10. Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora
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10. Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora

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10. Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora 10. Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora Presentation Transcript

  • Phylum Cnidaria & Ctenophora Kingdom: Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa Class Scyphozoa Class Anthozoa Phylum Ctenophora
  • Major Characteristics
    • Presence of specialized tissues
    • Also called Coelenterates
    • Comprised of sea anemones, jellyfish, corals
    • Have radial symmetry
    • Two forms polyps and medusa
  • Body Structure
    • All have radial symmetry, where similar parts of the body are arranged and repeated around a central axis
  • Radial vs. Bilateral Symmetry Diagram A
  • Radial Symmetry
  • Two Main Body Forms - Polyp
    • A polyp is a sac like stage.
    • Sessile or non-motile
  • Two Main Body Forms - Medusa
    • A medusa is bell-like, which is similar to an upside down swimming polyp
    • Free floating or swimming
  • Polyp vs. Medusa
    • Some spend their life as both at some point or as one or the other the entire time
    Diagram B
  • Polyp vs. Medusa Diagram D
  • Three Basic Layers:
  • Three Basic Layers
    • Ectoderm/Epidermis – outer layer that contains the stinging cells
    • Endoderm/Gastrodermis – lines the gut
    • Mesoglea – Jelly like substance in between the Ectoderm and Endoderm which contains scattered cells and collagen fibers
  • Exoskeleton
    • Coral will create a calcium carbonate shell in which it will live
  • Body Structure
    • The mouth is located on the top of the polyp or underside of the medusa
    • It is the only opening on the organism so is also shares the function of being an anus
    Diagram E
  • Body Structure Diagram F
  • Tentacles
    • Slender finger like structure used to capture and handle food
    • Location of nematocysts
  • Nematocysts
    • The main characteristic of Cnidaria is the presence of nematocysts
    • Stinging structures found on the tentacles
  • Nematocysts
    • Coiled – like stinger
    • Spring into the prey and releases toxin
    • Most not harmful to humans because they cannot penetrate skin
    • Some fatal
  • Nervous System
    • Main characteristic is the presence of a nerve net
    • Nerves cross over each other, at every connection, communication occurs
    • In humans millions cross over millions and no communication occurs
  • Nerve Net Diagram C
  • Digestive System
    • All cnidarians are carnivorous
    • Paralyzed by the nematocysts
    • Enzymes in gastric cavity break down the food and nutrients are absorbed by cells in the endoderm
    • Wastes are sent out the mouth/anus
  • Digestive System
  • Reproductive
    • Cnidarians have the ability to reproduce sexually and asexually
    • One method that is commonly seen is budding
  • Class Anthozoa
    • Largest group of Cnidarians
    • Stay in the polyp stage throughout life cycle
    • Solitary or colonial
    • Includes sea anemones
  • Class Hydrozoa
    • Can consist of just a polyp stage, just a medusa stage, or both
    • Can join together to form complex colonies such as the Portuguese Man-O-War, which develop floats
    FLOAT
  • Class Scyphozoans
    • Medusa is the dominant life stage
    • Swim with rhythmic contractions of the bell, though limited
    • Contain the most dangerous/fatal stings
    BELL
  • Phylum Ctenophora
    • Comb Jellies
    • Not a member of the Cnidarian Phylum even though they share similarities
  • Cnidaria vs. Ctenophora
    • Ctenophora
    • Have cilia at the base of the medusa to move
    • Engulf food
    • Do not have nematocysts
    • Have an additional layer between endo and ecto layers
    • Anal pore