15. heat in the atmosphere notes

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  • 1. Heat in the Atmosphere
  • 2. Radiation:  All energy that travels through space as waves, all are part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 3. Electromagnetic Spectrum:  All the frequencies and wavelengths of radiation  Includes radio, micro, infrared, visible light, UV, X- rays, and gamma rays
  • 4. Layers of the Atmosphere and Solar Radiation:  Thermosphere and mesosphere absorb all wavelengths shorter than visible light  Carbon dioxide and water vapor absorb infrared rays in troposphere  Visible light is barely absorbed
  • 5. Scattering:  The disruption and bending of solar rays, allows light to come in at all angles and causes the sky to be blue
  • 6. Reflection:  Solar energy that reaches the Earth and is reflected back depending on characteristics such as color, texture, composition, volume, mass, transpare ncy, state of matter, intensity of light, and amount of time exposed
  • 7. Albedo:  The fraction of solar radiation that is reflected off the surface
  • 8. Greenhouse Effect:  The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate the infrared radiation (heat)
  • 9. Global Warming: a) Usually the amount of solar energy that enters the atmosphere is equal to the amount that escapes b) Human effects have led to an imbalance or reduction of solar energy escaping back into space, thus resulting in higher global temperatures due to excess carbon dioxide being released
  • 10. Carbon Cycle:
  • 11. Effect of the Angle of the Sun a) The more direct the sunlight, the higher the temperatures because the energy is concentrated in a smaller area b) As a result, seasons are determined by the tilt of the Earth c) Therefore, we are angled towards the sun during summer and away during winter d) We are closer to the sun during the winter and farther away during the summer
  • 12. Conduction:  The transfer of energy through direct contact  The denser the material, the closer the atoms, the better the conductor
  • 13. Convection:  Warmer less dense air rises, cooler more dense air sinks