History & Visual Approaches Visual Project
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  • 1. History & Visual Approaches Visual Project
    Mark Geise
  • 2. Structuralism
    Psychological approach focusing on the structure of the brain.
    Wilhelm Wundt
    Edward Titchener
    G. Stanley Hall
    Introspection
  • 3. Functionalism
    Psychological approach focusing on the function of mental processes.
    William James
    Not concerned with where mental processes occur, but simply how observable behavior occurs.
  • 4. Behavioral Approach
    Explaining behavior through observation of said behavior
    Ivan Pavlov – classical conditioning
    John Watson – Little Albert
    BF Skinner – operant conditioning, Skinner box
    Albert Bandura – observational learning, Bobo doll
    Conditioning - induced fear in baby by making loud noise when coming in contact with rat; baby soon associated the rat with fear
  • 5. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Approach
    Psychological approach focusing on the conscious and unconscious processes and emotions that determine behavior
    Sigmund Freud – Dreams, Unconscious, id, ego, superego
    Carl Jung – collective unconscious, introversion, and extroversion
    Alfred Adler – inferiority complex, birth order
    Unconscious mind drives much of human behavior
  • 6. Humanistic Approach
    Psychological approach emphasizing the individual and the potential for self-fulfillment
    Abraham Maslow – self actualization, Maslow’s hierarchy
    Carl Rogers – unconditional positive regard, active listening
    Martin Seligman – positive psychology
    Individual is emphasized and at the forefront of the humanistic approach
  • 7. Cognitive Approach
    Psychological approach focusing on the internal processes of thought
    Jean Piaget – cognitive development
    Aaron Beck – cognitive triad
    Hermann Ebbinghaus- memory
    Ebbinghaus showed that increased repetition causes better memory through his experimentation
  • 8. Biological Approach
    Psychological approach in which concrete science is at the forefront
    Human behavior is produced through a complex biological system with the human brain and body
    Roger Sperry – left and right sides of brain are specialized in different tasks
    Sperry showed that the left and right hemispheres of the brain are specialized in different tasks
  • 9. Evolutionary Approach
    Psychological approach in which behavior is explained through evolutionary terms
    All behavior has an adaptive or evolutionary purpose
    Edward Wilson – Sociobiology (1975) related evolution and psychology
    Jane Goodall– chimps and humans express similar behavior in communities
    Human behavior is explained through evolutionary terms; therefore, the roots of much of our behavior can be traced back to and still observed in chimpanzees
  • 10. Sociocultural Approach
    Psychological approach in which the effects of culture, politics, and society on human behavior are analyzed
  • 11. Bibliography
    Images:
    http://paulbuckley14059.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/introspection.jpg
    http://www.qwantz.com/fanart/functionalism.gif
    http://www.flavinscorner.com/albert2.jpg
    http://www.humansea.co.uk/images/unconscious-mind_sm.gif
    http://www.smokescreendesign.com/images/Man-Leonardo-da-Vinci.jpg
    http://www.phase-6.com/opencms/system/galleries/pics/Vokabeltrainer/forgetting_curve_en.png
    http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/split-brain/images/eyes.gif
    http://www.fizyka.umk.pl/~duch/ref/00/00-how-brain/hemis.gif
    http://apenotes.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/chimp.jpg