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  • 1. regulation of internet commerce class eight - january 14, 2013 professor michael geist university of ottawa, faculty of law
  • 2. Reminder• Technology law internship – Winter term• Global Technology Law Regulation – joint course with University of Haifa (April/May 2013)
  • 3. Copyright Law: An Introduction• Creation of statute• Striking the balance in the public interest: – Incentives to create – Access to knowledge
  • 4. Basics of Copyright• Copyright protects expression not ideas• Copyright requires originality and some modicum of effort• Copyright protects for a limited term (life of the author + 50 years)• Basket of rights • right to reproduce the work • right to perform the work • right to communicate the work• Rights of Enforcement – Statutory damages
  • 5. Basics of Copyright• Exceptions – De Minimis – Fair Dealing – Subject specific exceptions for education, LAMs
  • 6. Seismic Shifts in Copyright: C-11
  • 7. a brief history of canadian copyright• Limited major change in copyright until early 1980s• Phase One - 1987 - first round of reform with new rights (moral rights, secondary infringement)• Treaty Reform - 1992 - rental rights• Phase Two - 1997 - private copying, statutory damages• Phase Three - 2001 - present -- digital copyright – 1997 - sign the WIPO Treaties – 2001 - consultation – 2002 - commit to ratification – 2004 - Bulte report – 2005 - C-60 introduced – 2007 - Conservatives promise copyright bill – 2008 - C-61 introduced – 2009 - national copyright consultation – 2010 - C-32 introduced – 2011 - C-11 introduced – 2012 - C-11 receives royal assent
  • 8. digital locks
  • 9. C-11 - TPMs• No circumvention of a technological protection measure – For access control this means: “descramble a scrambled work or decrypt an encrypted work or to otherwise avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate or impair the technological protection measure, unless it is done with the authority of the copyright owner;” – For copy-control this means: “avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate or impair the technological protection measure.”• No services to circumvent• No manufacture, import, distribute, offer for sale or rental or provide — including by selling or renting — any technology, device or component to circumvent if primarily about circumvention
  • 10. C-11 - TPMs• Exceptions for: – Law enforcement – Interoperability of computer programs – Encryption research – Personal information – Security – Perceptual disabilities – Cellphones• Exceptions subject to not “unduly impair” TPM• Cabinet can establish additional exceptions – opportunity to raise concerns now
  • 11. exceptions
  • 12. C-11 - User Exceptions• Expansion of fair dealing – Current coverage research, private study, news reporting, criticism, review – Adds education, parody, satire• Format shifting (reproduction for private purposes) – Authorized copy – Don’t give it away – No circumvention – Use for private purposes – Not a copy to CD (private copying levy)• Time shifting – Legally acquire program – No circumvention – One copy – Only keep for “reasonable” period of time – Don’t give it away – Private purposes – Does not apply to on-demand services
  • 13. C-11 - User Exceptions• Backup Copies – Solely for backup purposes – Not an infringing copy – No circumvention – Don’t give it away – Must destroy if don’t own or licence source copy• Non-commercial User Generated Content – Use new work to create new work AND authorize intermediary to disseminate if: • Non-commercial purposes • Attribution if possible • Source not infringing copyright • No substantial adverse effect (including financial) on exploitation of existing work
  • 14. C-11 - Education Exceptions• Publicly Available Materials on the Internet – Education institution can reproduce, communicate, or perform any work publicly available on the Internet – Conditions • Attribution • No digital lock • No opt-out notice • No knowledge that posted without consent• Distance education – New exception for communication of lessons regardless of location of the student – Conditions • Student must destroy materials 30 days after conclusion of the course • Institution must destroy materials 30 days after conclusion of the course • Limit further communication of the lesson• Cinematographic works – New exception provided not infringing copy• Reproduction in class – Technology neutral - no longer limited to flip charts, overhead projectors, etc.