Evolution of gills allowed for better diffusion of oxygen
    Gills developed into pouches then developed into lungs
  • 14. Ichthyology
    The study of fishes
  • 15. Class Agnatha
    “Jawless Fishes”
    Most primitive fish
    Lacks jaws and feed by suction
    Cylindrical and elongated body
    Lack paired fins and scales
  • 16. Hagfish & Lampreys
    Feed mostly on dead or dying fish
    Mostly freshwater
    Attach to other fish and suck their blood
  • 17. Class Chondrichthyes
    “Cartilaginous Fish”
    Skeleton made of cartilage
    Movable jaws with well-developed teeth
    Rough sand paper like scales made of the same composition of the teeth
  • 18. Sharks & Ratfish
    Adapted for fast swimming and to be predators
    Ratfish or Chimeras
    Bottom dwellers
    Have long “rat-like” tails
  • 19. Rays and Skates
    Flattened bodies with gills on the bottom of their bodies
    Whip-like tail with stinging spines (venomous)
    Very similar to rays but with out the long tail or stinging spines
  • 20. Class Osteichthyes
    “Bony Fish”
    Make of 98% of all fish and over half the vertebrates
    Skeleton at least made partially of bone
    Thin, flexible, overlapping scales
    Mouth located at end of body
    Presence of gas-filled sac called a swim bladder
  • 21. Body Shape
    Body shape is varied and linked to its lifestyle
    Fast swimmer need elongated bodies
  • 22. Body Shape
    Short, compressed bodies good for navigating tight places like reefs
    Bottom dwellers tend to have flattened shapes
  • 23. Body Shape
    Elongated shapes are need for life in narrow spaces
    Some have less generalized shapes
  • 24. Body Shape
    Some shapes are conducive to camouflage with their environment
  • 25. Exterior Layer
  • 26. Locomotion
    Fish swim with rhythmic side to side motion of the body or tail
    Rhythmic contractions produced by bands of muscle called myomeres
  • 27.
  • 28. Locomotion
    Swim bladder – specialized organ filled with gas that assists in floating due to a heavier bone structure (found in bony fish)
  • 29. Pectoral Fins
    Oversized in sharks to provide lift due to no swim bladder, provide tight maneuverability in bony fish
  • 30. Dorsal & Anal Fins
    Employed as rudders used to steer and provide stability
  • 31. Pelvic fin
    Help the fish turn, balance, and brake
  • 32. Caudal (tail) fin
    Used in steering and force production
  • 33.
  • 34. Lobe-Finned Fish
    Link between water based fish and land dwelling amphibians
    Developed bone/cartilage appendages that allowed them to move in mud and shallow waters
    Developed primitive lungs as well
  • 35. Digestion
    Food passed through esophagus into the stomach for digestion and on into an intestine
  • 36. Digestion
    Pancreas, liver, and the pyloric caeca secrete digestive enzymes
  • 37.
  • 38. Respiratory System
    Fish get oxygen that is dissolved in the water
    They must get water to flow over gills to do this, called irrigation
  • 39.
  • 40. Gill Structure
    The gill is supported by cartilaginous or bony structure called gill arch
    Gill rakers are used as filters to stop food from entering gills
    Gill filaments contain the capillaries
  • 41. Circulatory System
    Closed circulatory system
    Two chambered heart
    Gas exchange happens in the gills
  • 42. Lungfish
    Uses actual lungs to breathe and has reduced gills
  • 43. Regulating Internal Environment
    The blood of marine fish is less salty than the water, therefore they lose water through osmosis
    To replace it they must drink seawater
  • 44. Nervous System
    Central nervous system consisting of brain
    Highly developed sense of smell due to olfactory bulb/sacs which open to the nostrils
  • 45. Nervous System
    Some bottom feeders like catfish have whisker like organs called barbels
  • 46. Lateral Line
    Unique sense organ that enables them to detect vibrations in the water
    Canals inside the body connected to surface by pores
  • 47. Ampullae of Lorenzini
    Can detect very weak electrical fields
    Used to locate prey and navigate