• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Ese international marketing 2013
 

Ese international marketing 2013

on

  • 232 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
232
Views on SlideShare
232
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Ese international marketing 2013 Ese international marketing 2013 Presentation Transcript

    • 1 Massimiliano G. Falcone MICRI VI a.a. 2011/2012 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Marketing communication and Business strategy Who? Target Mkt Target Mkt How?Product Organization Mktg Mix Organization From vision… … to the business What? concept 2 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Marketing (archaic, until the 1920’s), shopping, going to market Buying and selling in a marketMarketingMarketing is the social process by which individuals andgroups obtain what they need and want through creating andexchanging products and value with othersKotlerMarketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes forcreating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offeringsthat have value for customers, clients, partners, and society atlarge.American Marketing Association3 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Social, Political,Corporate InstitutionalMarketing & Marketing &Communication Communication Market Analysis Stakeholders’ Requirements & Selection Analysis Designing Entry Mode strategic relations Strategies and local alliances Communication Communication strategies strategies 4 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 5 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • International Marketing consists of • finding and satysfying global customer needs better than competition, both domestic and international • and of coordinating marketing activities with the constraints of the global environment Target Market6 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Worlds Wealth distribution Year 2015 (forecast) By Global Finance7 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • The Next Eleven8 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 9 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Globalization 2.0 Falling of First Half Transportation Cost • Steam Engine • Rail Road 10 Massimiliano G. Falcone.
    • Globalization 2.0 Infrastructure11 MICRI VI a.a. 2011/2012 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 12 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Globalization 2.0 Infrastructure13 MICRI VI a.a. 2011/2012 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Average cargo cruising speed 1000 800 km/h 600 400 200 0 Before 1930-60 Today Today 1930s (train) (airjet) Source C.Altomonte (Bocconi)14 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Falling of Second Half Telecommunic. Cost15 Massimiliano G. Falcone .
    • Brief description of falling costs (Tlc, Transport)16 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Porter’s Diamond • How the national playing field can contribute to the competitive advantage of the industry? (1/6) •  What is nations’ e.g., Japan: “an island position in terms of nation with no natural Factor factors of resources” – invented conditions production (labour, JIT to save space land, infrastructure, capital, natural resources, etc.)?17 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Porter’s Diamond • How the national playing field can contribute to the competitive advantage of the industry? (2/6) •  Does the home demand gives the companies a clearer or earlier picture of emerging buyer Factor needs? Demand conditions conditions •  Do demanding buyers push for innovation? •  Is the size of the home market permit to get the “critical mass”?18 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Porter’s Diamond • How the national playing field can contribute to the competitive advantage of the industry? (3/6) •  Do national suppliers offer most cost-effective inputs of the needed quality in an efficient, Factor Demand rapid way? conditions conditions Supporting industries19 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Porter’s Diamond • How the national playing field can contribute to the competitive advantage of the industry? (4/6) Firms strategy, structure & Rivalry Factor •  Do national property andDemand conditions capital markets structure conditions reflect the needs of a particular industry? e.g., family firms in Italy who Supporting extraordinary offer an industries flexibility, niche marketing, customized products in furniture, footwear, lighting20 Massimiliano G. Falcone industry
    • Porter’s Diamond • How the national playing field can contribute to the competitive advantage of the industry?(5/6) Firms Government •  Does government contribute strategy, to structure & of specialized the creation factors (skilled labour, Rivalry R&D)..? Factor •  Does it avoid intervening in Demand conditions markets and protects conditions competition? •  Does it enforce safety, product and environmental standards? Supporting industries21 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Porter’s Diamond • How the national playing field can contribute to the competitive advantage of the industry? (6/6) Firms Government strategy, structure & Rivalry Factor Demand conditions conditions Industry Supporting Case industries22 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Welcome
 欢迎
 Hoşgeldin
 BenvenuO
 Huānyíng
 Bienvenue
 歓迎
 
‫ﻣﺮﺣﺒﺎ
ﺑﻜﻢ‬ Bem‐vindo
 (Kangei)
 Mrḩbā
Bkm‫
ﺭ‬ Bienvenido
 Спасибо

23 Добро

пожаловать





 Massimiliano G. Falcone Willkommen
 (Spasibo)
 Dobro
pozhalovat′


    • A ChallengePlease draw a map of the world as best you can within 5 minutesName as many of the countries as you canMark an country you have visited for a week or longer 24 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 25 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • The true size of Africa Source:The EconomistBy kay KrauseOctober 2010 26 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Population Major religions ranked by sizeSource: CIA Factbook 27 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Another way to view the worldLanguages Number of speakersMandarin 1,213,000,000Spanish 329,000,000 LanguagesEnglish 328,000,000Hindi-Hurdu 221,000,000Arabic 182,000,000Bengali 181,000,000 Source: Ethnologue, 16th EditionPortuguese 178,000,000 (2009)Russian 144,000,000Japanese 122,000,000German 90,000,000 28 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Cultural Map of the WorldInglehart-Welzel 29 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Another way to view the world If we could shrink the world into a village of 100 people: 50 would be female: 50 would be male 26 would be children 8 would be over 65 60 would be Asian•  5 would speak English•  16 would suffer from malnutrition•  23 would have not a place to shelter them from the wind and the rain•  13 would not have access to clean, safe drinking water•  7 would have a college education•  22 would own or share a computer In 2006, only 1 person out of 100 would have had a college educationThe world’s 1,210 current billionaires, Forbes reported in March 2011,hold a combined wealth that equals over half the total wealth 30 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 31 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • “Why we are here!”32 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Communication Process Through a Medium: • verbal: low context – high context • non verbal Encode Decode Sender/Encoder Message Receiver/Decoder Rumor Feed-back Response33 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • •  Message


 It
consists
of
both
verbal
(spoken
and
wriTen)
and
non‐verbal
symbols
in
order
to
 transfer
an
informaOon
•  Sender
–
Encoder





As
a
sender
–
encoder,
you
use
symbols
that
express
you
message
and
create
the
 desired
response
•  Receiver
–
Decoder




The
message
receiver
is
your
reader
or
listener
also
known
as
decoder,
as
s/he
 decodes
your
encoded
message.
Receiver
is
influenced
by
his
context
and
by
his
 mental
filter
•  Feedback



Feedback
can
be
a
desire
acOon,
an
oral
or
wriTen
message,
or
simply
a
silence

 34 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Cross Cultural Communication35 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Coca-Cola in China was first rendered as Ke-kou-ke-la Coke did not discover until after thousands of signs had been printed that the phrase means or “female horse stuffed with wax,” Coke then researched 40,000 Chinese characters and found a close phonetic equivalent, “ko- kou-ko-le,” which can be loosely translated as “happiness in the mouth.”36 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • The American slogan for Salem cigarettes, “Salem—Feeling Free” translated in the Japanese market into “When smoking Salem, you feel so refreshed that your mind seems to be free and empty”Nike Air shoes showing flaming logo Nike Air flaming logo Nike offendedMuslims in June, 1997 when the "flaming air" logo for its Nike Air sneakerslooked too similar to the Arabic form of Gods name, "Allah” Nike pulled more than 38,000 pairs of sneakers from the market 37 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Drakkar Noir: Sensuality and touch culture in Europe and Saudi Arabia Source: Field (1986)38 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Colgate introduced a toothpaste in France called Cue was the name of a local porno magazine Scandinavian vacuum manufacturer Electrolux39 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 40 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Verbal
Lost
in
transla6on
Business
/
Busy
 
 Negocio
/
Ocio
Coca‐Cola:
“Can’t
beat
the
feeling”
“I
feel
Coke”
“The
feeling
of
life”
“Sensazione
unica”
“Today
is
a

beauOful
day”
 Visual
(colors,
nude…)
 Role
(gender,
age,
dressing
codes/look,
context…)
 Symbolic
language
(6ger
in
Esso,
Jeans)
41 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Culture
Context

Low‐context
countries:
more
 High‐context
countries:

meaning
is
emphasis
is
placed
on
words,
 determined
by
nonverbal
cues,
social
directness,
and
6me
(deadlines
and
 rela6onships
and
indirect
schedules)
 communica6on
such
as
metaphors
 and
aphorisms
42 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 43 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 44 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Technology Political Educational Dress Structure Theory Family Patterns System Language Development Customs Music Social Stratification Behavior Economic Food System ArchitectureClimate Demography Beliefs, values, assumptions and norms History Geography Genetics 45 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes themembers of one human group from another. •  ulture is learned C •  ulture is interrelated C •  ulture is shared C Individual culture National/ behaviour/ Regional culture opinions Culture Business/ Company culture industry culture 46 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • A Challenge Please write words that relate to “Cross - Culture”47 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • A Challenge: WordsDid any of the following words appear intoyour definition? For Cross Culture:   Cultural Interaction   Two or more   Global   Different Cultures   Intercultural (Syn)   Cultural Spheres   Human Activities   Multiple Cultures   Together   Understanding   Interdisciplinary   Languages   Orientation48 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Definition: Cross-Cultural Interacting with &/or comparing two or more cultures, & understanding their values, beliefs, & norms.49 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Cultural Dimensions50 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Culture ContextLow-context countries: more High-context countries: meaningemphasis is placed on words, is determined by nonverbal cues,directness, and time (deadlines social relationships and indirectand schedules) communication such as metaphors and aphorisms51 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Cultural Dimensions (Geert Hofstede ) Uncertainty Power Distance Avoidance Cultural Dimensions Feminine Vs. Collectivism Vs. Masculine Individualism52 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions •  Extent to which less powerful members ofPower Distance institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally –  High power distance countries: people blindly obey the orders of their superiors, centralized and tall organization structures –  Low power distance countries: flatter and decentralized organization structures, smaller ratio of supervisors 53 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions •  Extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous Power situations and have created beliefs and institutions that Distance try to avoid such situations –  High uncertainty avoidance countries: peopleUncertainty have high need for security, strong belief in experts and their knowledge, structuredAvoidance organizational activities, more written rules, less risk taking by managers –  Low uncertainty avoidance countries: people are more willing to accept risks associated with the unknown, less structured organizational activities, fewer written rules, more risk taking by managers, higher employee turnover, more ambitious employees54 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions •  Individualism: Tendency of people to look afterPower Distance themselves and their immediate family only –  Countries high in individualism: tend to be wealthier, support protestant work ethic, greater Uncertainty individual initiative, promotions based on market Avoidance value •  Collectivism: Tendency of people to belong toIndividualism/ groups or collectives and to look after each other in Collectivism exchange for loyalty –  Countries high in collectivism: tend to be poorer, less support for protestant work ethic, less individual initiative, promotions based on seniority 55 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions •  Masculinity: a culture in which the dominant socialPower Distance values are success, money and things –  Countries high in masculinity: great importance on earnings, recognition, advancement, Uncertainty challenge, and wealth. High job stress. Avoidance •  Femininity: a culture in which the dominate social values are caring for others and the quality of lifeIndividualism/ –  Countries high in femininity: great importance Collectivism on cooperation, friendly atmosphere, employment security, group decision making, and living environment. Low stress and more Masculinity/ employee freedom. Femininity 56 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 57 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Country PDI IDV MAS UAI Power Distance Individualism Masconlinity Uncertainty Avoid.Arab World 80 38 52 68Australia 36 90 61 51Brazil 69 38 49 76Canada 39 80 52 48China 80 15 55 40Colombia 67 13 64 80Denmark 18 74 16 23East Africa 64 27 41 52France 68 71 43 86Germany 35 67 66 65India 77 48 56 40Indonesia 78 14 46 48Italy 50 76 70 75Japan 54 46 95 92Mexico 81 30 69 82Norway 31 69 8 50Philippines 94 32 64 44South Africa 49 65 63 49Uk 58 35 89 66 Massimiliano G. Falcone 35Usa 40 91 62 46
    • Time and Truth59 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Time Monochronic Polychronic •  Time viewed as scarce resource; •  Time is seen as plentiful, tangible commodity; “time is indefinitely available; no money”. economic value. •  Prefer to deal with one task at a •  Stress involvement with people; time; low tolerance for able to do several things at the interruptions. same time; interruptions the •  Linear view of time: divided into norm. precise, distinct units; •  Cyclical view of time: more scheduling, deadlines and patience and less urgency; punctuality valued. natural rhythm to events. Temporal Orientations:Past: Emphasize Present: Focus on Future: Emphasisrole of past in “here and now”; on planning, settingpresent situation. fatalistic element. goals; future will be “bigger and better”. 60 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Nature of Reality and Truth Facts vs Feeling•  Truth is synonymous with •  Truth is determined facts and figures. through interpretation, reasoning and logic.•  Rationality is valued over emotion. •  Intuition and emotion are valued to balance•  An inductive approach is rationality. favored : theory is derived from data and experience. •  A deductive approach is favored: solutions are derived from theory.61 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • A framework for conceptualizing underlying cultural assumptions Bridging Assumptions •  rientation to Space O External Adaptation Internal Integration Distant/Intimate •  uman Nature H•  an’s Relationship with Nature M Basically good / Basically Control/Harmony/ •  rientation to Time O •  ature of Human Relationships N Constraint Task /RelationshipHigh Tolerance /Low Monochronic /Polychronic MasculinityfemininityTolerance of uncertainty Past/Present/ Future•  ature of Human Activity N Individualistic/Collectivist •  ommunication Style C Doing / Being Universal/Particular •  ature of Reality and Truth N Egalitarian / Hierarchical Facts feelings High Context /Low Context Instrumental/Expressive Adapted from: Schneider, S.C. & Barsoux, J-L., 2003. Managing Across cultures, 2nd Ed. Harlow England: Prentice Hall/FT. 62 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Nonverbal Communication63 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Nonverbal Communicationall elements of communication that do not involve words Functions of Nonverbal Communication •  To provide information •  To regulate interaction •  To express or hide emotion and affect •  To express power and control 64 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Nonverbal Communication Proxemics •  an individual’s perception & use of space Kinesics •  study of body movements, including posture Facial & Eye Behavior •  movements that add cues for the receiver Paralanguage •  variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tone, duration, laughing-crying65 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Proxemics: Territorial SpaceTerritorial Space –bands of space extending outward from the body; territorial space differs from culture to culture a = intimate < 15 cm to 46 cm b = personal 46 to 76 cm 76 to 120 cm c = social 1.2 to 2.1 m a 2.1 to 3.7 m b c d = public 3.7 to 7.6 m d 66 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • SPACE BODY LANGUAGE67 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Facial and eye behaviourParalanguage 68 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • the GLOBE Project: Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness•  9 Dimensions: –  Uncertainty avoidance –  Power distance –  Collectivism I: Social collectivism –  Collectivism II: In-group collectivism –  Gender egalitarianism –  Assertiveness –  Future orientation –  Performance orientation –  Humane orientation69 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Introduction to GCI Policies the set of Institutions Factors responsible for the level of economic prosperity Measured by the Global Competitiveness Index70 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Impossibile trovare nel file la parte immagine con ID relazione rId1. Impossibile trovare nel file la parte immagine con ID relazione rId2. Impossibile trovare nel file la parte immagine con ID relazione rId3. Factor Efficiency Innovation Driven Driven Driven Economy Economy Economy 71 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Criteria of deciding the stages•  Percent of specific types of goods allocated in total export•  Level of GDP per capita at market exchange rates: Stage 1 Factor Driven GDP/Cap < 2.000 •  Transition from stage 1 to stage 2 2.000-3.000 Stage 2 Efficiency Driven GDP/Cap 3.000-9.000 •  Transition from stage 2 to stage 3 9.000-17.000 Stage 3 Innovation Driven GDP/Cap > 17.000 72 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • •  1) Institutions Key for Basic 2) Infrastructure 3) Macroecon. stability factor-driven requirements 4) Health and primary economy education 1) Higher education 2) Goods mkt efficiency Key for Efficiency 3) Labor mkt efficiency efficiency- Enhancer 4) Financial mkts driven 5) Technology economy 6) Mkt size Key for 1) Business Innovation sophistication innovation- factors driven 2) Innovation economy73 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 74 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 75 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 76 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • “Strategy” derives from the Greek: * "stratos" – meaning army. * "ago" – which is the ancient Greek for leading/guiding/moving.Rooted in the MilitaryOriginated in business withthe emergence of the businessschools (Wharton and Harvard) 77 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 78 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • The AFI Strategy framework External Analysis: - Market - Industry - Competition Internal Analysis: Implementation Resources and Competencies Formulation: Corporate Formulation: Strategy: Business Diversification, Strategy: differentiation, Innovation and cost leadership. competitive Acquisitions, advantage alliances79 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Home Country Target Country Factors Factors PEST Foreign Market Entry Mode Decision SWOT Firm’s Firm’s Products/Services Resources/Capabilities80 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • From Environmental uncontrollables to controllable resources and capabilities Political Economic Legal Forces Cultural Political Compet. Competitive forces Legal Price Product Forces Promotion Distribution Economic climate Geography Level of Infrastructure Technology Structure of Distribution 81 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • SWOT AnalysisStrengths S WWeaknessesOpportunitiesThreats O T 82 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • SAMPLE SWOT ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK Internal External Threats Factors Strengths Weaknesses Factors Opportunities Management  Economic Marketing  Competition Manufacturing  Consumer R&D  Technology Finance  Legal/Regulatory Offerings  Industry/Market Structure 83 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Adapted from: Mintzberg, H. “The Strategy Concept Deliberate versus Emergent Strategies Sustained Superior Realized PerformanceUnrealized StrategyStrategy Emergent Strategy 84 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 85 MICRI VI a.a. 2011/2012 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 86 MICRI VI a.a. 2011/2012 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 87 MICRI VI a.a. 2011/2012 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Abell’s Framework for Defining the Business Source: D. F. Abell, Defining the Business: The Starting Point of Strategic Planning (Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, 1980)88 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • Ambidexteritycapable of exploiting existing competencies as well as exploringnew opportunities with equal dexterity EXPLOIT EXPLORE Refinement, choice, search, variation, production, risk taking, efficiency, selection, experimentation, implementation, play, flexibility, execution discovery, innovation89 Massimiliano G. Falcone
    • 90 MICRI VII a.a. 2012/2013 Massimiliano G. Falcone