STEP 6: POSITIONING• Positioning is all about making thetargeted behavior appear attractive orbetter than the alternative/competition• Best way: Value-centered• What is value?
• What is valuegenerally: How domost peopledefine/perceivevalue?• How do marketingprofessionalsdefine/perceivevalue?• Take 10 minutes withyour group to comeup with a definitionof value. Write it onthe blackboard.DEFINE VALUE
VALUEValue is the customer’s perception of the difference betweenbenefits of an offering and the costs. It can be measured likethis:Value=Benefits-CostsIt is also the the measure of how much an offering is capableof meeting a customer’s stated needs with features thatprovide unique benefits. It can be measured like this:Value=Needs+Benefits/Features
CRITICAL TO VALUE IS THENOTION OF FEATURES THATPROVIDE BENEFIT• What features’ benefitscome from this offering?• Is the provider uniquelycapable of deliveringthose features’ benefits?• Do the benefits match thetarget audience’s needs?• Value is created whentarget audience needs aremet by (ideally) a uniquebenefit.• Why unique?
• Focused on thecustomer and theirneeds• Gives customers aspecific reason to actnormally in a way thatis premised upon self-interest• Gives customers areason to choose anoffering over thecompetition• Customer is of primaryimportance, notfeatures, price orproductTHE BEST MARKETING ISBENEFIT DRIVEN
NEEDS ARE MET BY BENEFITS ANDFEATURES AND DIRECTED TO TARGETAUDIENCES (NOT EVERYONE!)NEED• Utility/purpose• Psychological/psychographic• Social and/orindividualFEATURE/BENEFIT• Feature works in acertain way• Feature provokesa specific feeling• Feature providesa shared goodinstead of, or inaddition to. anindividual one
• What is theneed?• Benefit?• And towhom is it abenefit?Why?EXAMPLE 1
• Feature?• Benefit?• Target audience?• Can every product,concept or servicehave value?• What about when itis unknown(diffusion ofinnovation model?)EXAMPLE 12
• What are the benefits?Take 15 minutes…• Choose three brandsyoulike/use/respect/admire• Can you identify threecompelling benefitsthat come from thebrands’products/features thatshape yourperception?• Think beyond featuresor specific products tobenefits to you as aconsumerBENEFITS ARE KEY!
HOW IS VALUE CONVEYED?STRATEGICALLY?• Positioning• Value propositions/statements
VALUEPROPOSITIONS/STATEMENTS/POSITIONINGSteps:1. Know the customer (NEEDS)2. Know the product/service or idea(FEATURES)3. Why would the customer choose theproduct/service or idea (BENEFITS)4. Combine features and benefits withneeds in a concise, direct statement
EXAMPLE• Categories/groups• Three main groups:• All benefits• Favorable points of interest• Resonating focus• Lowe’s “Never stop improving”• Why? Answer from Lowe’s CEO
• Pretty much thesame! Value isderived frombenefits• Positioningbecomes a littlemore complexsince it can bebased uponbehavior,barriers andbenefitsHOW DOES THIS LOOK INSOCIAL MARKETINGCONTEXT?
• Useful but limited toincreasingawareness• No inherent value• Example: 311 forcarry-onsBEHAVIOR FOCUSEDPOSITIONING
• Helps overcomefears or disinterestor misperceptionsabout time involvedbut limited; Again,no inherent value!• Example: Recyclingas easy as 1,2, 3BARRIERS FOCUSEDPOSITIONING
• Strongest• Value implied bybenefits (socialand/or individual)• Basis for valuepropositionsBENEFITS FOCUSEDPOSITIONING
• Think of thebehavioral changeneeds related toending childhoodobesity• List three benefits ofending childhoodobesity• Thinking about thosebenefits, craft a valuestatement/positioning statement forparents to changetheir behaviorsCREATE ONE!
• Think about the negativebehaviors related to gunviolence (failure to lockguns, using large ammoclips, no backgroundchecks at gun shows etc.)• What are the benefits tochanging behaviors?• Craft a value statementrelated to reducing gunviolenceCREATE ANOTHER
• Behaviorsneeded tochange textingand driving?• Benefits of thatchange?• Value statementONE MORE!