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  • Update – needs to be new blog
  • Include images of each
  • Image?


  • 1. Search Engine Optimisation
  • 2. What is search engine optimisation(SEO)?
  • 3. SEO “is the process of improving thevisibility of a website or a web page insearch engines via the „natural‟ or un-paid („organic‟ or „algorithmic‟) searchresults”. (Wikipedia)
  • 4. Also called natural or organicoptimisation Image credit: creative commons,IconTexto
  • 5. Search engines use complicatedalgorithms to determine relevanceand ranking and these are alwayschanging.
  • 6. So keeping your website in shape tobe ranked well by these algorithms is anongoing process!
  • 7. Why is it important?
  • 8. 1. Because the higher up your website is on the SERPs, the more likely you are to get traffic to your site2. Search traffic is qualified traffic (users are explicitly looking for what you have!)3. You don’t pay for each click (as you do with paid search)
  • 9. In the early days of search engines,meta data was used to index and rankwebsites.
  • 10. But this left the results open tomanipulation
  • 11. Hence the complicated algorithmsthat are used today.Google says it uses more than 200different factors.
  • 12. These algorithms use page rank –simply put, the more a website islinked to, the more likely it is that thecommunity considers it an authority.
  • 13. So search results today are determinedby on page and off page factors.
  • 14. On page factors are the structure ofthe website (HTML code, content etc.).
  • 15. Off page factors are elements whichbuild links to the website.
  • 16. Search engines look for:1. Relevance2. Authority3. Popularity
  • 17. Two types of SEO
  • 18. White hat SEO works within theparameters set by search engines.Aims for long-lasting success
  • 19. Black hat SEO refers to someone tryingto game or manipulate the searchengines.Aims for massive short-term traffic
  • 20. 5 main areas of SEO:
  • 21. 1. Search engine friendly websitestructure2. Well-researched list of key phrases3. Content optimised to target keyphrases4. Link popularity5. Usage data
  • 22. 1. Creating a search engine friendlywebsite structure
  • 23. Remember, if spiders can’t find yourwebsite, then users won’t find it viasearch engines.
  • 24. Use best practisesSearch engine friendly design =usability and accessibility
  • 25. Remove technical barriersEnsure there are direct HTML links to thepages you want indexed.
  • 26. Some barriers to visibility:•Flash•Frames based design•No XML site map•AJAX•Video•Dynamic URLs
  • 27. 2. How to research key phrases
  • 28. These are the foundation of search
  • 29. Users enter words they think arerelevant to their searches.
  • 30. Aim to use keywords in your websitecontent that your target audience islikely to use.
  • 31. Finding keywords means understandingsearch psychology.
  • 32. When choosing consider...
  • 33. •Search volume: how many searchersare using that phrase?
  • 34. •Competition: are other websitestargeting that phrase? Vs.
  • 35. •Propensity to convert: How likely isthe searcher using the phrase toconvert to your site?Consider which term will lead to moreconversions.
  • 36. •Value per lead: What is the averagevalue prospect attracted by thekeyword?„Budget Durban hotel‟ vs. „LuxuryDurban hotel‟
  • 37. Where to start?
  • 38. Brainstorm•What is yourcore business?•The needs ofyour customers?•What do theysearch for?
  • 39. Also consider misspellings andsynonyms
  • 40. Keyword search tools can offersuggestions:•Similar keywords•Common keywords used with thatkeyword•Common misspellings•Frequency of the keywords in searchqueries
  • 41. •Industry related keywords•Keywords sending traffic to yourcompetitors•Number of sites targeting yourkeywords
  • 42. Use a keyword spreadsheet to storeinformation:
  • 43. Aim to get the right mix:Low volume terms with low levels ofcompetition are good in the short-term.But high volume terms with highlevels of competition can improverevenue over time.
  • 44. 3. Optimise content for key phrases
  • 45. We need to ensure the site containscontent to target those phrases.
  • 46. Website content must:•Provide information to visitors•Engage with them•Convince them to do what you want
  • 47. On top of that it must send signals ofrelevance to the search engines.
  • 48. Each web page should be optimised fortwo to three key phrases:•Primary•Secondary•Tertiary
  • 49. Guidelines:•Title tag: use the key phrase in thetitle•Header tags: use H1 tag, and other Htags (H2, H3 etc)•Body content: use key phrase threetimes, more if it makes sense! About350 words of content
  • 50. •Bold: use <strong> tags aroundkeyword•Alt tag for image: use at least once todescribe an image•URL: use a URL rewrite so it appears inthe URL•Meta description: Use keyword atleast once
  • 51. Optimise images and video with therelevant keywords as well.You have to rely on how the image isdescribed.
  • 52. Description
  • 53. If images are correctly labelled,search engines can index them.
  • 54. •Use descriptive filenames•Use ALT tags and title attributes(Make sure websites make sense withoutimages) With image displayed Without image displayed
  • 55. •Ensure meta information is relevant•Use descriptive captions, and keeprelevant copy close to the relevantmedia•Make sure the header tags andimages are relevant to each other
  • 56. •For video, consider converting thescript to text and making this availableto search engines•YouTube offers an auto-captioningservice that makes this easier to do
  • 57. 4. Links are vital to how the Internetworks
  • 58. They are there to allow a user to gofrom one web page to another
  • 59. They help build signals of trust
  • 60. They help to validate relevance Relevant!
  • 61. The content sends a signal ofrelevance; the link validates thatsignal.e.g. A link with the text „Durban petfriendly hotel‟ sends the message thatyou can trust the destination site isrelevant to the term „Durban pet friendlyhotel‟.
  • 62. Search engine spiders follow them
  • 63. Not all links are equal
  • 64. Pages with higher page rankthemselves, will give you much morevalue when they link to you than pageswith a lower page rank.
  • 65. More votes = more trusted = moreimportant = better rank on searchengines
  • 66. What does a link look like?
  • 67. <a href=”http://www.targeturl.com/targetpage.htm”>Anchor Text</a>(HTML code for a link)http://www.targeturl.com/targetpage.htm(Page the link leads to)Anchor Text(The text that forms the clickable linkdisplayed to users)
  • 68. But you can include more information<a href=http://www.targeturl.com/targetpage.htmrel=”nofollow”>Anchor Text</a>rel=”nofollow” – can be included when youdon’t want to vouch for the target URL.
  • 69. So, how do you get more links on awebsite?
  • 70. Create valuable content people wantto read
  • 71. Position yourself as an expert in thefield
  • 72. Use infographics –they‟re popular and useful
  • 73. Create tools and documents thatothers want to use:•Host interviews on your website•Think outside the box
  • 74. Create games that people want to play.Make sure the theme is based on thekey phrases of your website!
  • 75. Create widgets, browser extensionsand useful software.
  • 76. Use WebPR to provide valuable linksto your content.
  • 77. Use competitor analysis to find outwho is linking to your competitors andwhich non-competing sites areranking highly for your key phrases.
  • 78. 5. Usage data
  • 79. Usage data is the most effective wayof judging the true relevancy of awebsite.
  • 80. How do search engines access it?
  • 81. They use cookies to record searchactivity:•Keywords used•Websites visited from the searchengine•Clickthrough rate•Bounce rates
  • 82. Most provide other services too.Some of Google’s services:•Google AdWords•Google AdSense•Google Checkout•Google Analytics
  • 83. What does this mean for SEO?
  • 84. Websites must:•Be valuable enough to attract bothvisitors and links naturally•Retain visitorsand make sure theyreturn to the website•Convert visitors
  • 85. Social media is important too!
  • 86. Social content can appear in SERPsand is growing increasingly influentialin search rankings.
  • 87. Use social media properties todominate brand SERPs.
  • 88. Remember that real-time search relieson social media.e.g. Twitter
  • 89. Links from social sites are used assignals of relevance.
  • 90. Personalised results are influenced byyour online social network:e.g. If you are logged in to Google whilesearching for blogs, you might be morelikely to see a friend‟s blog.
  • 91. Optimise your content for socialsearch engines.
  • 92. Consider mobile SEO
  • 93. Mobile SEO is a little different to desktopSEO but the fundamental principlesremain.
  • 94. There are some differences
  • 95. •Search engines can deliver preciselocation-based results to mobileusers•The importance of usability in sites formobile devices•Search engines having less data towork with in terms of site history, traffic,and inbound links
  • 96. So remember to:•Create usable, crawlable sites•Format content for mobile usage•Use links from mobile to desktop andvice versa•Submit a mobile XML sitemap•Use the word “mobile” so searchengines know this is the mobile versionof your site
  • 97. Local search means that locationmatters. „Claim‟ your location to verifyyourself.
  • 98. A little advice:
  • 99. •Avoid hidden text or hidden links•Don’t use cloaking or sneaky redirects•Don’t send automated queries toGoogle•Don’t load pages with irrelevantkeywords•Don’t create multiple pages,subdomains, or domains with duplicatecontent
  • 100. •Don’t create pages with maliciousbehaviour, such as phishing etc.•Avoid “doorway” pages created justfor search engines or other “cookiecutter” approaches
  • 101. •If your site participates in an affiliateprogramme, make sure that your siteadds value•Avoid links farms and focus onattracting quality, valuable links
  • 102. At the end of the day, create contentthat users want, and make sure thatcontent is accessible to both searchengines and users.
  • 103. PPC Advertising
  • 104. What is PPC advertising?
  • 105. Pay per Click (PPC) advertising is wherethe advertiser pays only for each clickon their advert.
  • 106. PPC advertsThey’re easy to spot – on the top of SERPsand on the right hand side.
  • 107. They also appear on content sites andsocial networks.
  • 108. PPC advertising revolutionised theonline advertising industry and today itgenerates 99% of Google’s revenue.
  • 109. We will focus on PPC advertising onsearch engines and social networks
  • 110. PPC advertising is keywords based.
  • 111. It is based on the search term a userenters into a search engine. This meansthat it uses a “pull” strategy rather thana “push” strategy.
  • 112. The beauty of PPC advertising on searchengines is that adverts are displayedwhen potential customers are alreadyexpressing interest.
  • 113. Users are spoken to when they arealready in the right frame of mind, themessage is not pushed on to them likeTV advertising.
  • 114. How does it work?
  • 115. Usually runs as an auction model –advertisers place bids to appearbased on certain criteria.
  • 116. Then advertising platformsdeterminewhen adverts are eligible to appear.
  • 117. So the advertiser:•Creates the advert copy•Determines the landing page for theadvert•Selects the keywords or criteria•Chooses the maximum amount theyare willing to pay per click
  • 118. And the advertising platform:•Checks the advert for compliance toeditorial guidelines•Displays the advert for relevant searchcriteria•Determines the rank of the advert -based on the advertiser‟s maximum bidand the relevance of the advert
  • 119. The majority of PPC advertising spend ison Search network PPC advertising –this is the more targeted network.
  • 120. They appear on SERPs and are mostlytext – but more formats are becomingavailable.
  • 121. But display advertising (on contentpages, like news sites) and socialnetworking advertising are importantgrowth areas.
  • 122. More advertisers are now moving to thedisplay and mobile networks in orderto attract relevant traffic andincrease exposure.
  • 123. Types of PPC adverts
  • 124. Text advert format:Headingwww.DisplayURL.comTwo lines of advert copy,Which can be displayed on one line
  • 125. Vanity URLS: The URL shown is notnecessarily the URL that the user willclick through to.
  • 126. Roses for Valentine‟swww.flowers.co.za/rosesA dozen red roses for your loveFast, free delivery in RSA
  • 127. The display URL:•What the user sees•Domain must match destination URL•Can use vanity URLs
  • 128. The destination URL:•Domain must exist•One ad group per domain•Domain must match display
  • 129. Vanity URLs make them look appealingand keywords can be used to furtherincrease the relevance of the ad to theuser‟s intent.
  • 130. When writing PPC adverts, the numberof characters are limited andrestrictions exist.
  • 131. Google AdWords guidelines:•Heading: max 25 characters•Display URL: max 35 characters•Line 1: max 35 characters•Line 2: max 35 characters•No repeated exclamation marks
  • 132. •No word in capitals only•No nonsense words•No claims of “best”, “number one” orsuperlatives, unless they can beverified by a reliable third-party•Product numbers may be used
  • 133. Remember, there are usually no imagesin PPC adverts – the copy is key!
  • 134. To help, use dynamic keywordinsertion – inserting the searchkeywords dynamically into the advertcopy.
  • 135. Also use compelling calls to action ormention special offers:Buy now, sign up now, enter now, 10%discount...
  • 136. Advert extensions can be used to addmore information to text PPC adverts.
  • 137. Google offers five text ad extensions:
  • 138. Location extensions Image credit: Google Adwords, http://adwords.google.com/support/aw/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=188235
  • 139. Sitelinks extensionsImage credit: Google Adwords,http://adwords.google.com/support/aw/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=188235
  • 140. Phone extensionsImage credit: Google Adwords,http://adwords.google.com/support/aw/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=188235
  • 141. Product extensionsImage credit: Google Adwords,http://adwords.google.com/support/aw/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=188235
  • 142. Seller rating extensionsImage credit: www.adwords.blogspot.com
  • 143. Not all extensions are supported inall countries – look to see if youcountry is included in the AdWords helpforum.
  • 144. Facebook PPC adverts are based onthe interests a user enters into theirprofiles and their demographics.
  • 145. They can be used to drive traffic toassets on Facebook or to an externalsite.They contain images as well as text.
  • 146. How do you target PPC adverts?
  • 147. Keywords are central!
  • 148. There are an estimated 200 millionsearches performed each day and nearly50% of all searches are unique.
  • 149. It would be impossible to find all theterms searchers use so there aredifferent keyword match types.
  • 150. Broad match: keywordPhrase match: “keyword”Exact match: [keyword]Negative match: -keywordModified Broad match: +keyword
  • 151. Broad match – i.e. Tennis shoes.Your advert will be found when any ofor all words are searched for.Also includes some synonyms andmisspellings.
  • 152. Search includes:tennis shoesred tennis shoestennis sneakerhistory of tennis shoes
  • 153. Phrase match – i.e. “Tennis shoes”Your advert will appear when thephrase appears complete or in order.
  • 154. Direct match extension – i.e. red+sneakersYour advert will appear for any searchcontaining red and sneakers andvariations of sneaker (the markedkeyword).
  • 155. Modified broad match – i.e. Tennis+shoes.Each word preceded by a + must appearin the users search exactly or as aclose variant.Close variants will include:misspellings, singular/plural forms,abbreviations and acronyms, andstemmings.
  • 156. Modified broad match has the broadmatch reach, the exact matchprecision, and the phrase matchflexibility.
  • 157. Specify languages and locations youradvert is targeted for.Include country, city and postal code
  • 158. Use Facebook advertising to targetbased on:•Gender•Location•Relationship status•Age group•Likes and interests•Brand interactions
  • 159. Bidding
  • 160. Advertisers must decide the maximumthey are willing to pay per click - maxCPC bid.
  • 161. But every time there is a search, there isan auction for the adverts for thatsearch term – a Generalised SecondPrice Auction (GSP).
  • 162. Each advertiser pays the bid of theadvertiser below them, plus astandard increment.
  • 163. Ranking is not as simple
  • 164. The bid and other factors are taken intoaccount = Quality Score (QS)
  • 165. Quality Score is determined by:•The bid amount•Relevance of keywords to search term•Relevance of advert copy to the searchterm•Relevance of the landing page to thesearch term•Historic performance of the advert
  • 166. Conversion rates and click-throughrates
  • 167. Those adverts nearer the top of thepage (best ranked) attract the highestCTRs.They also havea higher costper click.
  • 168. More clicks aren’t necessarily better
  • 169. Set up goals to track conversions
  • 170. Goals can be:•Buying a product•Booking a plane ticket•Filling in a form•Sending an enquiry•Making a phone call
  • 171. Click-through rate (CTR) is clicks /impressions (each time the advert isshown) %
  • 172. Click-through rate tells you how wellyour copy is performing.Conversion rate tells you how wellyour campaign is performing.
  • 173. You need to know the value of eachconversion so that you don’t pay toomuch per click.
  • 174. With this info you can adjustaccordingly:•Change keyword match types•Change bids•Change ad copy•Change budget allocations•Improve website conversion rate
  • 175. Use Adwords conversion tracking toreport on campaigns
  • 176. Google AdWords offers conversiontracking tags.But for other networks use third-partytracking.
  • 177. Set budgets to:•Daily•Monthly•None
  • 178. How do you choose a platform?
  • 179. This is subjective and most largeadvertisers run PPC campaigns on anumber of platforms.The key is testing!
  • 180. Use the long tail of search to figureout low volume, niche searches – it cando wonders for a PPC campaign!
  • 181. The sum of the unique searches is thesame as the sum of non-uniquesearches.
  • 182. So, low volume, niche search terms:•Are moretargeted•Have less competition•Can have a lower CPC•And a higher conversion rate•May have a lower quality score so cantake a while to get traffic
  • 183. Landing pages are also vital
  • 184. Aim to create landing pages that keepthe user focused on the conversiongoal – the home page gives them toomany options to consider.
  • 185. Create dynamic landing pages tosimplify the process
  • 186. How to plan a PPC campaign
  • 187. 1. Do your homework – conduct an online and offline analysis of the business
  • 188. Identify:•A clear brand•Identity•Unique selling point
  • 189. 2. Define your goals
  • 190. What do you want users to do oncethey click on your advert?
  • 191. 3. Budget, CPA and targets
  • 192. How much are you willing to spend?Determine your target CPA.Keep in mind, it can take months for acampaign to stabilise.
  • 193. 4. Keyword research
  • 194. What keywords are potential customersusing?What words indicate undesirableclicks?•Free•CheapSimilar or related keywords.
  • 195. 5. Write the adverts
  • 196. •Write compelling copy•Make your headings and display URLsstand out•Use keywords in your copy
  • 197. •Target the landing page to adverts•Adverts need to be worded differentlyfor the different platforms – differenttypes of user behaviour
  • 198. 6. Place your bids
  • 199. Tweak them as you test your campaign
  • 200. 7. Track
  • 201. Get your tracking tags in place
  • 202. 8. Measure, analyse, test, optimise!
  • 203. •Use conversion tracking•Test text vs image/video•Test different landing pages•Test different networks/platforms•Testdifferent demographics•Test different bidding strategies
  • 204. Social Media Channels
  • 205. What is social media?
  • 206. Media designed to be shared (written,visual, audio, audio visual, etc.)
  • 207. Also called Web 2.0, consumergenerated media (CGM) and newmedia.
  • 208. Traditional vs. Social Media
  • 209. Traditional media has adapted to keepup with audiences.e.g.•Newspapers are published in print andonline•TV adverts are available online
  • 210. www.thetimes.co.za
  • 211. What are the social media channels?
  • 212. •Bookmarking and aggregating•Content creating•Social networks•Location based social networks
  • 213. Bookmarking and aggregating:Storing a website‟s URL so that you canlocate it again easily.
  • 214. Use chiclets to make it easier to submitand share the articles.
  • 215. Social bookmarking: Delicious(www.delicious.com)
  • 216. Aggregating sites where users canvote on content:Digg (www.digg.com)Muti (www.muti.co.za)Reddit (www.reddit.com)
  • 217. Select categories of your choice to„stumble‟ through the web:Stumbleupon (www.stumbleupon.com)
  • 218. How can you use these as marketingtools?
  • 219. See how your brand is perceived:•Tags•Mentions•Likes•Etc.
  • 220. Create free content to share:•Articles•Video•Images
  • 221. Share videosOn YouTube over 65 000 videos areuploaded daily.Tap into existing online videoaudiences.
  • 222. 2 ways to market through YouTube:•Promote content through YouTube•Advertise next to content on YouTube
  • 223. Customise your own YouTube BrandChannele.g. www.youtube.com/Sienna
  • 224. If an advert is good enough, people willwant to watch it(www.youtube.com/BMWSouthAfrica)
  • 225. Place Google AdWords on YouTubevideos
  • 226. Share knowledge – the wiki
  • 227. •Create and update documents•Review versions•Community-oriented tools
  • 228. Available to all:www.wikipedia.comwww.wikitravel.orgOr for specific groups:geekdinner.pbwiki.com
  • 229. Create your own wiki.www.pbwiki.com
  • 230. What about Blogging?
  • 231. •175 000 new blogs created daily•Over 1.6 million posts updated everyday•That’s a lot
  • 232. Include the basics:•Author•Blog post title•Tag•Comment•TrackBack
  • 233. Make it easy for readers by including:•RSS feed to subscribe•Categories•Blogroll•Archives
  • 234. RSS = Really Simple SyndicationInstead of visiting various websites forupdates, information is packaged andsent to your RSS reader. Image Credit: Creative Commons, Maja Bencic
  • 235. Use Corporate blogging tocommunicate with staff, investors,customers etc.
  • 236. Keep them•Relevant•Appealing•Transparent and honest•Personal and entertaining
  • 237. And post regularly!
  • 238. List your blog in directories.e.g. Google‟s Directory(www.google.com/dirhp)and BlogCatalog(www.blogcatalog.com).
  • 239. Use blogging as a marketing tool bylistening and engaging in theblogosphere – comment on relevantposts.
  • 240. Set up a blog:•Wordpress (www.wordpress.com)•Tumblr (www.tumblr.com)•Posterous (www.posterous.com)•Blogger (www.blogspot.com)
  • 241. Use microblogging to broadcast news,improve customer service and market abrand‟s profile.
  • 242. To do this use:•Instant Messaging (IM)•The web•Mobile text messaging•Facebook applications•Or Twitter (www.twitter.com)
  • 243. Get content out without using mediachannels.Create a podcast
  • 244. Have your own radio show – which canbe listened to at any time.
  • 245. Why? Because they‟re:•Targetable•Measurable – you can see # ofdownloads•Controllable –it‟s your content•Relatively inexpensiveAnd they can be distributed via RSS.
  • 246. But always make high quality, realcontent!
  • 247. Build relationships through socialnetworking
  • 248. Social networks can be for generalaudiences: www.facebook.comor for niche audiences:www.linkedin.com.
  • 249. You can build your own socialnetwork•Ning (www.ning.com)•Motribe (www.motribe.com)
  • 250. Or use existing platforms like Facebookwhich offers different ways to connectwith potential customers.
  • 251. Use pages to create profiles forbrands.
  • 252. Introduce branded applications tocreate experiences.Includeviralsharing toexpose theapplication.
  • 253. Use engagement ads and ASUs.Engagement ads are large andinteractive.ASUs are small and simple.
  • 254. Facebook also offers:•Promotions•Facebook connect•Like button•News feed
  • 255. But how successful is your social mediacampaign? Track it to find out!
  • 256. Use:•Facebook Insights•YouTube Insights•Twitter analytics
  • 257. If you‟re not a Twitter advertiser use:www.hootsuite.comorhttp://www.twitalyzer.com/
  • 258. Use click tracking with URLshorteners.An easy way to share long links byproviding a short URL that redirects tothe original link.•bit.ly•goo.gl•ow.ly
  • 259. e.g. If we want to tweet a link to ablog post...The URL before:http://www.gottaquirk.com/2011/02/08/the-future-of-online-reputation-management-software/That‟s 89 characters!
  • 260. The URL after using goo.gl:http://goo.gl/wQXMoOnly 19 characters, and can betracked.
  • 261. For further tracking use web analytics
  • 262. In Facebook, tracking script can also beinserted in pages served through aniFrame.
  • 263. iFrames allow you to draw informationfrom other websites to display. Forexample, a YouTube video.
  • 264. Finally, the Rules of Engagement
  • 265. •Market to bloggers (they‟re influential)•Go to where your consumers are•Use chiclets and easy to share URLs•Use targeted advertising
  • 266. Use social media to engage withaudiences in a channel they haveselected and prefer.
  • 267. Establish direct,personal contact on alevel not available to traditionalmarketing campaigns.