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Quality Software

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  • 1. QUALITY SOFTWARE Marius Ghetie, PhD guest speaker MIS, Sauder School of Business UBC, Feb 9, 2012
  • 2. Plan
    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Software Quality
    • Quality Costs
    • Quality Management System
    • Quality Assurance Activities
    • Conclusion
    • Questions & Answers
  • 3. Introduction
    • Software Quality
      • a critical attribute of software products and services
      • a competitive issue
      • a main differentiator
        • product quality
        • support quality
    • Quality Software
      • building and evaluating it is a major problem
  • 4. Requirements -> Process -> Product
    • Product Quality
      • depends on both
          • Process quality
          • Requirements quality
      • can be evaluated but
      • cannot be achieved by assessing (“QA-ing” and “testing”) the completed product
      • can only be “built in” during the Software Development Process
  • 5. Build Quality into the Product
    • Quality Quality Quality Requirements -> Process -> Product
    • Quality Management System (QMS)
        • address both
          • management
          • technical activities
    • Main Goal
      • how well quality can be built into a product
      • not how well we can evaluate product quality
  • 6. Plan
    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Software Quality
    • Quality Costs
    • Quality Management System
    • Quality Assurance Activities
    • Conclusion
    • Questions & Answers
  • 7. What is Quality?
    • difficult to define, explain, quantify…
    • means different things to different people
      • Quality Experts
      • Customers
      • Producers
    • QM Problem [Crosby]
        • “ Is not what people don't know about it.
        • Is what they think they do know…”
  • 8. Quality Quotations
    • Aristotle
      • “ Quality is not an act, it is a habit.”
    • John Ruskin
      • “ Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of intelligent effort.”
    • Henry Ford
      • “ Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.”
  • 9. The Elusive Nature of Quality
    • Need to
      • increase general knowledge about quality
      • qualify and quantify in order to evaluate and control
      • clarify confusing ideas, myths, and fallacies
    • Use a QM Framework to
      • define basic principles and concepts for achieving Quality objectives
      • create and promote a Quality culture
  • 10. Plan
    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Software Quality
    • Quality Costs
    • Quality Management System
    • Quality Assurance Activities
    • Conclusion
    • Questions & Answers
  • 11. Managing Quality – [Garvin]
    • “ If quality is to be managed, it must first be understood.“
    • “ Most companies talk a good deal about quality. But they often misinterpret what their customers need. In fact, when customers are talking about quality, they are talking about something very precise.”
  • 12. Definitions of Quality – [Garvin]
    • Five Perspectives
      • transcendent
        • ‘ innate excellence’, recognizable but hard to define
      • manufacturing-based
        • ‘ free from errors’ , ‘conformance to requirements’
      • user-based
        • ‘ fitness for purpose’
      • product-based
        • ‘ a measurable set of characteristics’
      • value-based
        • cost and price
  • 13. Definitions of Quality – [Garvin]
    • Main Source of Problems
      • reliance on a single definition of quality
    • Use ≠ Approaches in ≠ SDLC Phases
      • Requirements
        • user-based perspective in mind
      • Design
        • product-based view
      • Development
        • manufacturing-based view
  • 14. Eight Dimensions of Quality - [Garvin]
    • Cover meanings for all stakeholders
        • features
        • reliability
        • performance
        • conformance
        • durability
        • serviceability
        • aesthetics
        • perceived quality
  • 15. QM Framework – [Baker]
    • definitions and concepts for quality
    • foundation for the Quality Program
      • quality
      • product
      • process
      • requirements
      • evaluation
      • etc.
  • 16. Software Quality Definition
    • User -> Requirements -> Producer ← Product ←
    • User and Producer have ≠ definitions
    • User’s perspective ultimately matters
    • Quality of a product or service is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer.
  • 17. Software Quality Definition – [Tian]
    • User’s quality expectations for a software product/service
      • Must do what is supposed to do “do the right things” = “fit for use”
      • Must perform correctly
      • “ do the things right” = “reliable”
  • 18. Quality is Everybody’s Business
    • ‘‘ affected by many, but effected by few.’’
      • Quality is an individual and team commitment.
      • Everyone working on a project affects the quality of the product in some way.
      • Only those producing the product actually build the quality into it.
      • The ultimate responsibility for the quality of the software product lies with management.
  • 19. Plan
    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Software Quality
    • Quality Costs
    • Quality Management System
    • Quality Assurance Activities
    • Conclusion
    • Questions & Answers
  • 20. Quality Inspection – [Deming]
    • Inspection and Cost
      • “ You can expect what you inspect.”
      • “ Inspection with the aim of finding the bad ones and throwing them out is too late, ineffective and costly.”
      • “ Quality comes not from inspection but improvement of the process.”
  • 21. Deming’s Philosophy
    • summarized as a ratio RESULTS OF WORK EFFORTS QUALITY = ———————————————— TOTAL COSTS
    • focusing primarily on
      • QUALITY
        • quality – tends to increase and costs – fall over time
      • COSTS
        • costs – tend to rise and quality – declines over time
  • 22. Meanings of “Quality Costs” - [Juran]
      • What means “quality improvement”?
      • Does higher quality cost more or less?
    • “ quality costs”
      • different meanings to different people.
    • meanings
      • costs of poor quality (mainly the costs of finding and correcting defects)
      • costs to attain quality
      • costs of running the Quality department
  • 23. Meanings of “Quality” – [Juran]
    • confusion is inevitable
      • one word for two different meanings
    • “ features of products” (income oriented)
      • Quality -> customer needs -> customer satisfaction
      • Higher Quality -> greater customer satisfaction -> more income
      • Higher Quality -> “COSTS MORE”
    • “ freedom from deficiencies”
      • no errors -> no complaints -> no rework
      • Higher Quality -> “COSTS LESS”
  • 24. Cost of Quality – [Juran]
    • Cost of Poor Quality
      • cost of not getting it right first time
      • all costs that disappear if there were no defects
        • before sale , internal, add to producers’ costs
        • after sale , add to producers’ and customer’s costs
    • Failure Costs
      • scrap, rework, corrective actions, warranty claims, customer complaints, loss of customers, lawsuits
    • Appraisal Costs
      • inspection, compliance auditing, investigations
    • Prevention Costs
      • training, preventive auditing, process improvement implementation
  • 25. Cost of Quality
    • Feigenbaum
      • concept of the “ hidden plant “
        • % of production capacity wasted through not getting it right first time
      • quality as an investment
    • Crosby
      • the measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance
  • 26. Plan
    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Software Quality
    • Quality Costs
    • Quality Management System
    • Quality Assurance Activities
    • Conclusion
    • Questions & Answers
  • 27. Need for a QMS – [Sommerville]
    • PM has to maintain the project budget and schedule.
    • If problems arise, PM may be tempted to compromise on product quality so that the project meets the schedule.
    • An independent QM team ensures that the organizational goals of quality are not compromised by short-term budget and schedule considerations.
  • 28. Project Management Triangle QUALITY SCOPE SCHEDULE COST
  • 29. Quality Improvement Steps - [Crosby]
    • Management committed to quality.
    • Quality Team with senior representatives from each department.
    • Measure processes to determine quality problems.
    • Evaluate cost of quality and use it as a management tool.
    • Raise the quality awareness.
    • Take actions to correct quality problems.
    • Establish progress monitoring for the improvement process.
    • 14. …
  • 30. QMS – Main Elements
    • Organizational structure
    • Responsibilities
    • Processes
    • Methods and tools
    • Product Quality
    • Customer Satisfaction
    • Continuous process improvement
    • Resources
  • 31. Structure and Responsibilities
    • Executive Team
      • commitment
    • QMS Team
      • not associated with any particular group
      • company wide responsibility for QM
      • responsibility to address identified problems
      • apply the resources to resolve quality issues
    • QA Team
      • QA Department, QA Team(s), TW Team(s)
  • 32. QA Team
    • independent from the DEV team
    • internal or external
    • manage all QA efforts
    • has limited functional capability
        • QA functions can and must be performed by other groups, not only designated ones
    • evaluate product and process quality
    • objective view
    • audit and report to QM Team
    • assurance that quality goals are met
  • 33. QMS Processes
    • Three QM Processes [Juran]
        • QM Planning
        • QM Control
        • QM Improvement
    • The SDP Process
        • selection
        • assessment
        • improvement
    • Methods, Best Practices, and Tools
  • 34. Plan
    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Software Quality
    • Quality Costs
    • Quality Management System
    • Quality Assurance Activities
    • Conclusion
    • Questions & Answers
  • 35. QA Activities
    • Requirements -> Process -> Product
      • Quality Assurance
      • Quality Planning
      • Quality Control
      • Quality Auditing
      • Validation
      • Verification
      • Testing
    • Their definitions and relationships and are often sources of confusion
  • 36. Quality “Assurance”
    • Assuring
    • an acceptable level of confidence that the software will conform to
      • functional technical requirements
      • customer satisfaction (usability)
      • managerial scheduling
      • budgetary requirements
  • 37. SQA – [Sommerville]
    • Quality Assurance (QA)
      • The establishment of a framework of organizational procedures and standards that lead to high-quality software
    • Quality Planning (QP)
      • The selection of appropriate procedures and standards from this framework, adapted for a specific software project
    • Quality Control (QC)
      • The definition and enactment of processes that ensure the software development team have followed project quality procedures and standards
  • 38. SQA – [Pressman]
    • Umbrella Activity
      • applied throughout the software process
    • Encompass
      • Quality Management (QM) approach
      • effective SE technology (methods and tools)
      • technical reviews throughout the SDP
      • testing strategy
      • control software artifacts and changes
      • standard compliance (when applicable)
      • measurement, auditing, and reporting
  • 39. IEEE – SQA
    • Product
      • A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that an item or product conforms to established technical requirements.
    • Process
      • A set of activities designed to evaluate the process by which the products are developed or manufactured.
  • 40. Quality Control – [Pressman]
    • Inspections, reviews, and tests used throughout the SDP to ensure that the product meets defined and measurable specifications.
    • A feedback loop to the process that created the product.
    • Tune the process when the product fails to meet specifications.
    • QC activities may be fully automated, entirely manual, or a combination of both.
  • 41. QC vs. QA – [Lewis]
    • Quality Control
      • designed to detect and correct defects
    • Quality Assurance
      • oriented towards preventing defects
  • 42. Verification and Validation
    • Two different types of analysis
    • Validation
      • Are we building the correct system?
    • Verification
      • Are we building the system correctly?
  • 43. Software Testing
    • execution-based QA activity part of QC
    • a primary means to ensure quality
    • verify that requirements were met
    • preparation can be done in earlier cycles
    • manual and automated
    • consider automation investment, long-term higher-quality product, and reduced maintenance costs
    • actual testing requires the product
    • occurs too late to build quality into the product
    • testing is limited in scope
  • 44. Plan
    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Software Quality
    • Quality Costs
    • Quality Management System
    • Quality Assurance Activities
    • Conclusion
    • Questions & Answers
  • 45. Conclusion
    • Understand what is quality and software quality and how they can be achieved
    • How much quality costs
    • What is a Quality Management System
    • How to set it up
    • Defined main QA Activities
    • Primary goal: build quality in, build Quality Software
  • 46. Plan
    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Software Quality
    • Quality Costs
    • Quality Management System
    • Conclusion
    • Quality Assurance Activities
    • Questions & Answers
  • 47. Bibliography
    • Baker, E.R.; Fisher, M.J, "Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality"
    • Flower, J., "Managing Quality: a discussion with David Garvin"
    • Galin, D., "Software quality assurance: from theory to implementation"
    • Garvin, D.A, "What Does “Product Quality” Really Mean?"
    • Juran, J.M.; Godfrey, A.B, "Juran's Quality Handbook"
    • Lewis, W.E., "Software Testing and Continuous Quality Improvement", 2nd Edition
    • Pressman, R.S, "Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach", 5th Edition
    • Sanders, J.; Curran, E., "Software Quality: A Framework for Success in Software Development and Support"
    • Schulmeyer, G.G., Editor, “Handbook of Software Quality Assurance", 4th Edition
    • Sommerville, I., "Software Engineering", 8th Edition
    • Tian, J., "Software quality engineering: testing, quality assurance, and quantifiable improvement"
    • http://www.qualitygurus.com/gurus/
    • http://www.wikipedia.org/