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Quality Software
 

Quality Software

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    Quality Software Quality Software Presentation Transcript

    • QUALITY SOFTWARE Marius Ghetie, PhD guest speaker MIS, Sauder School of Business UBC, Feb 9, 2012
    • Plan
      • Introduction
      • Quality
      • Software Quality
      • Quality Costs
      • Quality Management System
      • Quality Assurance Activities
      • Conclusion
      • Questions & Answers
    • Introduction
      • Software Quality
        • a critical attribute of software products and services
        • a competitive issue
        • a main differentiator
          • product quality
          • support quality
      • Quality Software
        • building and evaluating it is a major problem
    • Requirements -> Process -> Product
      • Product Quality
        • depends on both
            • Process quality
            • Requirements quality
        • can be evaluated but
        • cannot be achieved by assessing (“QA-ing” and “testing”) the completed product
        • can only be “built in” during the Software Development Process
    • Build Quality into the Product
      • Quality Quality Quality Requirements -> Process -> Product
      • Quality Management System (QMS)
          • address both
            • management
            • technical activities
      • Main Goal
        • how well quality can be built into a product
        • not how well we can evaluate product quality
    • Plan
      • Introduction
      • Quality
      • Software Quality
      • Quality Costs
      • Quality Management System
      • Quality Assurance Activities
      • Conclusion
      • Questions & Answers
    • What is Quality?
      • difficult to define, explain, quantify…
      • means different things to different people
        • Quality Experts
        • Customers
        • Producers
      • QM Problem [Crosby]
          • “ Is not what people don't know about it.
          • Is what they think they do know…”
    • Quality Quotations
      • Aristotle
        • “ Quality is not an act, it is a habit.”
      • John Ruskin
        • “ Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of intelligent effort.”
      • Henry Ford
        • “ Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.”
    • The Elusive Nature of Quality
      • Need to
        • increase general knowledge about quality
        • qualify and quantify in order to evaluate and control
        • clarify confusing ideas, myths, and fallacies
      • Use a QM Framework to
        • define basic principles and concepts for achieving Quality objectives
        • create and promote a Quality culture
    • Plan
      • Introduction
      • Quality
      • Software Quality
      • Quality Costs
      • Quality Management System
      • Quality Assurance Activities
      • Conclusion
      • Questions & Answers
    • Managing Quality – [Garvin]
      • “ If quality is to be managed, it must first be understood.“
      • “ Most companies talk a good deal about quality. But they often misinterpret what their customers need. In fact, when customers are talking about quality, they are talking about something very precise.”
    • Definitions of Quality – [Garvin]
      • Five Perspectives
        • transcendent
          • ‘ innate excellence’, recognizable but hard to define
        • manufacturing-based
          • ‘ free from errors’ , ‘conformance to requirements’
        • user-based
          • ‘ fitness for purpose’
        • product-based
          • ‘ a measurable set of characteristics’
        • value-based
          • cost and price
    • Definitions of Quality – [Garvin]
      • Main Source of Problems
        • reliance on a single definition of quality
      • Use ≠ Approaches in ≠ SDLC Phases
        • Requirements
          • user-based perspective in mind
        • Design
          • product-based view
        • Development
          • manufacturing-based view
    • Eight Dimensions of Quality - [Garvin]
      • Cover meanings for all stakeholders
          • features
          • reliability
          • performance
          • conformance
          • durability
          • serviceability
          • aesthetics
          • perceived quality
    • QM Framework – [Baker]
      • definitions and concepts for quality
      • foundation for the Quality Program
        • quality
        • product
        • process
        • requirements
        • evaluation
        • etc.
    • Software Quality Definition
      • User -> Requirements -> Producer ← Product ←
      • User and Producer have ≠ definitions
      • User’s perspective ultimately matters
      • Quality of a product or service is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer.
    • Software Quality Definition – [Tian]
      • User’s quality expectations for a software product/service
        • Must do what is supposed to do “do the right things” = “fit for use”
        • Must perform correctly
        • “ do the things right” = “reliable”
    • Quality is Everybody’s Business
      • ‘‘ affected by many, but effected by few.’’
        • Quality is an individual and team commitment.
        • Everyone working on a project affects the quality of the product in some way.
        • Only those producing the product actually build the quality into it.
        • The ultimate responsibility for the quality of the software product lies with management.
    • Plan
      • Introduction
      • Quality
      • Software Quality
      • Quality Costs
      • Quality Management System
      • Quality Assurance Activities
      • Conclusion
      • Questions & Answers
    • Quality Inspection – [Deming]
      • Inspection and Cost
        • “ You can expect what you inspect.”
        • “ Inspection with the aim of finding the bad ones and throwing them out is too late, ineffective and costly.”
        • “ Quality comes not from inspection but improvement of the process.”
    • Deming’s Philosophy
      • summarized as a ratio RESULTS OF WORK EFFORTS QUALITY = ———————————————— TOTAL COSTS
      • focusing primarily on
        • QUALITY
          • quality – tends to increase and costs – fall over time
        • COSTS
          • costs – tend to rise and quality – declines over time
    • Meanings of “Quality Costs” - [Juran]
        • What means “quality improvement”?
        • Does higher quality cost more or less?
      • “ quality costs”
        • different meanings to different people.
      • meanings
        • costs of poor quality (mainly the costs of finding and correcting defects)
        • costs to attain quality
        • costs of running the Quality department
    • Meanings of “Quality” – [Juran]
      • confusion is inevitable
        • one word for two different meanings
      • “ features of products” (income oriented)
        • Quality -> customer needs -> customer satisfaction
        • Higher Quality -> greater customer satisfaction -> more income
        • Higher Quality -> “COSTS MORE”
      • “ freedom from deficiencies”
        • no errors -> no complaints -> no rework
        • Higher Quality -> “COSTS LESS”
    • Cost of Quality – [Juran]
      • Cost of Poor Quality
        • cost of not getting it right first time
        • all costs that disappear if there were no defects
          • before sale , internal, add to producers’ costs
          • after sale , add to producers’ and customer’s costs
      • Failure Costs
        • scrap, rework, corrective actions, warranty claims, customer complaints, loss of customers, lawsuits
      • Appraisal Costs
        • inspection, compliance auditing, investigations
      • Prevention Costs
        • training, preventive auditing, process improvement implementation
    • Cost of Quality
      • Feigenbaum
        • concept of the “ hidden plant “
          • % of production capacity wasted through not getting it right first time
        • quality as an investment
      • Crosby
        • the measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance
    • Plan
      • Introduction
      • Quality
      • Software Quality
      • Quality Costs
      • Quality Management System
      • Quality Assurance Activities
      • Conclusion
      • Questions & Answers
    • Need for a QMS – [Sommerville]
      • PM has to maintain the project budget and schedule.
      • If problems arise, PM may be tempted to compromise on product quality so that the project meets the schedule.
      • An independent QM team ensures that the organizational goals of quality are not compromised by short-term budget and schedule considerations.
    • Project Management Triangle QUALITY SCOPE SCHEDULE COST
    • Quality Improvement Steps - [Crosby]
      • Management committed to quality.
      • Quality Team with senior representatives from each department.
      • Measure processes to determine quality problems.
      • Evaluate cost of quality and use it as a management tool.
      • Raise the quality awareness.
      • Take actions to correct quality problems.
      • Establish progress monitoring for the improvement process.
      • 14. …
    • QMS – Main Elements
      • Organizational structure
      • Responsibilities
      • Processes
      • Methods and tools
      • Product Quality
      • Customer Satisfaction
      • Continuous process improvement
      • Resources
    • Structure and Responsibilities
      • Executive Team
        • commitment
      • QMS Team
        • not associated with any particular group
        • company wide responsibility for QM
        • responsibility to address identified problems
        • apply the resources to resolve quality issues
      • QA Team
        • QA Department, QA Team(s), TW Team(s)
    • QA Team
      • independent from the DEV team
      • internal or external
      • manage all QA efforts
      • has limited functional capability
          • QA functions can and must be performed by other groups, not only designated ones
      • evaluate product and process quality
      • objective view
      • audit and report to QM Team
      • assurance that quality goals are met
    • QMS Processes
      • Three QM Processes [Juran]
          • QM Planning
          • QM Control
          • QM Improvement
      • The SDP Process
          • selection
          • assessment
          • improvement
      • Methods, Best Practices, and Tools
    • Plan
      • Introduction
      • Quality
      • Software Quality
      • Quality Costs
      • Quality Management System
      • Quality Assurance Activities
      • Conclusion
      • Questions & Answers
    • QA Activities
      • Requirements -> Process -> Product
        • Quality Assurance
        • Quality Planning
        • Quality Control
        • Quality Auditing
        • Validation
        • Verification
        • Testing
      • Their definitions and relationships and are often sources of confusion
    • Quality “Assurance”
      • Assuring
      • an acceptable level of confidence that the software will conform to
        • functional technical requirements
        • customer satisfaction (usability)
        • managerial scheduling
        • budgetary requirements
    • SQA – [Sommerville]
      • Quality Assurance (QA)
        • The establishment of a framework of organizational procedures and standards that lead to high-quality software
      • Quality Planning (QP)
        • The selection of appropriate procedures and standards from this framework, adapted for a specific software project
      • Quality Control (QC)
        • The definition and enactment of processes that ensure the software development team have followed project quality procedures and standards
    • SQA – [Pressman]
      • Umbrella Activity
        • applied throughout the software process
      • Encompass
        • Quality Management (QM) approach
        • effective SE technology (methods and tools)
        • technical reviews throughout the SDP
        • testing strategy
        • control software artifacts and changes
        • standard compliance (when applicable)
        • measurement, auditing, and reporting
    • IEEE – SQA
      • Product
        • A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that an item or product conforms to established technical requirements.
      • Process
        • A set of activities designed to evaluate the process by which the products are developed or manufactured.
    • Quality Control – [Pressman]
      • Inspections, reviews, and tests used throughout the SDP to ensure that the product meets defined and measurable specifications.
      • A feedback loop to the process that created the product.
      • Tune the process when the product fails to meet specifications.
      • QC activities may be fully automated, entirely manual, or a combination of both.
    • QC vs. QA – [Lewis]
      • Quality Control
        • designed to detect and correct defects
      • Quality Assurance
        • oriented towards preventing defects
    • Verification and Validation
      • Two different types of analysis
      • Validation
        • Are we building the correct system?
      • Verification
        • Are we building the system correctly?
    • Software Testing
      • execution-based QA activity part of QC
      • a primary means to ensure quality
      • verify that requirements were met
      • preparation can be done in earlier cycles
      • manual and automated
      • consider automation investment, long-term higher-quality product, and reduced maintenance costs
      • actual testing requires the product
      • occurs too late to build quality into the product
      • testing is limited in scope
    • Plan
      • Introduction
      • Quality
      • Software Quality
      • Quality Costs
      • Quality Management System
      • Quality Assurance Activities
      • Conclusion
      • Questions & Answers
    • Conclusion
      • Understand what is quality and software quality and how they can be achieved
      • How much quality costs
      • What is a Quality Management System
      • How to set it up
      • Defined main QA Activities
      • Primary goal: build quality in, build Quality Software
    • Plan
      • Introduction
      • Quality
      • Software Quality
      • Quality Costs
      • Quality Management System
      • Conclusion
      • Quality Assurance Activities
      • Questions & Answers
    • Bibliography
      • Baker, E.R.; Fisher, M.J, "Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality"
      • Flower, J., "Managing Quality: a discussion with David Garvin"
      • Galin, D., "Software quality assurance: from theory to implementation"
      • Garvin, D.A, "What Does “Product Quality” Really Mean?"
      • Juran, J.M.; Godfrey, A.B, "Juran's Quality Handbook"
      • Lewis, W.E., "Software Testing and Continuous Quality Improvement", 2nd Edition
      • Pressman, R.S, "Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach", 5th Edition
      • Sanders, J.; Curran, E., "Software Quality: A Framework for Success in Software Development and Support"
      • Schulmeyer, G.G., Editor, “Handbook of Software Quality Assurance", 4th Edition
      • Sommerville, I., "Software Engineering", 8th Edition
      • Tian, J., "Software quality engineering: testing, quality assurance, and quantifiable improvement"
      • http://www.qualitygurus.com/gurus/
      • http://www.wikipedia.org/