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Guidance Experimenting -Q10.doc Guidance Experimenting -Q10.doc Document Transcript

  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ SECTION C- QUESTION 10 BAHAGIAN C- SOALAN 10 Steps in answering Panduan menjawab You will be given a statement in a box. Find Manipulated Variable and Responding Variable in the statement given Anda akan diberi satu pernyataan di dalam satu kotak. Kenalpasti Pembolehubah Manipulasi dan Pembolehubah Bergerakbalas di dalam pernyataan yang diberi Example: Contoh: Impurities increases the boiling point of pure substances Bendasing meningkatkan takat didih bahan tulen Manipulated variable Responding variable Pembolehubah manipulasi Pembolehubah bergerakbalas (a) Hypothesis Relationship between Manipulated Variable and Responding Hypothesis Variable Hubungan antara Pembolehubah Manipulasi dan Pembolehubah Bergerakbalas 1 mark (b)(i) Aim To study the effect of MV on RV Tujuan Untuk mengkaji kesan MV ke atas RV 1 mark (ii) Variable Pembolehubah Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 2 marks (iii) Apparatus and Write only the important apparatus and materials materials Hanya tulis radas dan bahan yang penting sahaja Radas dan bahan 1 mark (iv) Procedure Draw diagram which are labelled Kaedah Lukis rajah yang dilabel Write about: Tulis berkenaan: 1
  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ (i) Constant variable Pembolehubah malar (ii) Manipulated variable Pembolehubah manipulasi (iii) If the result cannot be obtained after conducting the experiment. Remember to write: The apparatus are left for ...........days Jika keputusan tidak dapat diperoleh selepas menjalankan eksperimen. Ingat untuk menulis: Radas dibiarkan selama ..................hari (iv) Responding variable Pembolehubah bergerak balas 3 / 4 marks (v) Tabulation of data 1. Must draw table Penjadualan data Mesti lukis jadual 2. In table must have: (a) Manipulated and responding variable on the title of the table (b) Write manipulated data Dalam jadual mesti ada: (a) Pembolehubah manipulasi dan bergerakblas dalam tajuk jadual (b) Menulis data manipulasi Example: Manipulated variable Responding Variable Pembolehubah manipulasi Pembolehubah bergerakbalas Manipulated data Leave blank Data Manipulasi Tinggalkan kosong 1 mark (vi) Conclusion Write the conclusion of the experiment Rumusan Tuliskan rumusan eksperimen 1 mark 2
  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ 1 Study the following statement. Kaji pernyataan berikut: Impurities increases the boiling point of pure substances Bendasing meningkatkan takat didih bahan tulen Manipulated variable Responding variable Pembolehubah manipulasi Pembolehubah bergerakbalas (a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement. Cadangkan satu hipotesis untuk menyiasat pernyataan di atas. [ 1 mark ] (b) Using salt, distilled water and other apparatus describe an experiment to test your hypothesis in 1(a) based on the following criteria: Menggunakan garam, air suling dan radas lain, huraikan satu eksperimen Untuk menguji hipotesis anda di 1(a) berdasarkan kriteria berikut: (i) Aim of experiment Tujuan eksperimen [ 1 mark ] (ii) Identification of variables Pengenalpastian pembolehubah [ 2 marks ] (iii) List of apparatus and materials Senarai radas dan bahan [ 1 mark ] (iv) Procedure or method Prosedur atau kaedah [ 4 marks ] (v) Tabulation of data Penjadualan data [ 1 mark ] Answer Jawapan (a) Hypothesis Impurities increases the boiling point of pure substances or Hipotesis Bendasing meningkatkan takat didih bahan tulen atau The presence of salt increases the boiling point of distilled water Kehadiran garam meningkatkan takat didih air suling [ 1 mark ] 3
  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ Aim To study the effect of impurities/ salt on the boiling point of distilled water Untuk mengkaji kesan bendasing/ garam ke atas takat didh air suling [ 1 mark ] Variables Pembolehubah (a) Constant Volume/Amount/Quantity of distilled water } Malar Isipadu/ Jumlah/Kuantiti air suling [ 1 mark ] Max 2 (b) Manipulated The Presence of salt marks Manipulasi Kehadiran garam [ 1 mark ] (c) Responding Boiling point of distilled water [ 1 mark ] Bergerakbalas Takat didih air suling [ 1 mark ] Apparatus and Distilled water, salt, beaker, bunsen burner, thermometer material Air suling, garam, penunu bunsen, termometer Radas dan bahan [ 1 mark ] Procedure Prosedur Thermometer termometer Beaker bikar Distilled water Air suling Heat Panaskan 1. Pour distilled into a beaker until it is half full. Tuangkan air suling ke dalam bikar sehingga separuh penuh [ 1 mark ] } 2. Heat the water until it boils. Panaskan sehingga mendidih. [ 1 mark ] 3. When the water boils, record the temperature. Apabila air mendidih, rekod suhu air. 4. Two spatulas of salt are added into the distilled water and the mixture is heated again. Dua spatula garam ditambah ke dalam air suling dan campuran dipanaskan semula. [ 1 mark ] 5. The temperature of the boiling mixture of water and salt is recorded. Suhu campuran air suling dan garam direkodkan. [ 1 mark ] 4
  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ Tabulation of data Penjadualan data The Presence of salt Boiling point of distilled water (oC) Kehadiran garam Takat didih air suling (oC) Absent Tiada Present Ada 1 mark Conclusion The presence of impurities increases the boiling point of distilled Rumusan water. Kehadiran bendasing meningkatkan takat didih air suling 2 Study the following statement. Kaji pernyataan berikut: The thickness of convex lens influence its focal length Ketebalan kanta cembung mempengaruh jarak fokusnya Manipulated variable Responding variable Pembolehubah manipulasi Pembolehubah bergerakbalas (a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement. Cadangkan satu hipotesis untuk menyiasat pernyataan di atas. [ 1 mark ] (b) Using convex lens with different thickness and other apparatus describe an experiment to test your hypothesis in 2(a) based on the following criteria: Menggunakan kanta cembung yang berlainan ketebalan dan radas lain, huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menguji hipotesis anda di 2(a) berdasarkan kriteria berikut: (i) Aim of experiment Tujuan eksperimen [ 1 mark ] (ii) Identification of variables Pengenalpastian pembolehubah [ 2 marks ] (iii) List of apparatus and materials Senarai radas dan bahan [ 1 mark ] (iv) Procedure or method Prosedur atau kaedah [ 4 marks ] (v) Tabulation of data 5
  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ Penjadualan data [ 1 mark ] Answer Jawapan Hypothesis The thicker the convex lens, the shorter the focal length. Hypotesis Semakin tebal kanta cembung, semakin pendek jarak fokus. Aim To study the effect of the thickness of convex lens on its focal length Tujuan Untuk mengkaji kesan ketebalan kanta cembung ke atas jarak fokusnya. Variables: Size of convex lens (a) Constant Saiz kanta cembung Malar (b) Manipulated Thickness of convex lens Manipulasi Ketebalan kanta cembung (c) Responding Focal length of convex lens Bergerakbalas Jarak fokus kanta cembung Apparatus and Convex lenses with different thickness, metre rule, white screen, materials (lens holder) Radas dan kanta cembung berlainan ketebalan, pembaris meter, skrin putih, bahan (pemegang kanta) Procedure Prosedur Convex lens screen Kanta cembung skrin Rays from distance object Sinar dari objek jauh focal length Jarak fokus 1. The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram. Radas disediakan seperti rajah. 2. The lens is directed at a distant object. Kanta diarah ke objek jauh. 3. The screen is adjusted until a sharp image forms on the screen. Skrin diselaraskan sehingga imej yang tajam terbentuk ke atas skrin. 4. The distance between the lens and the screen is measured. Jarak antara kanta dan skrin diukur. 5. The experiment is repeated using another convex lens with a different thickness. Eksperimen diulang menggunakan kanta cembung lain yang berlainan ketebalan. 6
  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ Tabulation of Thickness of the lens Focal length(cm) data Ketebalan kanta Jarak focus (cm) Penjadualan Thin data Nipis Moderate Sederhana Thick Tebal Conclusion The thicker the convex lens, the shorter the focal length. Rumusan Semakin tebal kanta cembung, semakin pendek jarak fokus 3 Study the following statement. Kaji pernyataan berikut: Temperature influence bacterial growth Suhu mempengaruh pertumbuhan bakteria Manipulated variable Responding variable Pembolehubah manipulasi Pembolehubah bergerakbalas (a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement. Cadangkan satu hipotesis untuk menyiasat pernyataan di atas. [ 1 mark ] (b) Using nutrient agar, bacteria culture (Bacillus subtilis) and other apparatus describe an experiment to test your hypothesis in 3(a) based on the following criteria: Menggunakan agar-agar nutrien, kultur bakteria (Bacillus subtilis) dan radas lain, huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menguji hipotesis anda di 3(a) berdasarkan kriteria berikut: (i) Aim of experiment Tujuan eksperimen [ 1 mark ] (ii) Identification of variables Pengenalpastian pembolehubah [ 2 marks ] (iii) List of apparatus and materials Senarai radas dan bahan [ 1 mark ] (iv) Procedure or method Prosedur atau kaedah [ 4 marks ] (v) Tabulation of data Penjadualan data [ 1 mark ] 7
  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ Hypothesis Bacteria grows and reproduces quickly at room temperature Hipotesis but not at low or high temperature Bakteria tumbuh dan membiak dengan cepat pada suhu bilik tetapi tidak pada suhu rendah atau tinggi. Aim To study the effect of temperature on the growth of bakteria Tujuan Untuk mengkaji kesan suhu ke atas pertumbuhan bakteria Variables Pembolehubah (a) Constant Volume of nutrient agar//Type of bacteria Dimalarkan Isipadu agar-agar nutrient// Jenis bakteria (b) Manipulated Temperature Dimanipulasikan Suhu (c) Responding Number of bacterial colonies // Growth of bacteria Bergerakbalas Bilangan koloni bakteria// Pertumbuhan bakteria Material/Apparatus Sterile nutrient agar, bacteria culture (Bacillus subtilis), sterile Bahan/Radas petri dishes and lids, (syringes), cellophane tape, refrigerator and oven. Agar-agar nutrien steril, kultur bakteria (Bacillus subtilis), petri petri dan penutup steril, (picagari), (pita selofan), peti sejuk dan oven Procedure nutrient agar Prosedur Agar-agar nutrien A B C Petri Petri Dish dish 5oC Piring Room 80oC petri temperature Suhu bilik (30oC) 1. Three sterile petri dishes containing sterile nutrient agar are prepared and labeled A, B and C respectively. Tiga piring petri steril yang mengandungi agar-agar nutrien steril disediakan dan dilabel A, B dan C masing-masing. 2. (1cm3 of ) bacteria culture solution is added onto the agar surface in each petri dish (by using a syringe). (1cm3 of) kultur bakteria ditambah ke atas permukaan agar-agar di dalam setiap piring petri (menggunakan picagari) 8
  • Program Galus Sains SPM SMK Kuala Pegang 2009 Kemahiran Saintifik -Mengeksperimen _______________________________________________________________________ _ 3. The petri dishes are covered with their lids and sealed using cellophane tape Piring-piring petri ditutup dengan penutup dan dilekat menggunakan pita selofan 4. The petri dishes are inverted and placed as below • Petri dish A in a refrigerator set at 5oC • Petri dish B at room temperature (30oC) • Petri dish C in an oven at 80oC Pirng petri ditelangkupkan dan diletakkan seperti di bawah: • Piring petri A di dalam peti sejuk pada suhu 5 oC • Piring perti B pada suhu bilik 30oC • Petri C di dalam peti sejuk pada suhu 80 oC 5. The petri dishes are left for two days. Kesemua piring petri ditinggalkan selama dua hari. 6. The number of bacterial colonies are observed and recorded. Bilangan koloni bakteria diperhatikan dan direkodkan Tabulation of data Penjadualan data Temperature (oC) Number of bacterial colonies o Suhu( C) Bilangan koloni bakteria 5 30 80 Conclusion Bacteria grows and reproduces quickly at room temperature but not temperatures that are too high or too low. Bakteria tumbuh dan membiak dengan cepat pada suhu bilik tetapi tidak pada suhu rendah atau tinggi. 9