I’m not aware of case law in which children claim their human rights are infringed because they can’t access facebook, but, perhaps, it’s only a matter of time. The above would, in practice, be trumped by article 2, which says we always put the best interests of the child first.
A somewhat unexpected stance from this quarter. What contribution should pupils and parents make to a school’s e-safety provision? Did any students receive briefing or training from the school?
1. Good PracticeLeading learning in ICTLecture 12, 23 April 2013
2. This morning
3. Since we last met…Ministers reviewed the draft ICT curriculum and requestedseveral amendments:• shorter statement of subject aims• increased emphasis on computer science andprogramming content at Key Stages 1-3• stronger links to mathematics curriculum• digital skills content to be edited and condensedDepartment officials worked with appropriate experts tomake these changes – final version published 7th FebruaryDfE
4. Further BCS / RAEngadviceWhen DfE invited the Royal Academy of Engineering andBCS to develop a new PoS it was made clear that this wouldbe treated as expert advice and that DfE reserved the right toamend the final draft PoS as they saw fit. In December 2012,after the draft PoS had been submitted to DfE, the RoyalAcademy of Engineering and BCS were asked for theiradvice on how to amplify the Computer Science componentof the PoS in order to emphasise that teaching ComputerScience is of paramount importance. The draft PoSpublished by the DfE on February 7 2013 closely reflects theadditional expert advice provided by the Royal Academy ofEngineering and BCS.
5. Gove, 7th Feb 2013“We have also replaced theold information andcommunicationstechnology curriculum witha new computingcurriculum, with help fromGoogle, Facebook andsome of Britain’s mostbrilliant computerscientists.”
6. What is thecurriculum for?
7. What is thecurriculum for?
8. Computing CurriculumAt the core of computing is the science and engineeringdiscipline of computer science, in which pupils aretaught how digital systems work, how they are designedand programmed, and the fundamental principles ofinformation and computation. Building on this core,computing equips pupils to apply informationtechnology to create products and solutions. Acomputing education also ensures that pupils becomedigitally literate – able to use, and express themselvesthrough, information and communication technology –at a level suitable for the future workplace and as activeparticipants in a digital world.
9. • can understand and apply the fundamental principles ofcomputer science, including logic, algorithms, datarepresentation, and communication• can analyse problems in computational terms, and haverepeated practical experience of writing computerprograms in order to solve such problems• can evaluate and apply information technology,including new or unfamiliar technologies, analytically tosolve problems• are responsible, competent, confident and creativeusers of information and communication technology.Aims for computing
10. KS1understand what algorithms are, how they are implemented asprograms on digital devices, and that programs execute byfollowing a sequence of instructionswrite and test simple programsuse logical reasoning to predict the behaviour of simple programsorganise, store, manipulate and retrieve data in a range of digitalformatscommunicate safely and respectfully online, keeping personalinformation private, and recognise common uses of informationtechnology beyond school.
11. understand what algorithms are, howthey are implemented as programs ondigital devices, and that programsexecute by following a sequence ofinstructions
12. write and test simple programs
13. use logical reasoning to predict thebehaviour of simple programs
14. organise, store, manipulate andretrieve data in a range ofdigital formats
15. communicate safely and respectfullyonline, keeping personal informationprivate, and recognise common uses ofinformation technology beyond school.
16. KS2design and write programs that accomplish specific goals, includingcontrolling or simulating physical systems; solve problems bydecomposing them into smaller partsuse sequence, selection, and repetition in programs; work withvariables and various forms of input and output; generate appropriateinputs and predicted outputs to test programsuse logical reasoning to explain how a simple algorithm works and todetect and correct errors in algorithms and programsunderstand computer networks including the internet; how they canprovide multiple services, such as the world-wide web; and theopportunities they offer for communication and collaboration
17. KS2 continueddescribe how internet search engines find and store data; usesearch engines effectively; be discerning in evaluating digitalcontent; respect individuals and intellectual property; usetechnology responsibly, securely and safelyselect, use and combine a variety of software (including internetservices) on a range of digital devices to accomplish given goals,including collecting, analysing, evaluating and presenting dataand information.
18. Arduino the Cat and Breadboard the Mouse - Seaweed Studiodesign and write programs thataccomplish specific goals, includingcontrolling or simulating physicalsystems; solve problems by decomposingthem into smaller parts
19. use sequence, selection, and repetition inprograms; work with variables andvarious forms of input and output;generate appropriate inputs and predictedoutputs to test programs
20. Glasshead Studios for BBC Cracking the Codeuse logical reasoning to explain how asimple algorithm works and to detect andcorrect errors in algorithms and programs
21. BBC Virtual Revolutionunderstand computer networks includingthe internet; how they can providemultiple services, such as the world-wideweb; and the opportunities they offer forcommunication and collaboration
22. understand computer networks includingthe internet; how they can providemultiple services, such as the world-wideweb; and the opportunities they offer forcommunication and collaboration
23. understand computer networks includingthe internet; how they can providemultiple services, such as the world-wideweb; and the opportunities they offer forcommunication and collaboration
24. describe how internet search engines findand store data; use search engineseffectively; be discerning in evaluatingdigital content; respect individuals andintellectual property; use technologyresponsibly, securely and safely
25. select, use and combine a variety ofsoftware (including internet services) on arange of digital devices to accomplishgiven goals, including collecting,analysing, evaluating and presenting dataand information.
26. select, use and combine a variety ofsoftware (including internet services) on arange of digital devices to accomplishgiven goals, including collecting,analysing, evaluating and presenting dataand information.
28. Dewey (1859-1952)• Engaging with experience• Enlarging experience• Interaction and environments• The importance of reflection• Education for all• Project based learninghttp://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-dewey.htm
29. Piaget (1896-1980)• Constructing schema• Assimilation and accommodation• Stages of development• Concrete and formal operationhttp://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm
30. Piaget (1961)“Experience of objects plays, naturally, a veryimportant role in the establishment of dynamicstructures”“All exchange between the organism and theenvironment is composed of two poles:A) of the assimilation of the given external to theprevious internal structures, andB) of the accommodation of these structures to thegiven ones.” From Piaget (1961) A genetic approach to the psychology of thought
31. Vygotsky (1896-1934)• The centrality of social interaction• The more knowledgeable other• The zone of proximal development• Scaffolding (Bruner)http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html
32. Constructionism• Constructivist learning happens best when‘constructing a public entity’• “Constructionism boils down to demanding thateverything be understood by being constructed”• “Concrete” materials rather than abstractpropositions• “Soap-sculpture math”http://www.papert.org/articles/SituatingConstructionism.html
34. Meaningful LearningCC by-nc-nd Laura Burton, CC by Matti Mattila, CC by-nc-nd Mundocuardo, CC by-nc-nd Parl, CC by mawel
35. Characteristics of good practiceUse ICT to support good practice
36. Use ICT to scaffold & extend learning
37. Agile Pedagogy• Individuals and interactionsover processes and tools.• Working softwareover comprehensive documentation.• Customer collaborationover contract negotiation.• Responding to changeover following a plan.
38. Teaching craftsmanship• Not only working software,but also well-crafted software• Not only responding to change,but also steadily adding value• Not only individuals and interactions,but also a community of professionals• Not only customer collaboration,but also productive partnerships
39. Outstanding teaching• Consistently at least good• Rapid and sustained progress• High expectations• Literacy and numeracy across the curriculum• Engagement and commitment• Inspirational teaching strategies• Homework• Support and intervention for individuals
40. Outstanding teaching in ICT• Excellent subject knowledge• Specialist knowledge and technical skills• Development of understanding of concepts; makingconnections• Responsive and stimulating• Higher expectations, enthusiasm, passion• Challenge and inspire• Innovative and imaginative resources and strategies
41. Good or Outstanding• Lessons were well planned with a good variety of activity and resources.• Assessment for learning was embedded throughout the lesson with feedback,frequent marking and praise linked into planning the next lesson.• Lessons were brisk with smooth transitions so that no time was lost forlearning.• Teachers encouraged well-structured peer and self-assessment.• Students were clear about their own current level and what they needed to doto improve.• Learning activities were expertly differentiated to meet individual students’needs.• Questioning was used to deepen understanding, rather than just to checkknowledge.• Key terminology was introduced and reinforced.• Relevant and practical contexts were used to bring tasks to life.
42. Two lessons (1)Year 7 students were being taught to use software to writeinstructions to control an animated figure on the screen. Theintroduction to the lesson was too lengthy and did not includesufficient strategies to engage all students. This resulted inpersistent low-level disruption from the start and too few studentssubsequently following the teacher’s instructions. However, thestudents were already quite able and the teacher hadunderestimated their capability. Many students worked out veryquickly for themselves how to get the image of the cat on thescreen to move and how to change the colour of the cat, but werethen not challenged to move beyond this. The teacher did notassess how well students were progressing during the course of thelesson and, as a result, his expectations of what they could achieveremained too low. The lesson was not sufficiently well structured;it was too teacher-directed and did not take sufficient account ofstudents’ prior aptitudes or needs.Ofsted 2011
43. Two lessons (2)Two pupils who attended gifted and talented provision at their local secondaryschool were introduced to a freeware application (Scratch) which enabled themto design and program a two-dimensional computer game. Their enthusiasm onand to introduce a new unit of work based around it. Pupils were asked todesign the graphics, layout and functionality of their own computer game and tosubsequently write the program to implement their ideas. Over a series oflessons, pupils used a paint application to design their game backgrounds andmoveable icons. Having completed the graphical elements of their game theywrote scripts to control the movement and interaction. This required them toutilise sophisticated programming constructs such as ‘repeat until’ and ‘if then’in capturing keyboard input and managing variables. The choice of task andsoftware motivated pupils who were enabled to make good progress. Most wereable to write a series of executable instructions to implement the features of theirgame design. One autistic pupil excelled at this task and made better progressthan his peers. He made outstanding use of loops, conditional jumps andincremental counters in his program. His skills exceeded those of his teacher, towhom he had to explain the principles of what he had doneOfsted 2011
44. Becta:ICT Mark TeachingTeaching enables most pupils to use and develop allaspects of their ICT capability through a wide range ofexperiences and contexts that are consistently matchedto their needs, abilities and learning preferences.
45. Visible LearningHattie (2009)The use of computers is more effective when:•There is a diversity of teaching strategies•There is teacher pre-training in the use of computers as a teachingand learning tool•There are multiple opportunities for learning•The student, not the teacher, is in control of the learning•Peer learning is optimised•Feedback is optimised
46. Visible LearningHattie (2009)Effect size:Web-based learning 0.18Interactive video 0.52Audio/Visual 0.22Simulations 0.33Programmed instruction0.24One year of teaching 0.30
48. Becta:ICT Mark AssessmentThe assessment and recording of ICT capability arereliable and consistent. They are informed by the use ofICT in other curriculum areas and by moderationwithin the school. Statutory requirements for reportingto parents are met.Pupils regularly assess their own and other pupils’ ICTcapability based on criteria they have identified anddeveloped. This contributes to their understanding ofwhat constitutes good quality and helps them toimprove.
49. Ofsted on outstanding assessment• Systematically and effectively check understandingthroughout lessons• High quality marking and constructive feedback
50. Ofsted on Assessment in ICTThe use of assessment was judged to be no better thansatisfactory in 53 of the 86 primary schools visited forwhich this was observed, and 42 of the secondary schools,suggesting that the weaknesses identified previouslypersisted to a large extent in many schools.
51. Ofsted on ICT AssessmentThe headteacher of one school in which ICT was judgedto be inadequate commented that there was no incentive tocollect information on ICT levels or to monitor outcomes.In other schools some teachers had little understanding ofwhat was required for a pupil to reach a certain level. Inseveral schools no assessment of what pupils had achievedin ICT took place at all. In many schools performance inICT was only assessed in specific ICT classes. This meantthat pupils’ considerable use of ICT in other subjects wasnot monitored or built into planned development.
52. More from Ofsted• Thorough baselining of pupils’ current level was used, at entryto, or prior to starting the school• Pupils were made aware of their current level and what theyneeded to do to improve• Opportunities for peer and self-review were embedded inlessons• There was regular standardisation and moderation betweenteachers and particularly between schools• A progress tracking system accessible to staff and pupils andembracing ICT across all subjects was used• Pupils were given detailed written feedback on their work• Parents were kept regularly updated ontheir child’s progress in ICT
53. Becta:ICT Mark AssessmentThe assessment and recording of ICT capability arereliable and consistent. They are informed by theuse of ICT in other curriculum areas and bymoderation within the school. Statutoryrequirements for reporting to parents are met.Pupils regularly assess their own and other pupils’ICT capability based on criteria they have identifiedand developed. This contributes to theirunderstanding of what constitutes good quality andhelps them to improve.
54. Assessment for Learning• “Enable teachers to sift the rich data thatarise in class discussion and activity sothat professional judgments can be madeabout the next steps in learning”• Question and answer• Observation of students• Oral and written feedback on hardcopy• Peer-, self- and e- assessment
55. National Curriculum Review[Levels] may actually inhibit the overallperformance of our system and underminelearning… it actually has a significanteffect of exacerbating socialdifferentiation… pupils become moreconcerned for ‘what level they are’ than forthe substance of what they know, can doand understand.
56. RecommendationsThe focus of ‘standard attained’ should be… specific elements, rather than ageneralised notion of a level…All assessment and other processes shouldbring people back to the content of thecurriculum … instead of focusing onabstracted and arbitrary expressions of thecurriculum such as ‘levels’.
57. ResponseIn order to ensure that every child isexpected to master this content, I have,as the panel recommended, decided thatthe current system of levels and leveldescriptors should be removed and notreplaced.
58. The 2014 National CurriculumAttainment targetsBy the end of each key stage, pupils are expected toknow, apply and understand the matters, skills andprocesses specified in the relevant programme of study.
59. Digital Badges
60. Open BadgesMozilla, 2012
63. Article 131. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; thisright shall include freedom to seek, receive and impartinformation and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, eitherorally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through anyother media of the childs choice.2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions,but these shall only be such as are provided by law and arenecessary:(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or(b) For the protection of national security or of public order, or ofpublic health or morals.UN Convention on the Rights of theChild
64. The risks• Content• exposure to inappropriate content, including online pornography, ignoring age ratingsin games (exposure to violence associated with often racist language), substance abuse• lifestyle websites, for example pro-anorexia/self-harm/suicide sites• hate sites• content validation: how to check authenticity and accuracy of online content• Contact• grooming• cyber-bullying in all forms• identity theft (including ‘frape’ (hacking Facebook profiles)) and sharing passwords• Conduct• privacy issues, including disclosure of personal information• digital footprint and online reputation• health and well-being (amount of time spent online (internet or gaming))• sexting (sending and receiving of personally intimate images) also referred to as SGII(self generated indecent images)• copyright (little care or consideration for intellectual property and ownership – such asmusic and film)
65. Good / outstandingpractice• Consistent, whole school approach• robust and integrated reporting routines• Regular and up to date training, inc CEOP or EPICT• Rigorous, integrated, plain English policies inc AUP• Teach pupils how to stay safe, protect themselves and takeresponsibility• Filtering and active monitoring• Assess impact through use of data• Data protection requirements observed
66. Roehampton 1stYearshttp://is.gd/fUkO9e
67. Becta on AUPs• Be clear and concise• Reflect your setting• Encourage end-user input• Be written in an appropriatestyle for your users• Promote positive use of newand emerging technologies• Clearly outline acceptableand unacceptable behavioursfor school and personaltechnology• Outline what monitoringtakes place• Outline sanctions forunacceptable use• Be regularly reviewed• Be widely and regularlycommunicated to allstakeholders
68. Some legislation• Data Protection Act:http://is.gd/1zRnEy• Freedom of InformationActhttp://is.gd/0O6H8U• Copyrighthttp://is.gd/DEAdgE• Digital Economy Acthttp://is.gd/Lq1WYF• Regulation of InvestigatoryPowers Acthttp://is.gd/Drr1AK• Computer Misuse Acthttp://is.gd/AQIcdv