Libr430 Week1

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Libr430 Week1

  1. 1. LIBR 430 Week 1
  2. 2. Topics to Cover <ul><li>Course Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Information Literacy General </li></ul><ul><li>Information Literacy in Law </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of American Legal System </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Primary v Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Citation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information Literacy <ul><li>Determine the extent of information needed </li></ul><ul><li>Access the needed information effectively and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate information and its sources critically </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate selected information into one's knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Legal Information Literacy <ul><li>More than knowing where to look (legal research) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing what you are looking at </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding information’s relevance to a legal issue </li></ul><ul><li>Determining which kinds of legal information is appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding confidently/competently when you have enough </li></ul><ul><li>Citing ‘legally’ as opposed to ethically </li></ul>
  5. 5. Evaluating Legal Information <ul><li>Primary or Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Official or unofficial </li></ul><ul><li>Current </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of subsequent documents or actions </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdictionally applies </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize body of information on a legal issue </li></ul><ul><li>Reconcile inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><li>Apply facts appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Use reasoning tools (hypotheticals, deductions, analogies) to draw conclusions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Law in the United States <ul><li>Where does it come from? </li></ul><ul><li>What forms does it take? </li></ul><ul><li>Who drafts/crafts/writes it? </li></ul><ul><li>Special role of the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Types of law </li></ul><ul><li>What outcomes does the law create? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sources of the law <ul><li>U.S. common law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stare decisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precedent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US and state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US and state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US and state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrative Rulings and Regulations </li></ul>
  8. 8. What forms does it take? <ul><li>Common law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrative rulings and regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative codes, regulations </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Who creates them? <ul><li>Judges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legislative bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executives (governor, president) </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative agencies </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Federal Courts <ul><li>Federal courts </li></ul><ul><li>94 district courts across the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal trial courts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Report in to 13 courts of appeals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear district court appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also hear appeals from administrative judges (bankruptcy, tax, trade, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No right of review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretionary (writ of certiorari) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. State Courts <ul><li>Vary </li></ul><ul><li>Typically: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State questions are settled in state courts </li></ul><ul><li>If there is a federal question and the SCOTUS grants cert. it can be appealed to the US Supreme Court </li></ul>
  12. 12. What kinds of outcomes can the law create? <ul><li>Civil liability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensatory damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punitive damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injunctive relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recission/Reformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criminal guilt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incarceration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Execution </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Jurisdiction <ul><li>Extremely important when evaluating legal information </li></ul><ul><li>Applies to virtually all forms of law and legal information including cases, statutes and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdictional issues are mostly associated with courts due to the number of them and the subjects, levels they cover </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes and regulations are typically geographical or preemptive </li></ul>
  14. 14. Jurisdiction (courts) <ul><li>Defined as the power or authority to hear a case </li></ul><ul><li>Venue: The appropriate location for an action; Often confused with but different from jurisdiction; once jurisdiction is determined venue is the decision regarding where the case will be held; typically a plaintiff choice but part of tactical approach to legal actions </li></ul><ul><li>Personal jurisdiction (in personam jurisdiction): does the court have power over the parties (residency and/or sufficient contacts) </li></ul><ul><li>In rem jurisdiction: Events took place or property involved is located within a specific geographic area </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Law <ul><li>Important when reading cases or statutes </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal or civil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal: Higher burdens of proof, guilt is established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil: Lower burden of proof, liability is established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different outcomes (jail, execution v money) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6th Amendment guarantees right to jury trial in criminal cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal has a right to an attorney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to appeal in civil in criminal on defendant can appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substantive or procedural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantive regulates rights and duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural law relates to methods (FRCP, FRAppP, FRCrimP etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Precedent and Stare Decisis <ul><li>Stare decisis: Doctrine that binds courts to previous decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent: The actual decisions of the court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive (a lower court’s precedent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding (a higher or appeals court) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Courts can distinguish fact as ways of diminishing precedent </li></ul><ul><li>When does precedent get ‘abandoned?’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy/Politics? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Primary v Secondary <ul><li>Primary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases, statutes, regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law review articles, restatements, legal encyclopedias, practice guides, treatises, study guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help lawyers and judges understand the law but cannot be cited as law </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Citation <ul><li>The Bluebook </li></ul><ul><li>Governs citation in law but also a style guide </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: So those reading law review articles, memos, appellate briefs and judicial opinions can find the law being referenced </li></ul><ul><li>Not primarily a plagiarism preventive </li></ul><ul><li>Rule and practice usually merge in subsequent editions </li></ul><ul><li>Created by students at Harvard, Columbia, Penn and Yale and distributed by HLR </li></ul>

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