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# 12. earthquakes notes

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### 12. earthquakes notes

1. 1. EARTHQUAKES
2. 2. A movement or trembling of the ground that is caused by a sudden release of energy when rocks move along a fault line EARTHQUAKES:
3. 3. Rocks on both sides of a fault are pressed together tightly locked by friction When they finally, slip, vibrations occur HOW THEY HAPPEN
4. 4.  The location within the Earth along a fault at which the first motion of an Earthquake occurs FOCUS:
5. 5.  The point on the Earth’s surface above the focus EPICENTER:
6. 6.  Waves that travel through the Earth BODY WAVES:
7. 7.  (Primary Wave)  Motion is back and forth in the direction of travel  Fastest of the waves and can travel through solids, liquids, and gases  Compression wave P-WAVE
8. 8.  Secondary Wave  Motion is side to side compared to direction of travel  Second fastest and can only travel through solids  Shear Waves S-WAVE:
9. 9. P WAVES VS. S WAVES
10. 10. A seismic wave that travels along the surface and has a stronger effect; converted P and S wave, causes the most damage SURFACE WAVES:
11. 11.  Led to more in depth knowledge of the Earth’s interior  Various densities and phases are shown by wave deflection  S waves blocked by liquid outer core  P waves change direction as they pass through the cores WAVES IN THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH
12. 12. WAVES IN THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH:
13. 13.  The longer the time difference between the arrival of the P and S waves, the farther from the epicenter DETERMINING LOCATION
14. 14. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN P AND S WAVES
15. 15. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN P AND S WAVES
16. 16.  Once you have the distance to the epicenter, using readings from three stations, you can determine the location by creating circle with that distance as the radius. The point where the three circles meet is the location of the epicenter DETERMINING THE LOCATION
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