15. Phylum Chordata Notes


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15. Phylum Chordata Notes

  1. 1. Phylum Chordata & Types of Fish<br />Kingdom Animalia<br /> Phylum Chordata<br /> Subphylum Urochordata<br /> Subphylum Cephalochordata<br /> Subphylum Vertebrata<br /> Class Agnatha<br /> Class Chondrichthyes<br /> Class Osteichthyes<br />
  2. 2. Phylum Chordata<br />“Chordates”<br />Contains invertebrate and vertebrate species<br />All have bilateral symmetry<br />All at one point have a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, pharynx, and gill slits<br />
  3. 3. Notochord<br />A long rod of stiffened tissue<br />Not bone or cartilage<br />
  4. 4. Nerve Cord<br />Tube found on the dorsal side that runs parallel to the notochord and gut<br />Anterior end enlarges during development to form brain<br />
  5. 5. Pharynx<br />A muscular tube that acts in feeding, respiration, or both<br />
  6. 6. Gill Slits<br />A means of removing oxygen from a liquid environment for respiration<br />
  7. 7. Subphylum Urochodata<br />Includes: Tunicates or Sea Squirts<br />Similar niche to sponges but far more complex animal<br />Filter feeder, diatoms and other bits of food caught in gill slits<br />Leathery “tunic” secreted and covers the body<br />
  8. 8. Subphylum Cephalochordata<br />Includes: Lancelets (called due to shape)<br />Shows the four distinct characteristics of chordates<br />Closed circulatory system<br />Respiratory gases diffuse across the body<br />Filter feeders<br />
  9. 9. Subphylum Vertebrata<br />7 Current Classes:<br />Agnatha – jawless fish<br />Chondrichthyes – Cartilaginous fish<br />Osteichthyes – Bony fish<br />Amphibia – Amphibians<br />Reptilia – Reptiles<br />Aves – Birds<br />Mammalia - Mammals<br />
  10. 10. Characteristics of Vertebrates:<br />Many chordata characteristics seen in embryo stage<br />Nerve cord develops into a spinal cord and a brain<br />
  11. 11. Two Large Advances:<br />Spinal cord is protected by a bony vertebrae<br />Brain is protected by a bony skull<br />
  12. 12. Other Evolutionary Advancements<br />Expansion of species began with the evolution of a jaw developed from the structure supporting the gill slits<br />This lead to the ability to hunt other animals and thus led to advances in the nervous system and other body system processes<br />
  13. 13. Other Evolutionary Advancements<br />Development of fleshy and skeleton fins that became the starting point for arms, legs, and wings<br />Evolution of gills allowed for better diffusion of oxygen<br />Gills developed into pouches then developed into lungs<br />
  14. 14. Ichthyology<br />The study of fishes<br />
  15. 15. Class Agnatha<br />“Jawless Fishes”<br />Most primitive fish<br />Lacks jaws and feed by suction<br />Cylindrical and elongated body<br />Lack paired fins and scales<br />
  16. 16. Hagfish & Lampreys<br />Hagfish <br />Feed mostly on dead or dying fish<br />Lampreys<br />Mostly freshwater<br />Attach to other fish and suck their blood<br />
  17. 17. Class Chondrichthyes<br />“Cartilaginous Fish”<br />Skeleton made of cartilage<br />Movable jaws with well-developed teeth<br />Rough sand paper like scales made of the same composition of the teeth<br />
  18. 18. Sharks & Ratfish<br />Sharks<br />Adapted for fast swimming and to be predators<br />Ratfish or Chimeras<br />Bottom dwellers <br />Have long “rat-like” tails<br />
  19. 19. Rays and Skates<br />Rays<br />Flattened bodies with gills on the bottom of their bodies<br />Whip-like tail with stinging spines (venomous)<br />Skates<br />Very similar to rays but with out the long tail or stinging spines<br />
  20. 20. Class Osteichthyes<br />“Bony Fish”<br />Make of 98% of all fish and over half the vertebrates<br />Skeleton at least made partially of bone<br />Thin, flexible, overlapping scales<br />Mouth located at end of body<br />Presence of gas-filled sac called a swim bladder<br />
  21. 21. Body Shape<br />Body shape is varied and linked to its lifestyle<br />Fast swimmer need elongated bodies<br />
  22. 22. Body Shape<br />Short, compressed bodies good for navigating tight places like reefs<br /> Bottom dwellers tend to have flattened shapes<br />
  23. 23. Body Shape<br />Elongated shapes are need for life in narrow spaces<br />Some have less generalized shapes<br />
  24. 24. Body Shape<br />Some shapes are conducive to camouflage with their environment<br />
  25. 25. Exterior Layer<br />
  26. 26. Locomotion<br />Fish swim with rhythmic side to side motion of the body or tail<br />Rhythmic contractions produced by bands of muscle called myomeres<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Locomotion<br />Swim bladder – specialized organ filled with gas that assists in floating due to a heavier bone structure (found in bony fish)<br />
  29. 29. Pectoral Fins<br />Oversized in sharks to provide lift due to no swim bladder, provide tight maneuverability in bony fish<br />
  30. 30. Dorsal & Anal Fins<br />Employed as rudders used to steer and provide stability<br />
  31. 31. Pelvic fin<br />Help the fish turn, balance, and brake<br />
  32. 32. Caudal (tail) fin<br />Used in steering and force production<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Lobe-Finned Fish<br />Link between water based fish and land dwelling amphibians<br />Developed bone/cartilage appendages that allowed them to move in mud and shallow waters<br />Developed primitive lungs as well<br />
  35. 35. Digestion<br />Food passed through esophagus into the stomach for digestion and on into an intestine<br />
  36. 36. Digestion<br />Pancreas, liver, and the pyloric caeca secrete digestive enzymes<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Respiratory System<br />Fish get oxygen that is dissolved in the water<br />They must get water to flow over gills to do this, called irrigation<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Gill Structure<br />The gill is supported by cartilaginous or bony structure called gill arch<br />Gill rakers are used as filters to stop food from entering gills<br />Gill filaments contain the capillaries<br />
  41. 41. Circulatory System<br />Closed circulatory system<br />Two chambered heart<br />Gas exchange happens in the gills<br />
  42. 42. Lungfish<br />Uses actual lungs to breathe and has reduced gills<br />
  43. 43. Regulating Internal Environment<br />The blood of marine fish is less salty than the water, therefore they lose water through osmosis<br />To replace it they must drink seawater<br />
  44. 44. Nervous System<br />Central nervous system consisting of brain <br />Highly developed sense of smell due to olfactory bulb/sacs which open to the nostrils<br />
  45. 45. Nervous System<br />Some bottom feeders like catfish have whisker like organs called barbels<br />
  46. 46. Lateral Line<br />Unique sense organ that enables them to detect vibrations in the water<br />Canals inside the body connected to surface by pores<br />
  47. 47. Ampullae of Lorenzini<br />Can detect very weak electrical fields<br />Used to locate prey and navigate<br />