• as applied to teaching, involves everything that a
teacher must do to carry out his/her teaching
objectives. It includes preparation of plans and
materials, structuring of activities into time blocks,
direct teaching of skills and subject matter,
grouping of pupils to provide for the most efficient
use of teacher and pupil time, plans for transition
periods--changing from one activity to another or from
one place to another--pupil involvement and
motivation, and adequate control of pupil behavior.
• Classroom management should be based on an understanding of current
research and theory in classroom management and on students' personal
and psychological needs.
• Classroom management depends on establishing positive teacher-student
and peer relationships that create classrooms as communities of support.
• Comprehensive classroom management involves using instructional
methods that facilitate optimal learning by responding to the academic
needs of individual students and the classroom group.
• Comprehensive classroom management involves using organizational and
group management methods that involve students in developing and
committing to behavioral standards that help create a safe, caring
community and using teaching methods that facilitate clear classroom
• Classroom management involves the ability to use a wide range of
counseling and behavioral methods that involve students in examining
and correcting their inappropriate behavior.
• Satisfaction and enjoyment in
teaching are dependent upon leading
students to cooperate
• Classroom management issues are of
highest concern for beginning
An Effective Classroom Management Context
(these four things are fundamental)
1. Know what you want and what you don't
2. Show and tell your students what you
3. When you get what you want,
acknowledge (not praise) it.
4. When you get something else, act quickly
• Allocated time is the total time allotted for teaching,
learning, and routine classroom procedures like
attendance and announcements. Allocated time is also
what appears on a student's schedule, for example
"Introductory Algebra: 9:50-10:30 a.m." or "Fine Arts
• Instructional time is what remains after routine
classroom procedures are completed. That is to say,
instructional time is the time wherein teaching and
learning actually takes place. Teachers may spend two
or three minutes taking attendance, for example,
before their instruction begins.
• Engaged time is also called time on task. During
engaged time, students are participating actively in
learning activities—asking and responding to
questions, completing worksheets and exercises,
preparing skits and presentations, etc.
• Academic learning time occurs when students 1)
participate actively and 2) are successful in learning
activities. Effective classroom management maximizes
academic learning time.
• Define your objectives for each class and try to remain
focused on them. Allowing the class to digress too far,
or for too long, may sacrifice more critical discussion or
• Become comfortable early on with compromise. You’ll
rarely accomplish everything you ideally would like to
• “Getting out of the way”. Recognize when you should
step aside and let the students take over; be responsive
to the classroom dynamic.
• Be flexible. Be able to reshape your lesson plan on the
fly, to respond to the demands of different groups.
• Review the assigned material, even if you’ve taught the material before.
If you’re working through problem sets with students, make sure you do
the problem sets yourself first. Work through any exercises yourself first,
etc. This will allow you to identify potential problem areas and plan your
• Take into account other time demands, such as the need to review
• Allow for time for questions on difficult topics/concepts. Build time for
questions into your lesson plan.
• Estimate the time each task will take, and be prepared to find out that
your estimate is low.
• Be aware of course objectives, not just class objectives. Longer-term
planning allows you to make connections between material across weeks,
as well as divide other tasks such as preparing for assignments into more
manageable ‘units’. It also lets you see where there are ‘lighter’ weeks in
• Assess what your students already know, and the time available
versus the number of tasks that need to be accomplished.
• Keep the classroom dynamic in mind. Is the group fond of debates
(allow more time) or do they have difficulty participating in
discussion? The extra time it takes to get a discussion going will
affect your planning for the class. Try to experiment with allowing
time for individual writing in response to a question instead of
always running a discussion.
• Prioritize your established tasks to ensure that you cover the most
• Consider making use of time-controlled activities (group work,
role-playing, in-class writing, individual presentations, etc).
• Be aware of hidden time demands (administrative issues,
explanation of test procedures or assignments, questions from
lectures, setting up technology, rearranging the room, etc.).
• The technique of direct instruction is to begin each class by telling
the students exactly what will be happening.
• The teacher outlines what he and the students will be doing this
period. He may set time limits for some tasks.
• An effective way to marry this technique with the first one is to
include time at the end of the period for students to do activities
of their choosing.
• The teacher may finish the description of the hour’s activities with:
“And I think we will have some time at the end of the period for
you to chat with your friends, go to the library, or catch up on
work for other classes.”
• The teacher is more willing to wait for class attention when he
knows there is extra time to meet his goals and objectives. The
students soon realize that the more time the teacher waits for
their attention, the less free time they have at the end of the
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