10. Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora


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10. Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora

  1. 1. Phylum Cnidaria & Ctenophora Kingdom: Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa Class Scyphozoa Class Anthozoa Phylum Ctenophora
  2. 2. Major Characteristics <ul><li>Presence of specialized tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Coelenterates </li></ul><ul><li>Comprised of sea anemones, jellyfish, corals </li></ul><ul><li>Have radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms polyps and medusa </li></ul>
  3. 3. Body Structure <ul><li>All have radial symmetry, where similar parts of the body are arranged and repeated around a central axis </li></ul>
  4. 4. Radial vs. Bilateral Symmetry Diagram A
  5. 5. Radial Symmetry
  6. 6. Two Main Body Forms - Polyp <ul><li>A polyp is a sac like stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Sessile or non-motile </li></ul>
  7. 7. Two Main Body Forms - Medusa <ul><li>A medusa is bell-like, which is similar to an upside down swimming polyp </li></ul><ul><li>Free floating or swimming </li></ul>
  8. 8. Polyp vs. Medusa <ul><li>Some spend their life as both at some point or as one or the other the entire time </li></ul>Diagram B
  9. 9. Polyp vs. Medusa Diagram D
  10. 10. Three Basic Layers:
  11. 11. Three Basic Layers <ul><li>Ectoderm/Epidermis – outer layer that contains the stinging cells </li></ul><ul><li>Endoderm/Gastrodermis – lines the gut </li></ul><ul><li>Mesoglea – Jelly like substance in between the Ectoderm and Endoderm which contains scattered cells and collagen fibers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Exoskeleton <ul><li>Coral will create a calcium carbonate shell in which it will live </li></ul>
  13. 13. Body Structure <ul><li>The mouth is located on the top of the polyp or underside of the medusa </li></ul><ul><li>It is the only opening on the organism so is also shares the function of being an anus </li></ul>Diagram E
  14. 14. Body Structure Diagram F
  15. 15. Tentacles <ul><li>Slender finger like structure used to capture and handle food </li></ul><ul><li>Location of nematocysts </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nematocysts <ul><li>The main characteristic of Cnidaria is the presence of nematocysts </li></ul><ul><li>Stinging structures found on the tentacles </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nematocysts <ul><li>Coiled – like stinger </li></ul><ul><li>Spring into the prey and releases toxin </li></ul><ul><li>Most not harmful to humans because they cannot penetrate skin </li></ul><ul><li>Some fatal </li></ul>
  18. 18. Nervous System <ul><li>Main characteristic is the presence of a nerve net </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves cross over each other, at every connection, communication occurs </li></ul><ul><li>In humans millions cross over millions and no communication occurs </li></ul>
  19. 19. Nerve Net Diagram C
  20. 20. Digestive System <ul><li>All cnidarians are carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Paralyzed by the nematocysts </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes in gastric cavity break down the food and nutrients are absorbed by cells in the endoderm </li></ul><ul><li>Wastes are sent out the mouth/anus </li></ul>
  21. 21. Digestive System
  22. 22. Reproductive <ul><li>Cnidarians have the ability to reproduce sexually and asexually </li></ul><ul><li>One method that is commonly seen is budding </li></ul>
  23. 23. Class Anthozoa <ul><li>Largest group of Cnidarians </li></ul><ul><li>Stay in the polyp stage throughout life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary or colonial </li></ul><ul><li>Includes sea anemones </li></ul>
  24. 24. Class Hydrozoa <ul><li>Can consist of just a polyp stage, just a medusa stage, or both </li></ul><ul><li>Can join together to form complex colonies such as the Portuguese Man-O-War, which develop floats </li></ul>FLOAT
  25. 25. Class Scyphozoans <ul><li>Medusa is the dominant life stage </li></ul><ul><li>Swim with rhythmic contractions of the bell, though limited </li></ul><ul><li>Contain the most dangerous/fatal stings </li></ul>BELL
  26. 26. Phylum Ctenophora <ul><li>Comb Jellies </li></ul><ul><li>Not a member of the Cnidarian Phylum even though they share similarities </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cnidaria vs. Ctenophora <ul><li>Ctenophora </li></ul><ul><li>Have cilia at the base of the medusa to move </li></ul><ul><li>Engulf food </li></ul><ul><li>Do not have nematocysts </li></ul><ul><li>Have an additional layer between endo and ecto layers </li></ul><ul><li>Anal pore </li></ul>