How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
 How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
 How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c...
 How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	  
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
 How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
How	  Doppelgänger	  Brand	  Images	  Influence	  the	  Market	  Crea;on	  Process	  –	  The	  Rise	  of	  Botox	  Cosme0c	...
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Botox Cosmetic Case Classroom Kit

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These slides were designed by Markus Giesler (mgiesler@schulich.yorku.ca) to illustrate some of the theoretical and managerial insights provided by “How Doppelgänger Brand Images Influence the Market Creation Process: Longitudinal Insights from the Rise of Botox Cosmetic,” Journal of Marketing 11/2012) that can be downloaded here.

The slides work best in combination with the journal article as a reading. Please cite the article when you use the slides (please do not delete slide #3). If you use the article, please respect that its copyright lies with the American Marketing Association. If your institution does not have access to the JM article collection please contact me directly via email and I will provide you with a copy of the article.

This is the PDF version. The PPT version is available directly via email!

Thank you for using this material!

Markus

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Transcript of "Botox Cosmetic Case Classroom Kit"

  1. 1. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process:     Longitudinal  Insights  from  the  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme;c     Markus  Giesler,  Schulich  School  of  Business  
  2. 2. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Disclaimer   These slides were designed by Markus Giesler (mgiesler@schulich.yorku.ca) to illustrate some of the theoretical and managerial insights provided by “How Doppelgänger Brand Images Influence the Market Creation Process: Longitudinal Insights from the Rise of Botox Cosmetic,” Journal of Marketing 11/2012) that can be downloaded here. The slides work best in combination with the journal article as a reading. Please cite the article when you use the slides (please do not delete the next slide). If you use the article, please respect that its copyright lies with the American Marketing Association. If your institution does not have access to the JM article collection please contact me directly via email and I will provide you with a copy of the article. This is the PDF version. The PPT version is available directly via email! Thank you for using this material! Toronto, April 25, 2012 Markus Giesler
  3. 3. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   The  following  is  based  on:     Giesler,  Markus  (2012),  “How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on   Process:  Longitudinal  Insights  from  the  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme;c,”  Journal  of  Marke;ng   (November)     More  informa;on  and  the  ar;cle  are  available  at  markus-­‐giesler.com  
  4. 4. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Next  Week’s  Class:   How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence   the  Market  Crea;on  Process     Analyzing  the  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme;c     Please  read:     “How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence   the  Market  Crea;on  Process”     available  for  download  at     hWp://markus-­‐giesler.com/publica;ons/  
  5. 5. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Focal  Brand:  Botox  Cosme0c   •  Radically  new  technological  innova0on   •  World’s  first-­‐ever  cosme0c  injectable   •  Developed  by  pharma  giant  Allergan  Inc   •  Addresses  moderate/severe  frown  lines   •  Costs  between  US  $  400-­‐800  
  6. 6.  How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   What  is  brand  image  all  about? Tradi0onal  view   Brand   Owner   Postmodern  view   •  Rejuvenates  your  skin   •  Mythic  images  and  meanings   •  Cheaper  and  much  less  painful   about  the  technology  and  its   than  plas0c  surgery   users   •  More  effec0ve  than  makeup    
  7. 7. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Cultural/Emo0onal  Branding   (Schroeder  and  Salzer-­‐Moerling  2006;     Fournier  1998;  Atkin  2004;  Roberts  2004;  Holt  2004)   Brand  image  is  much  more  a  maTer  of  perceived   meaning  and  cultural  mythologies  than  an  aggrega0on  of   verified  evidence.     Brands  succeed  when  they  tell  resonant  stories  that   consumers  can  use  to  assuage  salient  threats  to  their   iden00es.     8  
  8. 8.  How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   What  is  brand  image  all  about? Brand   Owner   mythic  brand  images  and  meanings  
  9. 9.  How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Challenge:  Brand  Image  is  co-­‐created! Brand   Owner   Bloggers   etc.   Journalists   Ac;vists   Consumers   Celebri;es   Scien;sts   mythic  brand  images  and  meanings  
  10. 10. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c  
  11. 11. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   “I  went  to  a  doctor  who  said,  Anjelica,  we  have  this   wonderful  new  thing,  its  called  Botox.  He  took  a  huge   needle  and  plunged  it  into  my  third  eye.  The  pain  was   something  inexplicable.  I  gasped,  I  writhed  and  when  I   came  to,  I  had  a  headache  that  lasted  four  days.  A   serious  one.”  [...]  “I  went  home  to  my  husband  that   night  -­‐  hes  a  sculptor  he  has  a  good  eye  and  he  said,   What  have  you  done?  I  said,  Nothing,  and  he  said,   No,  youve  had  something  done.  A  liTle  bit  later  that   night  we  were  having  dinner  in  a  restaurant  and  he  was   telling  me  some  horrible  story.  I  would  say,  Oh,  thats   really  ghastly,  and  I  had  no  expression  whatsoever.     We  got  into  a  terrible  fight.”       hTp://www.naturalnews.com/022720.html    
  12. 12. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Doppelgänger  Brand  Images   (Thompson,  Rindfleisch,  and  Arsel  2006,  50)      “disparaging  images  and  stories  about     a  brand  that  are  circulated  in  popular  culture”       frequently  undermine  the  posi0ve  brand     meanings  brand  owners  aTempt  to  ins0ll  through     their  marke0ng  ac0vi0es.     8  
  13. 13. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   How  did                                  ‘s  image  evolve?   Brand  Image  BaTles   Official   contesta0ons   Doppelgänger   Brand  Image   over  0me   Brand  Image  
  14. 14. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Actor-­‐Network  Theory   (Callon  1986;  Latour  1988;  Law  and  Hassard  2002)   •  Innova0ons  never  transmiTed  but  ac0vely   (re-­‐)shaped  by  mul0ple  heterogeneous  actors   •  Actor-­‐network:  loosely  defined  assemblage  of   actors  created  around  a  specific  innova0on   •  four  “moments”  of  transla0on  (Callon  1986):   PROBLEMATIZATION INTERESSEMENT ENROLLMENT MOBILIZATION establishes innovation as disassociates targeted persuades targeted ensures that the indispensable to solution actors from alternative actors to take their spokespersons are of a specific problem   problematizations   ascribed roles   representative  
  15. 15. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Theore0cal  Proposi0on   Brand  image  revitaliza0on  =  a  fourfold     cultural  branding  process  through  which   brand  managers  can  neutralize  a   doppelganger  brand  image  and  translate   their  desired  image  into  the  interests  of   mul0ple  stakeholders.    
  16. 16. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Illustra0ng  Brand  Image  Revitaliza0on   Analysis  1  (Mass  Discourse  Analysis):   How  is  technology  culturally  imagined?       Analysis  2  (Brand  Image  Analysis):   How  has  Botox’s  brand  image  evolved?  
  17. 17. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Illustra0ng  Brand  Image  Revitaliza0on   Analysis  1  (Mass  Discourse  Analysis):   How  is  technology  culturally  imagined?       Analysis  2  (Brand  Image  Analysis):   How  has  Botox’s  brand  image  evolved?  
  18. 18.  How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   How  is  Technology  Culturally  Imagined? Ideological Field of Technology Source:  Kozinets  (2008,  JCR),  “Technology/Ideology:  How  Ideological  Fields  Influence  Consumers’  Technology  Narra0ves”  
  19. 19. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Illustra0ng  Brand  Image  Revitaliza0on   Analysis  1  (Mass  Discourse  Analysis):   How  is  technology  culturally  imagined?       Analysis  2  (Brand  Image  Analysis):   How  has  Botox’s  brand  image  evolved?  
  20. 20. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Analysis  2  (Brand  Image  Analysis):   How  has  Botox’s  brand  image  evolved?   •  Ethnographic  analysis  (2003-­‐2010)  in  Toronto,  Canada   •  Par0cipant  observa0on  in  two  dermatology  prac0ces   •  Analysis  of  all  of  Botox  Cosme0c’s  adver0sing  materials     •  In-­‐depth  interviews  with  32  middle-­‐class  Baby  Boomer   women  (Botox’s  largest  and  fastest  growing  segment)   •  longitudinal  hermeneu0cs  (e.g.,  Giesler  2008)  
  21. 21. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Analysis  2  (Brand  Image  Analysis):   How  has  Botox’s  brand  image  evolved?   Level  1  Intratextual  Analysis   interpre0ng  each  interview  as  a  separate  ideographic  case           Level  2  Intertextual  Analysis   Theory   teasing  out  narra0ve  commonali0es,   ideographic  theme  building,  and  historical  antecedents         Level  3  Intertemporal  Analysis   comparing  and  contextualizing  themes  at  different  stages  of     a  chronological  process  and  across  the  totality  of  informants  
  22. 22. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   FIGURE 1 BOTOX COSMETIC’S BRAND IMAGE CONTESTATIONS (2003-2010)
  23. 23. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   1st  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2002-­‐2004):     The  “Pleasurable  Play”  Image   •  Techspressive  Myth  (Kozinets  2008)   •  Happier  and  more  fulfilled  self   •  “For  me,  myself,  and  I”  campaign    
  24. 24. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   1st  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2002-­‐2004):     BeTy  (46,  architect,  3  injec0ons,  July  2003):  I  had  my  first  Botox   injec0on  in  January  2003.  Yeah,  that’s  right,  in  the  middle  of   the  winter.  And  it  really  cheered  me  up,  haha.  […]  What  is  it  all   about?  Well,  it’s  about  feeling  good,  looking  great.  That’s  what   it  comes  down  to  I  would  say.  It’s  so  much  fun!  A  bit  like…a   really  decadent  treat.  It’s  like  a  shopping  spree  or  a  day  at  the   spa.  Only  beTer  as  it  lasts  so  much  longer,  haha!  You  do  it  and   then  go  home  all  relaxed  and  see  the  effects  and  you  go  like   “Yeah,  it’s  gone.  It’s  amazing.  I  love  it!  […]  It’s  also  a  bit  about   experimen0ng  with  your  looks.  [Dermatologist  and  I]  tried   different  things  last  0me  and  it  does  produce  different  results.  I   like  that!  Like  pain0ng…    
  25. 25. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   1st  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2002-­‐2004):     Heidi  (46,  seven  injec0ons,  December  2003):  These  par0es  are   so  much  fun!  We  drink  wine  and  I  usually  have  some  food  and   we  eat.  It’s  fun!  We  laugh  a  lot.  And,  of  course,  Dr.  Smith  [alias]   is  here.  He’s  doing  the  shots.  […]  It’s  become  extremely   popular.  I  did  my  first  party  about  a  year  ago  and  we  were   three  or  four  girls  from  the  neighborhood.  This  is  the  fourth   one  I’ve  organized  but  I  know  of  at  least  three  other  women   who  do  them  regularly.    
  26. 26. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   1st  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2002-­‐2004):     Cultural  Backlash   •  Botox  par0es  become  a  mass-­‐mediated  fad   •  Techspressive  adventures  undermine  “Pleasurable  Play”  myth     •  Cri0cs  circulate  Botox  Cosme0c’s  nega0ve  “poison”  image   •  “Pleasurable  Play”  myth’s  iden0ty  value  is  greatly  reduced  
  27. 27. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   2nd  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2004-­‐2006):     The  “Miracle  of  Medicine”  Image   •  Techtopian  Myth  (Kozinets  2008)   •  Healthier  and  more  knowledgeable  society/self   •  “Keep  the  Wisdom,  Lose  the  Lines”  campaign     !"#$%&()*+ GLABELLAR LINES What are glabellar lines? Indication BOTOX® Cosmetic is a prescription Glabellar lines (the vertical lines between the eyebrows) appear medicine that is injected into muscles when a person frowns and activates the two major muscles that and used to improve the look of moderate to severe frown lines between control movement between the eyebrows, the corrugator and the eyebrows (glabellar lines) in adults procerus muscles. younger than 65 years of age for a short period of time (temporary). What causes glabellar lines? IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION Glabellar lines are formed by repeated contraction of the muscles BOTOX® Cosmetic may cause serious side effects that can be life between the eyebrows. Over time, the skin becomes less elastic threatening. Call your doctor or get so repeated frowning may cause visible, deep wrinkles between medical help right away if you have any of these problems after treatment the eyebrows, even when the face is at rest. Frown lines between with BOTOX® Cosmetic: the eyebrows, which often look like the number ‘11’, can have a Problems swallowing, speaking, or breathing. These problems can negative effect on one’s overall facial appearance by creating a happen hours to weeks after an sad, angry, or tired impression. injection of BOTOX® Cosmetic usually because the muscles that you use to breathe and swallow can How are glabellar lines treated? become weak after the injection. BOTOX® Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA), approved by the U.S. Death can happen as a complication if you have severe problems with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2002, is a prescription swallowing or breathing after
  28. 28. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   2nd  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2004-­‐2006):     Nora  (48,  primary  school  teacher,  3  injec0ons,  July  2005):  Oh,  I’m  a   very  risk-­‐averse  person.  I  usually  don’t  take  medical  interven0ons   lightly  at  all,  especially  when  they  involve  injec0ons.  My  health  is   incredibly  important  to  me.  In  fact,  I  have  to  know  every  liTle  detail   about  what  the  risks  are  and  the  benefits.  Really  more  the  risks  …  […]   So  I  ran  around  for  about  a  year  or  so.  I  read  a  lot  online  and  talked   to  different  people  about  Botox.  I  talked  to  others  who  had  used  it   and  I  asked  two  different  dermatologists.  I  asked  them  like  a  million   ques0ons  about  it,  you  know.  I  was  just  very  curious  to  find  out  more   about  what  it  is  and  how  it  works  on  your  muscles.  All  of  this  took  a   long  0me  but  it  convinced  me  that  this  was  the  right  thing  for  me  to   do  and  it  was.  
  29. 29. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   2nd  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2004-­‐2006):     Cultural  Backlash   •  Poison  image  disappears  but…   •  Techtopian  narra0ves  provoke  “Frozen  Face  Image”   •  Cri0cs  expropriate  the  Techtopian’s  nega0ve  connota0ons   •  “Miracle  of  Medicine”  myth’s  iden0ty  value  is  greatly  reduced  
  30. 30. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   3rd  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2005-­‐2007):     The  “Expression  Enabler”  Image   •  Techtopian  myth  (Kozinets  2008)   •  Happier  and  more  compassionate  society/self   •  “Your  Personal  Best”  campaign   “It  turns  out  that  Botox  can  actually  short  circuit  a   person’s  ability  to  feel  unhappy.  Because  of  the   apparent  valida0on  of  something  called  the,  “Facial   Feedback  Hypothesis”,  the  fact  that  Botox  prevents   frowning…  also  short  circuits  one’s  ability  to  fully  feel   the  emo0ons  associated  with  it.  David  Havas  of  the   University  of  Wisconsin-­‐Madison  decided  to  study   people  who  had  received  Botox  treatments  that   paralyzed  one  pair  of  their  corrugator  muscles,  which   cause  the  forehead  to  constrict  into  a  frown.”     hTp://exploringthemind.com/the-­‐mind/botox-­‐and-­‐ emo0ons    
  31. 31. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   3rd  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2005-­‐2007):     Nora  two  years  later  (51,  primary  school  teacher,  8  injec0ons,   April  2007):  My  kids  [at  school]  always  looked  at  me  as  the   empathe0c  one.  That  was  always  my  key  strength.  But  then,   there  was  a  sudden  change.  Parents  would  call  and  cri0cize  me   for  being  overly  stern  and  so  for  a  while  I  was  very   uncomfortable  because  […]  I  hadn’t  changed  my  teaching  style.   So  I  recognized  that  I  was  losing  my  ability  to  empathize   because  of  my  facial  expressions.  […]  Being  a  teacher  is  all   about  expression.  Expression.  Not  just  verbally  but  also  in   terms  of  body  language.  
  32. 32. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   3rd  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2005-­‐2007):     Cultural  Backlash   •  Number  of  vials  explodes  from  200.000  (2002)  to  1.3  million  (2005)   •  Frozen  image  loses  resonance  but  Frankenstein  image  emerges   •  Techspressive  adventures  undermine  “Expression  Enabler”  myth   •  Plus  cri0cs  expropriate  the  Techtopian’s  nega0ve  connota0ons   •  “Expression  Enabler”  myth’s  iden0ty  value  is  greatly  reduced   “So  he  just  you  know  like  one  liTle  shot  here,  one  here  and  one   here  [points  to  her  forehead].  When  I  woke  up  the  next   morning,  my  en0re  face  had  fallen  down  to  around  my  nose,   and  I  had  totally  triangle  eyebrows  [drama0c  music].  And  I   looked  a  liTle  bit  like  you  know  Sister  of  Satan.  And  I  was   hysterical.  And  so  of  course  then  I  cried  for  ten  days.  And   everyday  I’d  walk  into  the  hotel,  we  were  on  the  road,  and   looking  into  that  mirror  that’s  always  in  the  bathroom,  and  I’d   go  like  “who  is  that?”  And  I’d  pull  my  eye  up  and  go  oh  there   she  is.  And  I  just  think  people  should  not  do  this.”     www.youtube.com/watch?v=naMkd6_dVJ4    
  33. 33. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   4th  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2007-­‐2009):     The  “Performance  Booster”  Image   •  Work  Machine  myth  (Kozinets  2008)   •  Faster  and  more  produc0ve  society/self   •  “Success  Stories”  campaign     Aesthe0c  treatments  are  so  popular  now  that   instead  of  denying  about  fixes  to  their  bodies,  men   and  women  openly  discuss  treatments,  costs  and   where  to  have  them  done.  […]    Career  success  many   0mes  goes  hand-­‐in-­‐hand  with  a  matching  physical   image,  whether  people  admit  it  or  not.     hTp://www.healthy0mesonline.com/archives/ aesthe0cs_and_beyond.htm    
  34. 34. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   4th  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2007-­‐2009):     Sharon  (41,  real  estate  agent,  3  injec0ons,  June  2008):  So  she  [a  lady]   walks  up  to  me  [at  a  party]  and  goes  like  “oh,  your  skin,  you  have   such  nice  skin.”  […]  And  then  she’s  like  “how?”  And  I  say  “Botox.”   And  she  goes  like  “when?”  And  I’m  like  “yesterday  during  my  son’s   hockey  prac0ce.”  And  she  was  like  “oh  my  god!”     Luna  (41,  housewife,  6  injec0ons,  December  2009):  Injec0on  days   are,  well,  they  are  like  any  other  day,  except  for  a  small  detour  to  the   doctor.  The  en0re  job  usually  takes,  well,  it  take  no  more  than   twenty  minutes  maybe.  I’d  say  it  doesn’t  add  much  to  my  schedule.   Fiyeen  minutes.  It’s  only  just  a  few  pricks  and  off  you  go.  I  usually   stop  by  in  the  morning,  ayer  doing  the  groceries,  and  then  I  pick  the   kids  up  from  school.  It’s  quite  comfortable  that  way…  
  35. 35. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   4th  Brand  Image  BaTle  (2007-­‐2009):     Cultural  Backlash   •  Frankenstein  image  loses  cultural  resonance  but  junkie  image  emerges   •  Number  of  vials  rises  from  1.2  million  (2005)  to  1.8  million  (2007)   •  Techspressive  adventures  undermine  “Performance  Booster”  myth     •  Plus  cri0cs  expropriate  the  Work  Machine’s  nega0ve  connota0ons   •  “Performance  Booster”  myth’s  iden0ty  value  is  greatly  reduced   “New  research  finds  that  while  Botox  may  erase  wrinkles   and  restore  youthful  good  looks,  it  may  just  be  an   addic0on-­‐inducing  substance.  Dr.  Carter  Singh,  who  has  a   degree  in  psychology  [...]  and  the  consultant  plas0c   surgeon  Mar0n  Kelly,  of  London  Plas0c  Surgery   Associates,  said  in  a  new  study  that  four  out  of  10  people   using  Botox  treatments  do  so  repe00vely.”       www.medindia.net/news/view_news_main.asp?x=14332  
  36. 36. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   5th  Brand  Image  BaTle?  (2008-­‐2010):     The  “Weapon  of  Libera0on”  Image   •  Techtopian  Myth  (Kozinets  2008)   •  Fairer  and  more  empowered  society/self   •  “Freedom  of  Expression”  campaign     Virginia  Madsen:  “We  are  so  blessed.  We  are  fortunate  in  this  country  to  be  able  to  express   ourselves  the  way  we  do  as  women.  We  are  so  fortunate  to  be  raised  in  this  society,  and  we   should  never  take  that  for  granted,  but  we  do  everyday.  I  mean  every  0me  a  girl  goes  out  in   jeans  and  a  tee-­‐shirt,  she  takes  for  granted  how  she  got  to  wear  the  ouzit.  I  remember  I  was  not   allowed  to  wear  pants  to  school.  And  that  was  the  1970s.  And  it  was  because  of  a  women’s   movement  that  I  could  be  more  liberated.  And  there’s  a  lot  of  girls  don’t  even  know  who  Susan   B.  Anthony  is.  They  didn’t  know  that  we  didn’t  get  to  vote  before.  So,  it’s  important  to  know  our   history  and  where  we  came  from.”   hTp://movies.glam.com/ar0cles/detail/virginia_madsen_on_beauty_botox_and_vo0ng/   hTp://media.virginia-­‐madsen.org/view/32/league-­‐of-­‐women-­‐voters-­‐vote411org-­‐20sec/      
  37. 37. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   5th  Brand  Image  BaTle?  (2008-­‐2010):     Lynn  (46,  ar0st,  8  injec0ons,  April  2009):  Ive  come  into  all  sorts   of  casual  cri0cism  for  using  Botox.  The  whole  nine  yards,  really.   [...]  But  hey!  Wasnt  Marie  Curie  cri0cized  when  she  decided  to   become  a  scien0st?  And  then  she  won  two  Nobel  prizes.  Or  do   you  remember  Catherine  Deneuve  when  she  first  publicly   admiTed  to  having  her  hair  dyed?  Deneuve  sold  out!  She  is  a   hair  dye  junkie!  From  todays  perspec0ve  that  sounds  hilarious.   So  I  guess  doing  Botox  is  like  hair  dye  back  then,  a  context  for   being  a  feminist.  If  you  dont  understand  my  choices,  read   some  feminist  history,  go  back  to  school...  
  38. 38. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   To  be  con0nued…  
  39. 39. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Theore0cal/Managerial  Implica0ons  
  40. 40. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Managing  a  Tech  Brand’s  Image  Over  Time   Brand  image  revitaliza0on  =  a  fourfold     cultural  branding  process  through  which   brand  managers  can  neutralize  a   doppelganger  brand  image  and  translate   their  desired  image  into  the  interests  of   mul0ple  stakeholders.    
  41. 41. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   FIGURE 3: BRAND IMAGE TRANSLATION PROCESS FOR A NEW ANTI-AGING SOLUTION Ideological Field of Technology Mythic Brand Images and Meanings Dominant Brand Image (narratives, storylines, performances, etc.) Time   (interpretations, values, meanings) Translation Activities PROBLEMATIZATION INTERESSEMENT ENROLLMENT MOBILIZATION
  42. 42. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   Managerial  Contribu0on   FIGURE 2 A BRAND IMAGE REVITALIZATION PROCESS FOR TECHNOLOGY BRANDS Phase   Problema(za(on   Interessement   Enrollment   Mobiliza(on   Managerial  Ac0on   Create  a  new  branding     Validate  branding  story   Use  brand  ambassadors     Ensure  that  consumers   story  that  resolves  nature-­‐ through  scien0fic  facts  and   to  performa0vely  enact   adopt  brand  ambassadors’   technology  contradic0on   other  forms  of  authority   the  new  branding  story   iden0ty  performance                   Focus   Storytelling   Valida;on   Enactment   Durability                   Instruments   Techtopian,   Studies,  tables,   celebrity  endorsements,     Loyalty  programs,   Work  Machine,   charts,  figures,    adver@sing  personas,   brand  community     Techspressive,  etc.   partnerships,  etc.   leading  consumers,  etc.   prac@ces,  etc.      
  43. 43. How  Doppelgänger  Brand  Images  Influence  the  Market  Crea;on  Process  –  The  Rise  of  Botox  Cosme0c   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011  

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